Seysenbi, 21 Mamyr 2024
Alashorda 3482 11 pikir 5 Nauryz, 2024 saghat 13:25

Alash qazaq memleketin qalay qúrdy?

Suret ashyq derekkózderden alyndy

Alash býkilreseylik qúryltaysyz qazaq memleketin qalay qúrdy?

1917 jylghy Aqpan tónkerisinen song búrynghy otarshyl imperiyanyng taghdyryn Býkilreseylik qúryltay jinalysy sheshedi degen zor ýmit boldy. 1917 jylghy qazaq oblystyq siyezderi men Birinshi jalpyqazaq qúryltayy birauyzdan alda shaqyrylugha tiyis Býkilreseylik qúryltaydan Reseydi federativtik demokratiyalyq respublika dep jariyalaudy jәne qazaqtyng últtyq memleketin qúrugha degen óshpes qúqyn moyyndaudy talap etti. Biraq sol jyldyng qazan (qarasha) aiynda bәlshebekterding qylmystyq jolmen Resey biyligin basyp aluy saldarynan «Alash» partiyasy jetekshileri Qúryltaydyng shaqyryluyn tospay-aq últtyq memleketting shanyraghyn qayta tikti.

Álihan Bókeyhan bastaghan «Alash» ziyalylarynyng ýlken toby Aqpan tónke­ri­sin Birinshi dýniyejýzi soghysynyng Minski irge­sindegi tylynda qarsy aldy. Álihan Bókeyhan, Mirjaqyp Dulatúly, Nәzir Tóreqúlúly, t.b. qol qoyyp, Minskiden Dala men Týrkistan ólkelerinde túratyn 25 alash azamatyna 16 nauryz kýni joldaghan jedelhatta bylay delindi:

«Rusiyadaghy barsha halyqqa aghayyndyq, tendik, bostandyq kýni tudy. Jana qú­ryl­ghan hýkimet dýkenin sýieu ýshin qazaqqa úiymdasu kerek... Ushrediytelinoe sobranie saylauyna qazaq bolyp qamdanu kerek. Jaramdy, jaqsy adamdaryn auyzgha ala beru kerek. Endi arazdyq, óshtik, dau, janjal, talas, partiyalyq siyspaulardy tastau kerek. Kókserlik júmystaryng – birlik, әdildik bolsyn! Jer mәselesin de qozghap, tezirek qolgha ala berinder. Biz qalaytyn patshalyq týri – demokratiysheskaya respublika, yaghny mal ósirip, egin salyp, jerge ie bolarlyq týri. Qúdaydan basqa eshkimnen qoryqpandar!»

Býkilreseylik qúryltay saylauyna dayyndyq manyzdy eki sebeppen 9 aigha sozyldy. Onyng biri – Reseyding jana Uaqytsha ýkimetine sayasi, ekonomikalyq, әleumettik, últtyq syndy asa kýrdeli de ózekti mәselelerdi qarama-qarsy sheshuge tura keldi. Oghan halyqtyng jappay sauat­syz­dyghy (¾), saylaugha qajetti qúqyq­tyq jәne tehnikalyq qúral-jabdyq pen tiyisili mekemelerding joqtyghy, biylikting túraq­syz­dyghy, odan da zory – 4 jylgha sozyl­ghan dýniyejýzilik soghys jәne taghysyn taghy sebepter tejeu boldy.

Ekinshi sebep. Uaqytsha ýkimet eng ýzdik jәne meylinshe jetilgen saylau zanyn (erejesin) jasaugha tyrysty. 25 nauryzda Qúryltay deputattaryn saylau erejesin jasaytyn Erekshe mәjilis jasaqtau turaly sheshim qabyldandy. Erekshe mәjilis 1917 jyldyng 25 mamyrynda júmysqa kiristi. Onyng qúramynda 82 mýshesi boldy. Mәjilis mýshelerining qataryna qazaqtan 2 kәsiby zanger shaqyryldy. Olar – Ja­hansha Dosmúhamedúly men Uәlithan Tanashúly edi. Bolashaq Alash Orda ýki­me­tining komissary Jahansha 1910 jyly Mәskeu uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin, Alash Ordanyng taghy bir mýshesi Uәlithan – Qazan uniyversiytetining zang fakulitetin 1912 jyly tәmamdaghan edi.

Qúryltay deputatyn saylau zanynyng jobasyn jasau 1917 jyldyng tamyzynda ayaqtaldy. Nәtiy­je­sin­de, әlemdegi eng ýzdik saylau zany dýniyege keldi. Jalpygha ortaq, barshanyng qúqy ten, qúpiya týrde tikeley dauys beretin saylau boldy.

Qabyldanghan saylau erejesi Batys Europa men AQSh-tyng saylau zannama­la­ry­nyng damuynan aitarlyqtay ozyq bolyp shyqty. Atap aitqanda, Resey tarihynda әiel balasy men әskery qyzmet­ker­ler túnghysh ret saylau qúqyna ie boldy, 20-gha tolghan azamattargha saylau qúqy berildi (Angliya, Italiya, AQSh, Fransiyada 21-ge tolghandar, Beligiya, Germaniya, Gollandiya, Ispaniyada – 25-ke tolghandar).

Oghan qosa Qúryltay saylauynyng ere­jesi dýniye-mýlkining bar-joqtyghyna, sa­uat­tylyghyna, dinine, últyna jәne jar­tylay kóshpeli halge jetken qazaq halqy ýshin manyzdy mәsele – kóshpeli ne oty­ryq­shy túrmysyna degen shekteu joyyldy. Saylau erkin, әdil jәne balamaly bolyp bekitildi.

Mine, osy zanmen Qúryltay saylauy alghashqyda qyrkýiek aiyna belgilendi. Alayda kezekti ýshinshi ýkimet daghdarysy saldarynan Uaqytsha ýkimet saylaudy 12 (25) qarashada ótkizu, al Qúryltaydy 28 qara­shagha (11 jeltoqsangha) shaqyru turaly qauly qabyldady.

Qúryltay saylauy nauqany kezinde saylau zanyn 1917 jyldyng 25 qazanynda (7 qarasha) qaruly býlikpen Uaqytsha ýkimetti qúlatyp, Petrogradtaghy ortalyq biylikti basyp alghan kenes ókimetining atasy, Halyq komissarlar kenesining tóra­ghasy V.IY.Leninning ózi órkeskel búzdy. Ol ózin Qúryltay deputattyghyna bәl­shebektik RSDJP partiyasynan úsy­nylghan ýmitkerlerding Petrograd, Petrograd gý­ber­nesi, Ufa, Baltyq teniz floty jәne Sol­týstik maydannyng jәne Mәskeuding saylau aimaqtary, yaghny 6 saylau aimaghy tizi­mine qosty. Osylaysha, «dýnie jýzi júmysshylarynyng kósemi» V.IY.Lenin 5 saylau aimaghynan dauysqa týsu qarastyrylghan saylau zanyn ayaqqa taptady.

Oghan qosa bәlshebekter ókimeti azamattardyng qúqyn zang jýzinde shekteu (baspasóz turaly dekret, yaghny senzura), merzimdi basylymdardy jappay jabu, gazet taratushylardy tútqyndau, oppo­­ziy­siyalyq baspahanalardy joi arqyly saylaushylargha qysym kórsetumen boldy. Qaruly әskerdi júmsap, saylaushylardy bәl­shebek partiyasynyng tizimderine dauys­qa beruge kýshtegen jayttar da keng qol­dandy.

Osy siyaqty kelensiz jayttarmen qa­tar jergilikti saylau komissiyalaryna qaghaz, qalamsap, kilegey jәne t.b. qajetti qara­payym qúraldardyng jetispeui de de­putattar tizimin jasaugha aitarlyqtay tejeu boldy. Sonyng saldarynan birqatar say­lau aimaghynda, onyng ishinde Aqmola men Semey oblystaryn biriktirgen Dala aimaghyndaghy saylau ótpey qaldy nemese 12-14 qarashadan jeltoqsannyng 26-30-yna ysyryldy.

Osylaysha, әlemdegi eng ýzdik sanalghan Reseyding saylau zany saylau ýrdisin shiye­lenistirip, saylau­shy­lardyng tym selqos dauys beruine zor yqpal etti.

Jalpy alghanda Qúryltay saylauy 3 aigha deyin sozyldy. Birqatar saylau aima­ghynda, mysaly Dala aimaghynda (Aqmola jәne Semey oblystary) saylau 1917 jyl­dyng 26-30 jeltoqsannan (1918 jyl­dyng 11-13 qan­tary) taghy da 1918 jyl­dyng aqpan aiyna ysyryldy. Al Qú­ryltay jiy­nalysy 1918 jyldyng 5 qan­tarynan 6 qan­targha qaraghan týni kenes ókimeti kýshtep taratyp ýl­gergen edi.

1917 jylghy 16 nauryzda Minskiden jol­daghan jedelhatta aitylghanday, Álihan Bókeyhan bastaghan «Alash» ziyalylary men qazaq halqy Býkilreseylik qúryltay saylauyna tiyanaqty dayyndaldy. Sәuir aiynan 1918 jyldyng qantar aiyna deyin derlik jalghasqan qazaq oblystyq jәne 1917 jyldyng 21-26 shildesinde ótken Birinshi Jalpyúlttyq qúryltay birauyzdan alda shaqyrylatyn Býkilreseylik qúryltaygha Reseydi demokratiyalyq federativtik res­publika dep jariyalasyn degen joldau qa­byl­da­dy. Keshegi Resey imperiyasynyng otary bolghan býkil basqa halyqpen qatar qazaq halqy men últ kósemderi de Býkil­re­sey qúryltayy qazaqtyng ózin-ózi biyleuge degen óshpes qúqyn moyyndap, últtyq memlekettigining tuyn qayta kóteruine aq bata­syn beredi degen zor ýmit artty. «Alash» par­tiya­synan Qúryltaygha saylan­ghan bizderge, – dep mәlimdedi atalghan par­tiya­nyng atasy әri sayasy jetekshisi Álihan Bókeyhan, – Qazaq autonomiyasyn jariyalaugha qol jetkizu mindeti jýkteldi. Autonomiya ýshin kýres basqa últtyq oblystarda da bastaldy. Bizding «Alash» partiyamyz ózge últtyq partiyalarmen (Tatarstan, Bashqúrstan jәne t.b.) odaqtasty. Ol odaqtyng bas maqsaty: Reseyding […] partiyalarymen uaghdalasu jolymen Qúryltay jinalysynan Resey […] memleketi qúramyndaghy últtyq oblys­targha autonomiya berudi birlesip talap etu boldy. «Alash» últtyq par­tiya­synyng jәne ózge últtyq partiya­lardyng ókili retinde (28 p.) mening ózim osy mәseleler bo­yynsha Kerenskiy ýkimetining mýshelerimen tike­ley kelissóz jýrgizdim».

Saylau erejesine sәikes, Qúryltaygha 200 myng halyqtan bir deputat saylanatyn. «Alash» kósemi Álihan Bókeyhannyng esebi boyynsha, 9 oblys pen 1 gýbernede, onyng ishinde Jetisu men Syrdariya oblys­­tarynda, sonday-aq Týrkistan ólkesine qara­ghan Samarqand, Ferghana jәne Kas­piy jaghalauy oblystarynyng qazaq oyazdaryndaghy qazaqtyng sany mynaday: «Deputat sany adam sanyna baylauly. Eki jýz mynnan bir deputat saylanbaq. 1897-shi jylghy esepte qazaq tilin ana tilim degen adam 4 million 84 myng edi. Bir jyldaghy adam balasynyng taza ósimi eki jýzge 3 adam bolady. Osy esepke salsa, bizding 9 oblys, bir gýbernedegi qazaq biyl 5 million 400 myng bolsa kerek. Búlay bolsa, qazaq deputaty 27 bolmaq. Búlargha 13-14 kandidat say­lanbaq. Sonda bizding bar deputatymyz 40-41 bol­maq».

Álihan «Qazaq deputattary» atty osy maqala­sy­n­da 1917 jyldyng 21-16 shil­desinde Oryn­borda ótken Birin­shi Últtyq qúryltay­dyng tal­qy­syna Bý­kil­reseylik qúryltay deputattyghyna layyq dep sanaghan 43 ýmitkerding tizimin úsyndy. Qyr balasy – el aghasy Álihan búl maqalasyn: «Qara jarysta ozghandy júrt qalap bәigege qosar. Bizding izde­ge­nimiz – Alashtyng aty bәigeden kelgeni. Tiri bolsaq, aldymyz – ýlken toy. Alashtyng bala­sy búl joly bolmasa, jaqyn arada óz tizgini ózinde bólek memleket bolar. Búl bolyp túrghan zaman – Alashtyng aza­matyna zor jýk. Bizdi birlik bolyp, is qyla biletin sheber tabylsa, Alashtyng balasy baqyt jolyna týsti. Keyingi ýrim-bútaq ne alghys, ne qarghys bere jýre­tin aldymyzda zor sharttar bar. Osyny anghar, júrtym qazaq!» dep qorytty.

Qazaqtyng Birinshi Últtyq qúryltayy últ kósemi úsynghan tizimdi tútas maqúldap, «Qazaq» gazetinde jariyalandy.

Birqatar aimaqta saylaudyng ayaqtal­mauyna qara­mas­tan, Býkilreseylik qúryltay jasaqtaldy dep sheshildi. Bir mәlimet bo­yynsha oghan 347 orys eseri («Partiya Sosialist-Revolusioner» sózining bas әripterinen eS-eR dep qúrastyrylghan qysqasha atauy), 180 bәlshebek, 81 ukrain eseri, 16 menshebek, 15 kadet, 11 ukrain әleumetshil-demokraty (sosial-demokrat), 62 músylman deputaty ótken. Onyng ishinde eser deputattarynyng sany 450-ge jaqyn. Bastapqyda josparlanghan 808 deputattan saylanghany 703-ten 766-gha deyin kórinedi.

Resey Ortalyq saylau komissiyasy (OSK) janyn­da­ghy Reseyding saylau tehnologiyalaryna oqytu ortalyghynyn (RSTOO – Rossiyskiy sentr obucheniya izbiratelinym tehnologiyam – RSIOT) sarap­tamasy dúrys sanalady. Onyng esebine sәikes, 766 deputat saylanghan, onyng 374-i eser partiyasynan, 180-i bәlshebek, 24-i kadet, 22-si menshebek, 81-i ukrain eseri, 10-y musavat, 25-i – federalister men auto­no­mister, 12-si ghana «Alash» par­tiya­synan say­lanypty.

Osy mәlimetterden bayqaytynymyz: saylanghan deputattardyng jalpy sany, onyng ishinde әsirese «Alash» partiyasy deputat­tarynyng sany óte kýmәndi kórine­di. Onyng sebebi, birinshiden, keshegi imperiya infraqúrylymynyng mesheuligi Reseyding OSK-sy men alys Aziyadaghy saylau aimaqtary arasyndaghy baylanysty jaqsy qamtamasyz ete almady. Ekin­shi­den, bәlshebekterding qazan aiynda biylikti basyp aluy men qys mausymy da saylaugha zor bóget boldy. Mysalgha, Resey OSK-sy janyndaghy RSTOO mәlimetinshe, «Alash» partiyasynan 12 deputat ótken bolsa, saylanghan deputattardyng leninism.su portalynda berilgen tiziminde Ferghana obly­synda «Alash» partiyasy atynan deputat bolyp jalghyz Mústafa Shoqaydyng ghana esimi túr.

Degenmen de taghy keminde 10-12 qazaq deputaty saylanuy kerek bolghan, biraq saylau ótpey qalghan Syrdariya jәne Kas­piy jaghalauy oblystaryn jәne say­lau keyinge ysyrylghan Dala aimaghyn (Aqmola jәne Semey obl) aitpaghanda, qalghan 7 oblystan (saylau aimaghynan) 12 emes, kem degende 17 deputat saylanuy kerek-ti. Búl joramal Reseyding tarihshy ghalymy, professor Lev Protasovtyn «Ludy Uchrediytelinogo sobraniya: port­ret v interiere epohiy» kitabynda tolyq rastalady. L.G. Protasovtyng osy kitabyn siltep kórsetken «Hronos. Vsemirnaya istoriya v internete» portaly Býkilreseylik qúryltaygha saylanghan bar­lyq de­putat­ty tizip keltirip, әlippe tәr­tibi boyynsha olar­dyng aty-jónin jәne qysqasha ómirbayanyn beredi. «Hronos» portalynyng L.G. Protasov jasaghan tizimde qazaqtan Qúryltaygha saylanghan 12 emes, 20 deputattyng aty-jóni jýr. Biraq eskerte ketu kerek, búl portal 20 deputattyng bәri «Alash» partiyasy tizimimen saylanghanyn kórsetpeydi. Mysalgha Ábdirahmanbek Orazayúly, Serikbay Aqayúly (1880-1937) jәne Mústafa Shoqay Qúryltaygha Ferghana oblysy (aymaghy) músylmandarynyng ortaq №2 tizimi boyynsha, Múhametjan Tynyshbayúly (1880-1937) Jetisu oblys­tyq aimaghynyng әleumetshiler (sosia­liys­ter) blogynyng № 2 tizimi boyynsha, al Sadyq Amanjolúly (1889-1941) men Ybyrayym Jaynaqúly, Jetisu kazagy Stepan Shendrikov (1885-1936) jәne Dәuir Saurambayúly «Alash» partiyasy blogynyng ortaq № 3 tizimi bo­yynsha saylanypty.

Býkilreseylik qúryltay deputat­ty­ghyna «Alash» partiyasy tizimimen saylan­ghan­dardyng ishinde «Alash» qozgha­lysy men partiyasynyng jetekshisi Álihan Bókey­han­nyng esimi joq. «Alash» kósemi partiya tizimi boyynsha Torghay oblystyq ai­maghy men Aqmola jәne Semey oblys­taryn biriktirgen Dala aimaghynan úsynylghan bolatyn. Dala aimaghyndaghy saylau keyinge ysyrylghany aityldy. Al Torghay saylau aimaghynda «Alash» partiyasy 12-14 qarasha kýnderi ótken saylauda sosial-demokrat (menshebekter) pen eser pariyalaryn oisyrata jengen bolatyn. Mysalgha Torghay oyazyndaghy 68 myng saylaushynyng 55 myng 127-si dauys berse, onyng 54 myng 976-sy «Alash» partiyasynyng №1 tizimine, 110 dauys eserlerding №2 tizimine, 41-aq dauys – sosial-demokrattardyng №3 tizimine berilgen; Yrghyz oyazyndaghy 70 myng saylaushynyng 55 myng 349 dauys №1 tizimge («Alash»), 181 - №2 tizimge (eserler), 1516 dauys – №3 tizimge (s.d. menshebekter) berilipti.

Dala aimaghynda saylau bolmasa da, Álihan Bókeyhan Qúryltay deputattyghyna Torghay obly­sy­nan ótse kerek.

Álihannyng Býkilreseylik qúryltay­gha deputat bolghanynyng taghy bir dәleli: 1918 jyldyng qyr­ký­yeginde Ufa qala­synda kenes ókimetine qarsy «Ufa diyrektoriyasy» degen ataumen býkil­re­seylik zan­dy ýkimetti saylaghan Mem­le­kettik mәjiliske tek qana Qúryltay deputattary ghana shaqy­ryl­­­­­­­dy. Mәjiliske qatysushylardyng tiziminde Á.Bókeyhan, H.Dosmúhamedúly, IY.Álimbekúly jәne B.Jahandamúly qazaqtyng Alash Orda ýki­me­­ti­ning ókil­­deri retinde jýr. Eger osy 4 «Alash» qay­rat­ke­rining qolynda Qúryltay deputatynyng mandaty bol­masa, Memlekettik mәjiliske jiberilmes edi.

Alash Orda ýkimetining mýshesi emes A.Baytúrsynúly, S.Shendrikov, A.Orazayúly Mәji­liske Qúryltay depu­ta­ty retinde qatyssa, A.Birimjan, S.Dosjanúly, J.Dosmúhamedúly, U.Tanashúly, M.Tynyshbayúly, M.Sho­qay­lar – Alash Orda komissarlary әri Qúryltay deputattary retinde qatysty.

Osylaysha, L. Protasov pen «Hronos» tizimindegi 20 qazaq deputatyna Á.Bókeyhan men IY.Álimbekúly jәne B.Jahandamúlyn qosqanda, «Alash» partiyasynan jәne jalpy qazaq halqynan Býkilreseylik qúryl­taygha kem degende 23 deputat saylan­ghan bolyp shyghady.

Qúryltaygha 12-aq deputat saylaghan kýnde de (Reseyding OSK-sy janyndaghy RSTOO mәlimeti) «Alash» partiyasy saylaugha qatysqan býkilreseylik 13 jәne 34 últtyq partiyanyng ishinen 8 oryngha taban tirepti. 23-25 deputat saylaghan bolsa, «Alash» partiyasy Reseyding 1906-1917 jyldardaghy eng iri әri eng yqpaldy partiyasy bolghan kadettermen 5-6 oryndy bólisken eken. Al bas-ayaghy 13-14 deputat saylau josparlanghan Dala (Aqmola, Semey obl), Syrdariya jәne Kaspiy jaghalauy aimaqtarynda saylau qayta ótkende, «Alash» partiyasy 374 mandaty bar solshyl eser, 180 mandaty bar bәlshebek jәne 81 mandat alghan ukrain eserlerinen keyin 4-oryn alghan bolar edi.

Alayda bәlshebekterding Reseydegi ortalyq biylikti basyp aluyna, әsirese Qúryltay saylauynda olardyng oisyray jeniluine baylanysty qazaq halqynyng últtyq memleketin qayta qúruy, yaghny autonomiyalyq derbestik alu-almauy Qúryl­taydaghy qazaq deputattarynyng sany­na emes, kerisinshe saylauda jenilgen kenes ókimetining kónil-kýiine baylanyp qaldy.

Úzaq kýttirgen Býkilreseylik qúryltay Tavriya sarayynda (Petrogorad) 1917 jyl­dyng 28 qara­shasynda (11 jeltoqsan) jinaldy. Qúryltaydyng birinshi otyrysy bәlshebek deputattarynyng oghan boykot jariyalap kelmeui saldarynan kvorum jinay almay tarqady. Birinshi sessiyagha týrli derek boyynsha saylanghan 708-den 808-ge tarta deputattyng 400-ge jetpeytini qa­tysqan. «Alash» deputattarynyng qatys­qan-qatyspaghany belgisiz.

Bәlshebekterding Qúryltaygha kelmeui «Alash» partiyasynyng ghana emes, býkil Resey halyqtarynyng songhy ýmitin ýzdi de, búrynghy imperiya halyqtarynyng autonomiya jariyalau sheruine keng jol ashty. Qa­zaqtyng Dala jәne Týrkistan ólkelerindegi auto­nomiyalanu ýrdisine dem bergen taghy bir jayt boldy. Zandy Uaqytsha ýkimetting qúlauynyng izinshe 26 qazanda Ufa, 28 qazanda Tashkent bәlshebekterding qolyna ótti.

Álihan Bókeyhan bastaghan «Alash» qayrat­ker­leri Býkilreseylik qúryltay qashan shaqyrylady dep boljap taghy әure bolmay, 5-13 (18-26) kýnderi Orynborda II Jalpyúlttyq qazaq-qyrghyz qúryl­tayyn ótkizdi. Últtyq qúryltay keshegi Úlyq Úlys pen onyng tarihy múrageri bolghan Qazaq handyghynyng jer aumaghynda Alash Últtyq Jerli Autonomiyalyq Res­publikasyn qúryp, onyng jogharghy mem­lekettik atqarushy biylik tetigi – Alash Orda Býkil Qazaq-Qyrghyz (býgingi qyrghyz halqy) halyq Kenesin (Ýkimetin) jәne 3 balama ýmitkerding ishinen onyng tóraghasy etip Álihan Bókeyhandy saylady.

Aragha 3 jeti salyp 1918 jyldyng 5 (18) qan­ta­rynda Petrogradta Býkilreseylik qúryltay ses­siyasy ashylyp, júmysyna kiristi. Biraq saylauda oi­syray jenilgen qylmysker bәlshebekter men olardyng kenes ókimeti óz degenine jýrmegen Qúryltaydy kýshtep quatynyn anyq sezgen «Alash» deputattary oghan qatyspaudy dúrys sanaghan siyaqty. Olardyng kýdigi Qúryltay ashylghan birini kýni-aq tolyq aqtaldy.

5 (18) qantarda Qúryltay, 1917 jylghy býkil kazaq oblystyq jәne shilde aiyndaghy I Jalpyúlttyq qúryl­taylar birauyzdan ýndegendey, Reseydi fe­de­rativtik-demo­kra­tiyalyq respublika dep jariya­lady, yaghny patshalyq biylikten bas tartty. Oghan qosa Álihan Bókeyhan 1906 jyldan beri talap etip kelgen jәne 1917 jyldyng jazynda kadet partiyasy qatarynan shyghuyna týrtki bolghan 3 ózekti mәselening biri bol­ghan jerdi jekemenshikke satugha qarsy qarar qabyldady. Býkil resey halqy, әsi­rese «Alash» jetekshileri kýtkendey, Qúryltay júmysshylar men sharualar deputattarynyng kenesining memlekettik biyligin (kenes ókimetin) zandy etetin «Enbekshiler men ezilgen halyqtyng qúqy Deklarasiyasyn» qarau­dan ýzildi-kesildi bas tartty.

Mine, osy әreketi ýshin kenes ókimeti Reseydegi qalghan eng songhy zandy biylik – býkil halyq saylanghan Qúryltaydy 5 qantardan 6-syna qaraghan týni kýshtep quyp taratyp, Uaqytsha ýkimetti qarumen quyp tarat­qan 1917 jyldyng 25 qazannan (7 qarashadan) keyin osymen ekinshi qylmystyq memlekettik tón­ke­ris jasady. Resey memlekettik biyliksiz qaldy.

«Resey biyliksiz qalghan osy jaghdayda II Jalpy­­últtyq qazaq-qyrghyz qúryltayynda bola­shaqta jariyalanugha tiyis federativtik Resey res­pub­liy­ka­sy­nyng ózgelermen teng qúqyly auto­no­miyasynyng biri, yaghny subektisi retinde jariyalanghan Alash ózinen joghary túrghan federativtik biylik organy joq, býkil memlekettik biylik qúzyry óz qolyna tiygen egemen respub­likagha ainaldy».

Bәlshebekter Qúryltaydy quyp taratuy­nyng saldary – keshegi otarshyl imperiyanyng fede­­ra­siya bola almauyna jәne ydyrauyna әkelip soqty. Resey federasiya bola almaghan son, Últtyq Jerli Autonomiya jariyalaghan Ukraina, Gruziya, Armeniya, Alash, Bashqúrt jәne basqa últtyq jәne oblystyq autonomiyalar týgel egemen memleketke ainaldy emes pe? Al Aqpan tónkerisinen keyin Autonomiya jariyalaghan halyqtar dayyn Resey fede­­rasiyasyna kirmey, olar óz yqtiyarymen Resey federasiyasyn qúrastyru kerek bolghan. Mine, sony kesh týsingen Lenin men Kenes ókimeti 1918 jyldyng 18 (31) qantarynda Reseydi federasiya dep jariyalap, egemen últtyq respublikalardyng bәrine soghys intervensiyasyn bastaghan joq pa? Biz ony kenestik jalghan iydeologiyamen «azamat soghysy» dep kelemiz. Bәlshebekterding ol soghysy azamat soghysy emes, intervensiya bolatyn. Alash Orda kenes óki­metin 1919 jyldyng sonyna deyin moyyndaghan joq. Oghan qosylamyz dep eldi shaqyrmady da.

Súltan Han Aqqúly,

PhD, alashtanushy

Derekkózi: Egemen Qazaqstan

Abai.kz

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