Beysenbi, 24 Mausym 2021
Janalyqtar 2316 0 pikir 25 Qyrkýiek, 2009 saghat 09:24

12 million qazaqtyng qúnykeri kim?

Úlyqbek Esdәuletov aitqanday, «Asharshylyqty keyingilerding biletini - ósimdikti biologiyadan, januarlardy zoologiyadan oqyp ósken qala balasynyng bilimindey ghana». Aqiqatynda, qazaq halqynyng ýshten birin qyrghyngha úshyratqan últtyq genosid әrkimning kókiregin torlasa iygi edi. Sonda ghana «qazaqtyng qúnykeri kim?» degen saualgha jauap izdep, tarihymyzdy bezbendeuge mýmkindik tuary anyq. Juyrda «Amanat» intellektualdy klubynyng kezekti otyrysynda últ ziyalylary osy zúlmat oqighagha sayasy bagha beru kerek degen oilaryn ortagha saldy. Otyrysta negizgi bayandamany jazushy Smaghúl Elubay jasady.

Úlyqbek Esdәuletov aitqanday, «Asharshylyqty keyingilerding biletini - ósimdikti biologiyadan, januarlardy zoologiyadan oqyp ósken qala balasynyng bilimindey ghana». Aqiqatynda, qazaq halqynyng ýshten birin qyrghyngha úshyratqan últtyq genosid әrkimning kókiregin torlasa iygi edi. Sonda ghana «qazaqtyng qúnykeri kim?» degen saualgha jauap izdep, tarihymyzdy bezbendeuge mýmkindik tuary anyq. Juyrda «Amanat» intellektualdy klubynyng kezekti otyrysynda últ ziyalylary osy zúlmat oqighagha sayasy bagha beru kerek degen oilaryn ortagha saldy. Otyrysta negizgi bayandamany jazushy Smaghúl Elubay jasady.

Smaghúl Elubay, jazushy:
- Osy taqyrypqa nazar audarghandary ýshin «Amanat» klubynyng basshylaryna, «Núr Otan» partiyasyndaghy Erlan Qarin bastaghan azamat jigitterge alghys aitamyn. 1988 jyly «Qazaq әdebiyeti» gazetinde «Nәubet atty maqala jariyalanghan bolatyn. Qazaqty qyrghyngha úshyratqan zobalang turaly әngime sodan beri ýnemi kóterilip keledi.
Juyrda Jazushylar odaghynda osy mәselege arnalghan ýlken konferensiya ótti. Asharshylyq taqyrybynda túnghysh doktorlyq dissertasiya qorghaghan Talas Omarov bayandama jasady. Salyq Zimanov, Seyit Qasqabasov bastaghan akademiyk-ghalymdar qoltyqtary sógilip, keremet oily әngimeler aitty. Osy basqosuymyz qúrghaq sóz kýiinde qalmasyn dep, últ qayratkerleri birlesip Ashyq hat jazyp, Parlament pen Ýkimetke jónelttik. Endi últtyq búqaralyq aqparat qúraldarynyn, últshyl azamattardyng qoldauymen, osy mәseleni ayaghyna deyin jetkizgimiz keledi. Súrausyz ketken, joqtausyz qalghan, sýiekteri saharada shashylyp qalghan 4 milliongha tarta halyqtyng qúnyn súraytyn uaqyt jetti dep bilemin. 4 mln. qazaqtyng qúnyn kimnen súrau kerek, qalay súrau kerek? Osynyng bәrin Ashyq hatta shamamyz kelgenshe qaghazgha týsirip, Parlament deputattarynyng әrqaysysyna jeke-jeke jónelttik.
Asharshylyq kenestik kezende jazylyp kelgendey «sol jyly eginning shyqpay qaluynan», ne bolmasa «kóshpelilerding sosializmge dayyn bolmauynan» oryn alghan syrghytpa syltaulardyng nәtiyjesi emes. Búl - bolishevikterding «tap shayqasy» degen úrda-jyq iydeologiyany úrangha ainaldyryp, sharuagha jasaghan qiyanatynyng kórinisi. Is jýzinde búl tútas halyqtyng aldyndaghy qylmyspen ten.
Qansha halyqtyng qyrghyngha úshyraghanyn myna bir dәiekterden aiqyn kóruge bolady. 1897 jyly Resey imperiyasy túsynda alghashqy sanaq jýrgizilgen-di. Sonyng deregine jýginsek, ózbekter - 726 myn, týrkimender - 280 myn, «qara qyrghyzdar» dep atalghan qyrghyzdardyng sany 201 myng adamdy qúrapty. Al qyrghyz-qaysaqtar, yaghni, qazaqtardyng sany sol kezding ózinde 4 mln. 84 myng adam bolghan. Býkil týrki halyqtaryn qosqanda qazaqtardyng jartysyna ghana jetken.
Al endi 1926 jylghy sanaqqa kóz salsaq, býkil Kenes odaghynda shashylyp jýrgen qazaqtardyng sany - 3 mln. 968 myn, ózbekter 3 mln. 968 myng delingen. Sonda otyz jyldyng ishinde qazaq ósuding ornyna, kemip ketken. Otyz jyldyng ishinde 700 myng ózbek 4 milliongha kóbeyipti. Bizben dini bir, mentaliyteti bir 200 myng qyrghyzdyng ózi 4 eseden artyq ósim berip, 884 myngha jetken. Olay bolsa, 4 millionnan astam qazaq nege ósim bermeui tiyis?! Osy uaqyt ishinde bizding tabighy ósimning arqasynda 16 millionnan asyp týsuge tiyis edik qoy. Alayda, bizding qazaq ashtyqtyng kesirinen tórt ese ósuding ornyna, kerisinshe azaydy. 12 million qazaq qayda ketken?! Onyng ýstine, búl tek Qazaqstandaghy emes, býkil Kenes elderine tentirep ketken qandastarymyzdyng sany. Jaraydy, shetelge bas saughalaghandar bolghan shyghar. Biraq qazaqtar shetelge milliondap qashqan joq qoy. Búl - ortalyqta Staliyn, Qazaqstanda Goloshekin basqarghan bolishevikter partiyasynyng halyqqa qarsy jasaghan qyzyl terrorizmining nәtiyjesi. Endeshe, partiya osy qylmysy ýshin kesh te bolsa zang aldynda jauapqa tartyluy tiyis.
1989 jylghy sanaqqa qarasaq, qazaqtardan ózge halyqtardyng bәri jýz jylgha tarta uaqyt ishinde 10 ese ósipti. Yaghni, alghash jýrgizilgen sanaqtan keyingi uaqytta qoyday qyrylyp qalmaghanda, biz de 10 ese kóbeyip, qazir 40 mln-nan asushy edik. Bizding zarlaytynymyz, asharshylyq qazaqtyng geosayasy jaghdayyna da әser etti, tiline de, dinine de, qauipsizdigine de, bәrine әser etti. Apat bizding últymyzdy túralatyp ketti.
Súrapyl qylmysqa sayasy bagha bergen son, asharshylyq qúrbandaryna arnap Parlament pen Ýkimet mynaday memlekettik sharalardy qolgha aluy tiyis dep esepteymiz.
Birinshiden, jyl sayyn 31 mamyrda atalyp ótiletin Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn eske alu kýnine ózining bastapqy toqsanynshy jylghy atauyn qaytaru kerek. Yaghni, 31 mamyr Asharshylyq jәne sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn eske alu kýni bolyp qalpyna keltirilgeni jón. Ekinshiden, osy kýni elimizdegi barlyq meshitter men shirkeulerde asharshylyq qúrbandarynyng aruaqtaryna qúran baghyshtalyp, eske alu sharalary ótkizilui tiyis. Ýshinshiden, kýni býginge deyin Astana men Almatyda asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alatyn memorial salynghan joq. Osy olqylyqtyng ornyn toltyratyn uaqyt jetti. Búl orayda, asyghystyqqa jol bermey, Europadaghy Holokost qúrbandaryna qoyylghan eskertkishter zerttelip, olardyng erekshelikteri eskerilgeni dúrys siyaqty. Sonda jastargha tәlim-tәrbie berip qana qoymay, shetelden kelgen turisterding Qazaqstannyng aqtandaq tarihy turaly maghlúmat aluyna da jaqsy bolar edi.
Asharshylyq mektep qabyrghasynda qazaq tarihyndaghy eng alapat últtyq qasiret retinde oqytyluy kerek. Jazushylar, mýsinshiler, kinogerler, kompozitorlar men qylqalam sheberleri osy tragediyany kórkem beyneleuge ýlesterin qosugha mindetti. Áriyne, múnday mәdeny sharalargha bayqau jariyalanyp, arnayy memlekettik grant bólinse ghana nәtiyje shyghady. Osynyng bәrin ýilestirip otyratyn memlekettik komissiya qúryluy tiyis dep esepteymiz. Ábdijәmil Núrpeyisov, Salyq Zimanov, Túrsynbek Kәkishev, Gerolid Beliger, Túmanbay Moldaghaliyev, Asanәli Áshimov siyaqty ziyalylardyng bәri atalghan mәselelerdi birauyzdan qoldap, Ashyq hatqa qol qoydy. Ishinde Berik Ábdighali, Aydos Sarym siyaqty sayasatpen ainalysyp jýrgen azamattar da bar. Endi osy isti sonyna deyin jetkizu barshamyzdyng azamattyghymyzgha syn.
Jazyqsyz adamdardyng qarghysy beker ketpegen siyaqty. KSRO degen әlemning birde-bir elining kýshi jetpeytin, bombalap jene almaytyn alyp imperiya bir-aq sәtte jalpasynan týskeni osynyng nyshany siyaqty kórinedi maghan. Endi tәuelsiz Qazaqstan sol KSRO-nyng kebin kiymeu ýshin 4 million qandasymyzdyng súraushysy, joqtaushysy, úlyqtaushysy bola aluymyz kerek. Búl - býgingi kózi tiri agha úrpaqtyng moynyndaghy paryzy. Eger osyny jasamasaq, keleshek úrpaqtyng aldynda betimizge shirkeu bolady. Sondyqtan da, bolisheviktik partiyanyng býgingi múrageri - kommunistik partiyanyng halyq aldynda, zang aldynda, tarih aldynda jauap beruin talap etemiz.

Býrkit Ayaghan, tarihshy:
- Ras, asharshylyqqa sayasy bagha beru turaly bastama Qazaqstanda keshteu qolgha alynyp otyr. Degenmen, onyng obektivti sebepteri de joq emes. Sebebi, tәuelsizdik alghannan keyin eng aldymen jerimizdi saqtap qalu kerek boldy. Ne eldi syilamaytyn, ne tildi syilamaytyn dýleyleu kórshilerimizding jaghdayyna qaradyq. Biraq әli kesh emes. Qazaqta «Óli riza bolmay tiri bayymaydy» degen sóz bar.
Bir qyzyghy, asharshylyq taqyrybyn sheteldik tarihshylar kóp kóterdi. «Bolishoy terror» atty újymdyq enbekterding birinde «Kollektivizasiya y kazahskaya tragediya» degen tútas tarau osy tragediyagha arnalyp, ashtyq turaly jan-jaqty aitylghan. Atalghan enbekte sheteldik ghalymdar bylay deydi: «Bolishevikter әrdayym ózining kinәsin basqalargha audaryp keldi. Olar ashtyqtyng zaualyn qazaqtyng baylary men Alashordagha jauyp, ózderi sýtten aq, sudan taza bolyp shygha keldi».
Men búryn qazaqtyng apatqa úshyrauyna kinәli Stalin shyghar dep oilaytynmyn. Biraq sheteldik ghalymdardyng enbegin oqyghannan keyin onyng sebebi әldeqayda terende ekenine kózim jetti. Kollektivtendiru turaly búiryqtardyng bәri Kremliden shyqqan. Orys, evrey ziyalylary Stalinge qarsy túrmaq týgili, onyng núsqaularyn quana-quana qoldaghan. Mәskeuden kelgen núsqaudy bizding qazaqtyng atqaminerleri ilip әketumen bolghan. Áriyne, tútas bir últty qaralaghym kelmeydi. Desek te, búl tragediyagha kinәli Reseyding ózi.
Kommunistik partiya degenimiz ne? Ol - Resey memleketining ózi tudyrghan, onyng ruhynan shyqqan partiya. Reseyde Azamat soghysy jii bolyp túrady ghoy. Birin-biri ayamaytyn halyq qazaqqa kelgende tipti órshelenip ketetin tәrizdi. Kremlide, NKVD-nyng ishinde kommunist emester kóp boldy. Biraq olar Kremliding jýrgizgen sayasatyn bir adamday júmyla qoldady.
Ótken ghasyrdyng basynda orystardyng ózi mәdeniyeti tómendeu halyq boldy emes pe?!. Olar demokratiyalyq qogham qúra almady, kóppartiyalyq jýie qúrugha shamasy jetpedi, Europa elderining jolymen kete almady. Sosyn Germaniyanyng ózi jaratpay tastaghan Markstyng artta qalghan iydeyalaryn iske asyrmaqshy boldy.
Bolishevizmning negizgi iydeyasy júmysshy tabynyng diktaturasyn, ýstemdigin ornatu edi. Yaghni, kommunister jeniske jetkennen keyin júmysshy tap aldynghy shepke shyghugha tiyis bolatyn. Biraq búl imperiya at tóbelindey burokrattardyng diktaturasyna ainaldy. Tek qana Stalin emes, Stalinning manayyna jiylghan Hrushev, Malenikov, Kaganovich, Molotov, taghy da basqa kósemning serikteri tolyp jatyr. Búlar eshqanday kommunistik iydeyany kóterip jýrgen adamdar emes. Maqtauly Hrushev keyin ózining memuarlaryn AQSh-qa aqshagha satqan adam. Osydan keyin qazaqty qyrghyngha úshyratqan jalghyz kompartiya deuge bola ma?!
HIH ghasyrda Gollandiya Surinam siyaqty úsaq araldargha basyp kirip, olardyng baylyqtaryn talan-tarajgha salghan eken. Qazir sol aral halyqtarynyng aldyndaghy qiyanatyn resmy týrde moyyndap, tәubege keldi. Qazir araldardaghy kedey halyqtardyng balalaryn oqytyp, qarjylay qol úshyn berip túrady. Nemister II Dýniyejýzilik soghys ýshin býkil әlem júrtshylyghynyng aldynda keshirim súrady. Ayta bersek, tәubege kelgen elder kóp. Tek bir ghana memleket eshqashan ózining jazyqsyz qyrghyngha úshyratqan halyqtarynyng aldynda keshirim súraghan emes. Ol elding atyn aitpay-aq qoyayyn, ózderiniz de jaqsy bilip otyrsyzdar.

Erlan Qariyn, «Núr Otan» HDP-nyng hatshysy:
- Qazaqstannyng tәuelsizdik alghanyna jiyrma jyl bolsa da, elimizding tarihyna qatysty ashyq pikirler aitudan әli kýnge taysaqtaymyz. Boyymyzda búrynnan qalghan qorqynysh tolyq joyylyp ketken joq. Toqsanynshy jyldardyng basynda ashylghan aqtandaqtar odan әri terendetilmey, sol kýiinde qaldy deuge bolady. Olar jalghasyn tappay qalghany ókinishti.
Biz asharshylyqqa qatysty bir mәselening shetin shygharamyz da, sózimizding ayaghyn júmsartugha tyrysamyz. Sebebi, Resey jaghy ne dep qalar eken dep elendeymiz. Reseyde biyl arnayy memlekettik komissiya qúryldy. Atalghan komissiya osy elding tarihyna núqsan keltirui yqtimal taqyryptardy anyqtaydy. Tarih qazbalanghan jaghdayda Mәskeuge aiyp taghylatynyn Resey ýkimeti týsinip otyr. Sol sebepti, I, II Dýniyejýzilik soghys, Asharshylyq taqyryptaryna tosqauyl qoiygha tyrysuda. Yaghni, Reseyding múraghattary endi biraz uaqytqa jabylady degen sóz.
Osy orayda, bizding halimizdi kórshiles Qyrghyzstanmen salystyryp kóreyik. Byltyr Jogorgu Kenesh 1916 jylghy kóteriliske qyrghyz últyna qarsy jasalghan genosid degen bagha berdi. Parlament dengeyinde sheshim qabyldady. Qyrghyzdardyng jartysy Mәskeude júmys istep jýr, memlekettik budjetterining jartysyna juyghy Reseydegi emigranttardyng qarjysy qúraydy deuge bolady. Onyng ýstine, búl elde orystardyng әskery bazasy bar. Orystar taghy bir әskery baza salugha dayyndalyp jatyr. Qysqasy, aiyr qalpaqty aghayyndarymyz әli kýnge Reseyding arqasynda kýn kórip otyr. Alayda, ekonomikalyq jaghynan, sayasi, әskery túrghyda Reseyge tәueldi kishkentay ghana memleketting ózi osynday batyl sheshim qabyldady. Jogorgu Keneshke Reseyding Syrtqy ister ministrligi qarsy nota jiberip, búl eki elding qarym-qatynasyna núqsan keltiretinin aitsa da, qyrghyzdyng deputattary qaymyqqan joq.
Tәjikstan da orys tilin memlekettik mәrtebeden aiyryp, tәjik tilin jalghyz memlekettik til dep jariyalady. Jәne búl sheshimdi Reseyding Preziydenti Tәjikstangha saparshylap keler aldynda qabyldaghanyna qalay riza bolmaysyn?! Yaghni, til mәselesine, últtyng tarihyna qatysty ýlken sheshim qabyldaghan eldermen Mәskeuding ózi sanasugha mәjbýr bolady degen sóz.
Al Qazaqstanda asharshylyqta qansha adamnyng qúrban bolghany turaly ghalymdar әli kýnge daulasyp jýr. Bireuleri halyqtyng 30 payyzy, endi biri 40 payyzy qúrban boldy deydi. Keybir derekterde 47-50 payyz delingen. Osynyng ózi búl taqyrypty tolyqqandy zerttey almaghanymyzdy aighaqtaydy. Eng ókinishtisi, ghalymdardyng pikir qayshylyghy mekteptegi oqulyqtargha de keri әser etedi. Mine, mening qolymda 11-synyptyng «Qazaqstan tarihy» pәninen paydalanatyn oqulyghy túr. Osy kitapta asharshylyqta 300 myng adam óldi degen derek berilgen. Oryssha oqulyqta qazaqtyng basyna týsken úly tragediya jylghyz-aq abzasqa syiyp ketken. Osynday olqylyqtardyng ornyn toltyratyn uaqyt jetti emes pe?!
Asharshylyq oqighasyna nelikten sayasy bagha berilui tiyis? Eng aldymen, búl bolashaq úrpaqtyng tarihy sanasyn qalyptastyru ýshin qajet.

Túrsyn Júrtbay, ghalym-jazushy:
- Meninshe, bizding elde halyq bir bólek, memleket bir basqa, sosyn halyqtyng auzynan shyqqan sózdi týsinetinder óz betinshe ómir sýrip jatqan siyaqty. Sonyng ishinde sóz ótpeytin bir qara iyirim bar tәrizdi kórinedi. Býgingi dóngelek ýstel basynda aitylghan әngimeler bos sóz kýiinde qalmas ýshin «Núr Otan» partiyasynyng basshylyq ókilderi ony tújyrymdap, partiyanyng qaulysyn alsa deymin.
Qazaqstanda asharshylyq turaly halyqtyng zar-múny ghana bar, biraq ony jerine jetkizip zerttegen bir adam joq. Tarihshylar asharshylyqtyng sebepterin, onyng aldyn ala oilastyru joldaryn, Ortalyq Komiytetting Mәskeuge jibergen 190 bettik bayandamalaryn, bәrin jaryqqa shyghara almay jýr. Biz ashtyqty úiymdastyrdy dep orystardy kinәlaymyz. Ukrainder ony «últtyq genosiyd» dep sanaydy. Ukraina birinshi hatshysynyng Stalinge jazghan hattaryn birden jariyalap jiberip, ýlken erlik jasady.
Aralda 1 mln. 200 myng adam qyrylyp jatqanda, balyqtyng bәrin Povolijege alyp ketken. Álimhan Ermekovti týrmeden shygharar kezde týrme bastyghy shaqyryp alyp «Sizge keshirim jasaldy. Biraq eskertetin bir jaghday bar. Syrttaghy jaghday qiyn, halyq ólip jatyr» degen ghoy. Sol kezde Ermekov «Qap, bizding aitqanymyz aqyry dúrys bolyp shyqqan eken. Sony nege tyndamadynyzdar», dep sanyn soghady. Myna súmdyqty qaranyz, әlgi týrmebastyghy Ermekovke «Bir saghat búryn aitqanynda, osynday oiyng ýshin seni týrmede shiritetin edim» dep ókingen eken.
Biz genosidti naqty tarihy derektermen әshkerelemesek, eshtene tyndyra almaymyz. Roman jazayyq, povesti, poema jazayyq, zarlayyq, joqtayyq, bәribir keyingi úrpaqtyng miyna eshtene kirip-shyqpaydy. Sebebi, aldymen últtyq genosidti tarihy derekter arqyly dәleldeu kerek.

 

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