Dýisenbi, 18 Qantar 2021
Bilgenge marjan 4539 5 pikir 8 Sәuir, 2020 saghat 12:40

Egeuhan Múqamәdiqyzy: Etnografiyalyq әngimeler (jalghasy)

Basy: Egeuhan Múqamәdiqyzy: Etnografiyalyq әngimeler

Jalghasy: Egeuhan Múqamәdiqyzy: Sәuletti kósh

Teriden jasalghan ydystar

Sabalaq terini iyleu

Qysta soghymgha soyghan attyng terisining jýnin soya sala Aldabergen ózi ótkir pyshyqpen qyryp alyp, qan-sólinen týgel aryltyp, juyp, tazalap, suyn sorghytyp jayady. Zyliqa aghash astaugha ýsh litr sudy shym-shym bolghyzyp qúiyp, ýsh shómish ún salyp, ýsh litr qatyqty ezip, bir shómish túzdy eritip, bir qapshyq ashytqy qosyp, bәrin aralastyryp jyly peshting týbine býrkep, qymtap, jauyp qoydy. Erteninde әlgi iy astaudyng erneuinen iyisi anqyp, asyp, boza bolyp ashypty. Zyliqa tobarsyp túrghan jylqynyng terisin edenge jayyp, ashyghan iydi battastyryp jaghyp, siniruge qalyng kiyizge orap tastaydy. Jarty aidan keyin terining arasyn ashsa, eshqanday qatpaghan. Balqyp iy bolyp qalypty. Iyin qyrghymen qyryp, taghy da tobarsytyp kerip, sozyp qoydy.

Saba tigu

Anasynan kórgenindey   terining júqa shap púshpaqtaryn týsirip tórt emizik boldyryp piship aldy. Jylqy, siyrdyng jilinshikterinen kezinde alyp keptirip, qolmen tarap shiratqan taramystaryn әzirlep, kebis tiktirgende qalghan kók sauyr últannyng qiqymynan oimaq jasatty. Aldabergen etik tigetin jinishke bizining úshyn ótkirlep qayrap berdi. Zyliqa kebeqúrghaq terining qospasyna shýberek salyp, juan iynege taramysty sabaqtap, bizding ornynan tebe tigip bitirdi.

Qara saba

Jylqynyn  múnday qalyng jondamasynan tigilgen әri iy qanghan saba kýtip ústasa, kópke shydaydy. Qazangha ýsh litr sudy qúiyp, bir kilogramdyq  shaydy salyp, shaydyng boyauyn qúrymghyp shygharyp, qaynatyp shym-shym bolghanda sabagha qúiyp, ýsh kýn boyy údayy ón-boyyna tegis  tiygizip, shayqaydy kep, shayqaydy kep. Shay әbden singen son, sabany taghyda tobarsytady. Sonymen  irikit, qymyz qúngha bolady. Sonda sabagha qúighan  irkit, qymyzdan ishi terining iyisi nemese ashyghan iiyding iyisi shyqpaydy әri saba shirimeydi. Qara saba osylay jasalady. Qara saba halyqtyng qúty bolyp esepteledi.

Sýiretpe torsyq

Soyylghan týiening moyyn terisinen biteu kýiinde soyyp, sylyp alady. Týiening óndirsheginen qamtynqyrap, eki qoldyng iyghynan da týiening moynaq terisine jiberinkirep soyady. Óiitkeniol óndirshek jaq sýiretpe torsyqtyng týbi  «moynaq saba» dep te ataydy nemese moynaq sabanyng týp jaghy bolady. Týiening óte berik, qalyng óndirshek terisinen týp salady. Terining ishki sary etin, shelin, mayyn týgel aryltady. Terini kebe qúrghaqtap alghan song týppen ón-boyynyng arasyna syzdyq salyp, ótkir bizben tesip, qaldylau shiratylghan taramyspen juantyq iynege sabaqtap alyp, tebe tigedi. Búl moynaq sabanyng berik boluyna túla boyynyng tútas biteu soyyluy da kóp әser etedi. Sondyqtan týbi men boyynyng arajigin asa berik tigedi. Tigilip bolghan song auzynyng әr jerin tanap pispek siyatynday mólsherge keltirip, sәndep qoyady. Tigisi qoldan shyqqan son, qaraghaydyng qabaghyn qaynatyp shym-shymdaghanda malyp qoyady. Birneshe tәulik óten son, malmadan shygharyp tobarsytady. Qon, qúrym bolyp qaynaghan shaygha salady. Sinirip shayqaydy. Týiening moynaq tersinen jasalghandyqtan jýz eluden eki jýz litrge deyin qymyz siyady. Moynaq sabany «Sýiretpe torsyq» atau sebebi ananday alys auyldar toy jasaghanda qymyz qúiyp týiege artyp, atqa óngerip aparugha shydaytyn berik bolghandyqtan «sýiretpe torsyq» ataghan.

Órkesh torsyq

Órkesh torsyq degenimiz – týiening órkesh terisinen jasalady. Týiening eki órkesh terisin teriden sylyp alyp, biteu soyyp alady. Órkesh terining mayyn óte múqiyat qyryp-aryltady da tobarsytady. Tobarsyghan song eki órkeshting terisin bettestirip tigedi. Jalpaqtau jaghyn ornyqty týbi boldyrady. Jinishkeleu jaghyn auzy boldyrady. «Batyrdyng ózine layyq soyyly bar» degendey múnynda ózine layyq pispegi bolady. Tigilu, ón-boyyndaghy iyis, qoqystan aryltu, ydystyq qasiyetke jetkizu – bәri sýiretpe torsyqpen birdey aila-amal qoldanady. Órkesh torsyqtyng ýlken-kishi boluy – týie órkeshining ýlken-kishi boluyna baylanysty. Órkeshi baladay ýlken órkeshten jasalghan torsyq bir-eki biyening qymyzyn ashytyp otyrugha, az ghana qoy-eshkinin, birer siyrdyng sýtinen irkit jiyp pisuge jarap túrady.

Jantorsyq

Kishileu órkeshti týiening órkeshinen jasalghan torsyq –  jantorsyq ornyna paydalana beruge jaraydy. Jantorsyqty týienin, siyrdyng berik terilerinen mólsherlep piship alyp, tigip jasaydy. Jantorsyq alysqa atpen jolaushylap jýrgende, jaugershilik zamanda, beybit ómirde qoyshylar qoy jayghanda bәrinde  susyn qúiyp, erding qanjyghasyna baylap nemese iyq bauynan moyyngha asa salyp jýre beretin janynan tastamaytyn jantorsyghy ghoy búl. Búl torsyqtardy da tigilip bitken son, qaraghaydyng qabyghyn qaynatyp salyp, shay qaynatyp qúiyp, shayqap, sinirip, qalypqa keltiredi. Jantorsyqqa qúiylghan qymyz, irkit, airan óz qalpyn saqtap túrady. Alys jolda shólirkegende ishken susyn tipten balday bolady.

Kónek

Qazaq halqy ertede maldy temir ydysqa saumaghan. Siyrdy, qoydy aghashtan oiyp dóngeletip týp salyp jasaghan aghash shelekterge saughan. Kóz tiymesin dep aghash shelekting qúlaghyna tesik tas taghatyn. Biyeni kónekke saughan. Kónekti týiening ýlken órkeshinen sylyp alatyn, ne moynaq terisinen ólshep alyp qúmmen ketpep shelek qalpyna keltiretin. Bir jaq erneuinen shýmek shygharyp, eki jaq erneuinen bau ótkizetin tesik tesip qalypqa keltirip qatyryp siri boldyryp jasaydy. Ol siri jóbi – shókim jana saua salghan sýtke әl berip qalpyn búzbaydy. Jylqy maly sekemshil, sergek mal ghoy. Temir shelekke saughan sýtting dybysynan da synghyr-syldyr bolghyzyp estirtpeydi. Biyening ayaghy tiyip ketse danghyrlap-sanghyrlap ketetin temir shelekten ýrkip iyimey qoyatyn. Sondyqtan arnauly abzal ydys «kónek» jasap saughan.

Kónqap

Halqymyz bardy baghalap, úqsatyp qoldan jasap qajetine jaratqan halyqpyz ghoy. Soyghan eshkinin, serkening terisin ashymen sorlap, shylghilap, iykemge keltirip nәrse salatyn qap jasaghan. Eki jaghyna eki qúlaqbau taqqan. Múnyng tigisinde taramyspen tikken. Serkening terisinen jasaghan qap óte berik bolady. Múny «kónqap» dep ataydy.

Talys

Jylqynyng bas terisin biteu soyyp sary etin aryltyp, túz jaghyp iylep iykemge keltiredi. Eki qúlaghyn tikeytip kekilin kýltelendirip óz mólsherimen dorba jasaghan.  Ashatyn auzyn júqalap jonghan.  Aghashpen qyshqashtap eki jerinen tesip qayys ótkizgen. Búghan otaghasy biz, tisteuik, qayraq, januysh, sýmsuir, egeu, teskish degendey úzaq-týiek zattaryn salatyn. Múny «talys» dep ataghan.

Túlyp

Siyrdyng tua salyp ólgen búzauynyng terisin biteu soyyp, audaryp teri jaghynan túz jaghyp shylghilap keptirip túlyp jasaydy. Búghan kóshpeli auyl ýiining úsaq-týiek qajetti zattaryn salyp qoyady. Múny «túlyp» deydi.

Taramys shiratu

Jylda soghymgha soyghan jylqy, siyrdyng jilinshigindegi sinirlerin úzynyna pyshaq tiygizbey sýiekten sylytyp alyp múqiyat keptiredi. Tisi barynda Mәnura әjey taramysty ózi shiratatyn. Tisi ketkeli Zyliqagha ýiretken. Kepken sinirdi qaynaghan qara shay býrkip syrmaqtyng arasyna tyghyp qoyyp jibitedi. Ylbyrap jibip ketken kebe qúrghaq bolyp júmsaghan shaghynda sinirdi aghash toqpaqpen aghash janghyryqqa salyp asa qatty emes aqyryn-aqyryn dopsylap úryptoqpaqtap júmsartady. Júmsaghan sinirdi tarap-tarap keleptep shoqtap qoyady. Arnauly uaqyt bólinip taralghan sinir taramysty tisimen tistep artyq auasyn sydyryp alyp tastaydy. Tarmysty shiratarda alghash eki talyn basyn aiqastyryp sol qolymen ústap otyryp ong qolymen jymdastyryp shiratady. Taramysty bir bastap alghan song kóbine qúlash jarymgha deyin úzaghynan shiratady. Siyrdyng siniri júmsaq taramys shiratugha ýlpildep tartylyp jymdasyp shiratylady. Taramyspen etik, kebis, saba, kón qap torsyqtardy tigedi. Ol óte berik jip sanalady.

Etik tigu

Erterekte etikti audarma bas bolghyzyp tikken. Úzyn shiratylghan taramystyng eki jaq úshyn birdey úshtap alyp juantyq iynege sabaqtaydy. Syzdyq qabattasqan júlyghyn biriktirip ótkir bizdi shanshyp qayta bizdi suyryp alyp ornyna eki jaghynan aiqastyryp taramys sabaqtaghan iyneni ótkizip tigedi. Taramysty úzyn shiratu sebebi etikting júlyghynyng eki jaghynan birdey aiqastyryp tikkende ýzilissiz jetu qajet.  Etik tikkende úzyn shiratylghan jaramysty berik bolu ýshin etikshi qúlashtap qatty tartady. «Etikshiden qúlash qash» degen maqal osydan payda bolghan. Taramyspen etik, saba, torsyq, oayyl-túrman qap siyqty ómirge qajetti jabdyqtardy tigedi. Taramys osylay jasalyp, paydalanylady.

Aghash ydystar

Qazaq halqy ejelden aghashtan týiin týigen halyq. Kóbine aghashtan oiyp ydys jasaydy. Terekten, basqa da ýilesetin aghashtan kesip alyp jastay júmsaq aghashty mólsherimen kesip ólshep alady. Sodan keyin asyqpay-aptyqpay jasaytyn ydys-ayaqtyng formasyn shygharady. Ol ýshin temir, shot, ynghuyr, teskish, keskish, týrpi, ara, balta, balgha tәrizdes saymandary bәri de say. Iske kirisedi.  Aghashtan et jasaytyn tabaq dóngelek. Astau sopaqsha, qymyz qúyatyn tegesh, qos býiirli ojau syrly tegeshuke ýilesken syrly ayaq, tostaghan, qalaq, qalaqsha, mal jayghaghanda qoryqtyq jasaytyq saptyayaq, mal suaratyn shelek, keli-kelsap, shaygeli, týigish, itayaq, mal suaratyn naua, jýkayaq, qayqybas tósek, jay tósek, shay taqtay oryndyq bәri aghashtan ekeni aitpasada týsinikti.

Túrmysta qajetti zattar

Ýy tireytin baqan, ashabaqan, adalbaqan, qashaghan jylqyny ústaytyn qúryq, týnlikke tireyting syryq. Bie baudyng qoy qosaghynyn, qozy kógenning jelilerine bәrine eki jaghyna qaghatyn qazyqtardyng bәri qayyng aghashynan alyp keptirse temirdey qatyp qalady. Ol qazyqtardy úryp qaghugha da qayyng aghashynan shoqpar jasap qoyady. Tese, kýrek, ketpen, balta, balgha, úrshyq bәrining saby da aghashtan. Týiening múryndyghy, ún oqtaulap júqartatyn oqtau, týiening jýk artqan arqanyn beriktep búraytyn búrauda aghashtan, kórikting de asty, ýsti, moyny aghashtan. Er, ashamay, esik, ergenshek, ýy aghash bәri aghashtan.

Óner aspaptary

Án-kýy óner aspaptarynyng nebir týrleri aghashtan jasalghan. Dombyra, qobyz, jetigen, syrnay, sybyzghy, pianino (kýy sandyq), baraban, dabyl degendey, bәri-bәri sheberlerding tuyndysy. «Sheberding qoly ortaq» keybir sheberlerding jasaghan aspaptaryn halqymyz týgeldey iygiligine jaratady.

Shy tartu

Tamyz aiynyng ortasyna qaray at jetetin jerdegi auyl әielderi týiesin qomdap, azyghyn qamdap shy tartugha attanatyn. Búl kezde shy kemeline kelip, buyny qatyp, әbden ósip, jetilgen shaghy. Shy әr ónirde kezdese bermeytin siyrek ósetin ósimdik. Ol júmsaq qúmdy, qúnarly, dymdy oipat jerlerde, ózen-kólge juyq jiyekterde qanattas aumaqtarynda ósedi. El jaylaudan kóshpey mal ayaghy baspay, shiyge mal ayaghy tiymey túrghanda baryp әrkim óz qalauynsha, shamasyna qaray shy tartuy lәzim. Shiydi әielder qarmauly azamattar birigip tartady. Ynghayy kelse belge, bilekke orap tartady. Sol ornynda shiyding týbining qaraqúsynyng syrtyndaghy kóp qabattaryn týsirip basynyng shashaghyn kertip jenildetip qúshaq tolatynday tobyn qapqa kiygizip jippen tanyp týiege tendep alyp ketedi. Kele qabyghyn arshyp, kólenkege jayyp  kerptiredi. Osylay tartyp alghan shiydi ary qaray qajetine jaratady.

Aqshiy

Qazaq halqynyng kóshpeli ómirinde shy óte manyzdy oryn alady. Shiyding qay týri de kiyiz ýiding keregesi men tuyrlyq arasynan ústalady. Ol jylylyqqa septigin tiygizedi. Ári kiyizding syrtynan keregening kózderining taby bunaq-bunaq  kórinip túrmauy kerek. Ýiding ishki jaghynanda orauly shiyler әsem, kórkem kórinip ýiding sәnin keltiredi. Aqshy oraghan shiyge jalghas ústalady. Shiydi barlyq әielder orap, sәndep toqy bermeydi. Óitkeni keybir әielder shiydi sәndep oray almaydy. Endi bireuer shiydi oraytyn, kórkemdeytin týrli-týsti boyau, jýn, týrli jipter dayyndap alugha dәti jetpeydi. Sondyqtan aqshiydi kiyiz ýiding ainalasyna jetkendey mólsherde toqyp alady da ýige ústay beredi. Aqshiydi auqatty adamdar kiyiz basugha arnauly bir mólshermen tórt qanat toqidy. Úzyndyghy tórt kezden bolsa aiqastyryp  kóktegende segiz  kez bolady. Bir shiyding biyiktigi bir kezeki qarystan bolady. Ony ara-túra kerege syrtyna ústaymyz ba degen-di de oilastyryp toqidy.

Kilemshe

Tartylghan shiydi arshyp tazalaghan song eng irisin irebdeldep alyp sәndep oraydy. Shiydi neshe týrmen týrlendirip oraugha bolady. Ýige ústaytyn shiydi kóbinde ýsh týrli oraumen órnekteydi. Eng shymy «kilemshe» jәne «bәshike» sharshy mýiizde salady. Shiyding sәndi orauy «kilemshe» atalady. Aq, qara, qyzyl-jasyl, sary, kýlgin-qonyr ónderdi sәikestendirip boyaumen boyap jýndi týtip, yspalap alyp oraghan. Qazir týrli-týsti dayyn jiptermen oraydy. Shiyge salatyn órnekti әueli aq mata ne aq qaghazgha syzyp alyp soghan әr shiydi salyp ólshep otyryp oraydy. Kilemshe órnek eki sharshyny qatar keltirip әr órnekti túspa-tús sәikestendirip jarastyryp týrleydi. Ár órnekting dәldigin kórip otyru ýshin shiyding basynangh ayaghynan, ortasynan ýsh jerinen jippen tizip otyrady. Búl eki sharshy qatar kelgendikten  shiyding órnegi óte shym kórgen jan tanqalarlyqtay kórkem kórinedi.

«Shym orauly bolmasa shiyding sәni kelmeydi» - degen maqal osy kilemshe órnekti shym oralghan shiyge qaratylyp aitylsa kerek. Oratylyp toqylyp bitken shiyding bas-ayaghyn eki jaghyn óndi púlmen kómkerip qoyady. Ol shiyding bas ayaghynyng synbasyna septigin tiygizedi. Ári kórkem kórinedi.

Bәshke

Bәshke orau әdettegidey shiydi irebdelinen tandap alady. Bәshkening sharshysy ýlkendeu keledi. Sharshysyn shiyding úzynana qaray jalghastyryp oraydy. Múnyng da aq matagha nemese aq qaghazgha taghy sharshy órnekpen sәikestirip otyrady. Aq-qara, qyzyl-jasyl, sary, kýlgin, qonyr óndi boyaugha boyalghan jýndi týtip yspalap alyp sonymen oraytyn. Al qazir týrli-týsti dayyn jip kerektenedi. Oranghan әr tal shiydi ýsh jerinen tizip otyrady. Oralyp toqylyp bitken shiyding bas-ayaghyn kómkerip qoyady. Bәshke órnekpen oralghan shy osylay jasalady.

Óreshe

Dyndy-qaldy shiylerdi tandap oraugha aqshy toqugha iriktep alghan song qalghan shiyden qúrt jayyp keptiretin úzyndyghy eki qúlashtay óreshe shy toqidy. Jerge tórt qazyq qaghyp qazyqtyng janyna jerge súghyndyryp tórt aghash ornatady. Eki jaghynan kóldeneng bilekting juandyghynday aghash baylap ýstine әr jerden shybyq qoyyp sonyng ýstine óreshe shiydi jazyp oghan qúrt-irimshik jayyp keptiredi. Astynanda, ýstinende jel esip jayylghan qúrt-irimshik tez kebedi. Óreshe shiydi osylay jasap paydalanady.

Shypta

Jan-jaghynan bir kezden mólsherlep tórt búrysh shy toqidy. Múny «shytpa» dep ataydy. Sýtti pisirip, qatyq airan qúiyp iritip taghy búrq etkizip qaynatady. Qazandy týsirip ýstine shyptany qoyyp aq irimshikti sýzedi. Shypta osylay jasalyp, osylay ómirde qajetke jaraydy.

Shy toqityn bau

Shy toqityn baudy shiyding ónine qaray әzirleydi. Aq shy toqityn bolsa aq jýnnen (aq jipten) eki tal jipti eki jeke iyirip, ekeuin qosyp qayta iyiredi. Oraghan shiydi toqityn baudy aq-qara jipterdi jeke iyirip odan song qosyp qara-ala bau iyiredi. Nemese qyzyl-sary jipterden de solay jasaydy. Qyzyl ala bau oraghan shiyge óng beredi.

Shy toqu

Shy toqityn arqalyq aghash baudy ilip qalmaytyn toqylghan shiyding jerge týsuine bóget bolmaytyn syrtqy qabyghy jylmaghaylap arshylghan mayda bútaqsyz, júmyr, jinishke, bilektey, syndarday syptyghyr boluy shart. Búl arqadyq aghashtyng bir jaq úshyn uyqqa tirelgen ashanyng adamnyng beluarynan tórt eli joghary keletin ashasynan, bir jaq úshyn keregening kóginen ilip baylap qozghalmastay bekitedi. Arqalyq aghashtyng arqasyna shy toqityn bau jyljymaytynday baudyng sanymen kertedi. Bau arqalyqqa asylyp túratyndyqtan sypyrylyp qalmas ýshin birynghay sopaqsha tas tandap alyp baudy soghan orap shalyp qoyady. Arqalyqtyng arqasyna toqityn shiydi birden-ekiden qatarlastyryp qoyyp baudy ary-beri aiqastyryp toqidy. Shy toqylghanda qysqarghan baudy jyljytyp otyrady. Shy toqylyp bitken song qalghan baudy esip keregege shiydi baylaytyn boldyrady.

Irge shiy

Qazaq halqy óz jaghdayyn ózi jasaghan el. Kiyiz ýiding barlyq jabdyghy kóshpeli elding ómirimen úshtasqan qúndylyq. Kiyiz ýige baylanysty qúndylyqtardyng bir salasy bolyp keletin aty kishileu bolghanymen aitarlyqtay mindet atqaratyn aituly shy «irge shi» atalady. Irge shiyding biyiktigi eki qarys, tórt eli. Úzyndyzghy kiyiz ýiding shenberine oray jasalady. Irge shiydi ýsh jerden bau keltirip toqidy. Syrtyn kiyiz ýiding dódegesining ongymen sәikes oilap shýberekpen nemese kiyizben qaptap toqidy. Ol jylylyqqa óte paydaly. Kiyiz ýiding tuyrlyghyn jauyn-shashynda sugha maltyqpau ýshin keregening eki kózin ashyq qaldyryp joghary ústaydy. Jel soghyp, anyzaq bolyp kýn suyta qalsa irge shiydi ústay qoyady. Kýn jylyna qalsa irge shiydi jinap alyp, irgeden samal estirip, serpilip rahattanady.

Tulaq

Qazaq ata-babalarymyz ejelden túrmysqa qajetti barlyq jabdyqtardy óz qoldarymen mal ónimderinen, tabighattan alyp jasap alatyndy. Ár auyl әdette jylda kýzem alyp, jýn sabap, kiyiz basady. Jýn sabau ýshin qatty, qalyn, tózimdi tulaq qajet bolghan. Ol ýshin soyghan siyrdyng әsirese ógizding terisin qan-sólin qyryp azdap túz jaghyp tónirek púshpaghyn alyp dóngelek formagha keltirip kólenkege tegis jerge jayyp keptirgen. Ádette ógizding terisi qalyq, qatty ýstine jýn sabauagha tózimdi bolady. Jýn sabaytyn tulaqty osylay dayyndap alady da jýn sabap bitken song kýtip saqtap qoyady.

Sabau

Sabau degenimiz jýndi tulaqtyng ýstine tógip qoyyp, sabap, dodalap týtuge kerektenetin aghashty «sabau» deydi. Búryn mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysatyn kóshpeli el ýshin әr ýide jýn sabap kiyiz basqan. Sondyqtan әr ýide keminde 16-dan 18 par sabau boluy qajet. Sabaudy qayyn, yrghay, tobylghylardyng bútalarynan juandyghy ortan qolday, úzyndyq mólsheri kez jarymday aghashty kesip alyp qol ústaytyn tórt eli sabynan basqa ón boyynyng qabyghyn arshyp kólenkege jayyp keptiredi. Jylda kýzem alyp jýn sabaugha jinalghan qyz-kelinshekterge ekiden taratyp berip, jýn sabap bolghan song jinap alyp buyp saqtap qoyady. Sabaudyng basy jarylsa jylda janalap otyrady.

Múryndyqbau

Shiyge jýn tartyp, su seuip býktep oraghanda shiyding kólemi jalpaq úzyndyghy úzyn bolghandyqtan býktep oraushylardyng yrqyna zorgha kónedi. Búl shy tartylghan jýnimen arqanmen tanyp ary-beri aunatqanda bir jaghyna qaray qúsyp ishki qabatynyng úshy syrtyna qaray shyghyp ketip kiyizding pysuyna kedergi keltiredi. Múnday jaghdaydy boldyrmau ýshin ýsh qabat esilgen, úzyndyghy ýsh qúlash arnauly jip dayyndap qoyady. Múny jýnmen birge shiyding shetine salyp, eki úshyn tartyp  shiyding shetinen shygharyp qoyyp oraydy. Jýn tartylghan shy oralyp tanylghanda әlgi jipti tanghan arqandy tartyp myqtap baylaydy. Múny «múryndyq bau» - dep ataydy. Myqty «múryndyq bau» oralghan shiyding qúsuyna ary-beri qozghaluyna jol bermeydi. Múryndyq bauy osylay mindet atqarady.

Kýzemdi alu

Jylda qyrkýiek aiynyng basynan bastap әr auylda kýzem alu bastalady. Ol ýshin qoydy ózen sugha aidap salyp toghytady. Búl qoydyng jýnin shuashynan aryltu tәsili. Qoy toghytylghan song jýni kebe salysymen qoydy qosaqtap qyrqu bastalady. Kýzem alu júmysy da ýlken nauqan. Kýzemdi әr auyl adamdary birigip alady. Býgin ana auyl – ýy qoyyn toghytsa ertenine qyryqtyqshylar sol auylgha jinalady. Onda qyrqym bastalghan ýy qoy soyyp, qol qusyryp, sary qymyzdy sapyryp, arqa-jarqa әzil, kýzem alu kishi-girim toy siyaqty ótedi. Qatar-qatar ýi-tórt kerme qosyq keredi. Bireuine qyzyl jýndi qoydy, bireuine aq, bireuine qara, bireuine alashúbar  jýndi qoylardy qosaqtaydy. Ár qyryqtyqshy bir-bir qosaqtan bastap shetinen әkelip jýn jiishynyng jyghyp bergen qoyyn ústaraday lypyldap túrghan ótkir qyryqtyghymen tórt ayaghy buuly qoydyng artqy sanynan bastap әp-sәtte qyrqyp shygha keledi. Qyrqylghan jýn taza boluy ýshin qoydyng astyna kenep, teri tóseledi. Jýn jiishylar ózining jinaghan jýnining ónine bir tal basqa jýn qosylmauyn qatang qadaghalaghan. Óitkeni aq kiyiz appaq, qara kiyiz qara boluy jýn qyrqymynan bastalady. Jýndi ónimen qaptap jinap qoyady. Kýzem alu әr auylda osylay ayaqtalady.

Jýn sabau

Qoy qyrqylyp kýzem alynyp bitken song auyl-ýi, qyz-kelinshekteri jýn sabaugha belsene bastaydy. Erte túryp tanertengi shayyn ishken son, ana ýiding kelinshegi shyqty ma? - dep bir-birine qaraylap jýrip qyz-kelinshekter bir mezette jýn sabaytyn ýige  sau etip kele qalady. Keledi de bizge ne deydi dep qarap túrmaydy. Jýn sabaytyn tulaqty әkelip ýiding ortasyna ornalastyryp tóniregine otyrghan adamdardyng tizesine jer batpaytynday syrmaq, mayauza, kórpeshe tóseydi. Buuly túrghan sabaudy sheship ózdi-ózderi eki-ekiden  alyp qoldarytyng túrghanda kiyizding betine tartatyn appaq jýnnen bir qúshaq alyp, tulaqtyng ýstine tastaydy da jan-jaghyna otyra qalyp,tarsyldatyp sabay jóneledi. Shuashynan arylghan tiri jýn ilezde appaq búlttay dodalanyp, shudalanyp aq mamyqtay jýn map-mayda bolyp týtelenip qalady. Týski asqa deyin kiyizding betine tartatynyn bitirip jeke-jeke ýlpildetip júmarlap jinap qoyady.

Týsten keyin kiyizding astyna tartatyn qyzyl jýn, alashúbar jýn jәne qara jýndi sabap (qara kiyiz basatyn) jeke-jeke sabap bitiredi. Búl ertengi júmystyng bastamasy.

Ejelgi enbek kýzem ap kiyiz basu,
Arqa-jarqa aralas didarlasu.
Jýnindi týgel sabap dodaladyn
Bersenshi zaryqtyrmay tulaq shashu, - dep әzildesken.

Jýn tartu

Kiyiz basugha arnayy toqylghan әrqaysysynyng úzyndyghy tórt kez, eni kez jarym bir mólsherli, tórt shiydi aiqastyryp kókteydi. Shiyge jýn  shabaqtaudyng daghdyly sheberi eresek  әiel shiyding ýstine shabaq jeydi dep shalalau sabap ala salghan alashúbar, qyzyl týsti bolatyn  kiyizding astyna arnalghan jýnderden qúshaq-qúshaq tastaydy. Shabaqshy әiel shiyding ýstine eki tizesin býgip jýginip otyryp alady. Úzyndyghy bir kez ghana jinishke arnauly  eki rghay sabaudy alyp shiyding ýstindegi jýndi shipyldatyp shabaqtay bastaydy.Birkelki shabaqtalghan jýnning ýstine aq mamyq jýndi tartatyn eki әiel kókteuli ýstine jýn shabaqtalghan shiyding basynan qatar otyryp jýn tartugha kirisedi. Sabauly jýnnen keleptep alyp ong qolymen jýndi tartyp, sol qolymen  basyp otyryp, aldynghy  tartylghan jýnning qúiryghyn bastyryp, ala qúiryq qaltyrmay tartugha daghdylanghan. Tartqan jýnning arasynda әlde qanday baran jýnning bәr taly ilespey tartyluy lәzim. Óitkeni aq kiyiz appaq, qara kiyiz qap-qara boluy qajet.

«Qatynnyng jamany qara ala kiyiz basady»- degen qatal sógis aitylady.

Kiyiz basu

Jýn tartylghan shiyding basyna esilgen arnauly ýsh qúlash «múryndyq bau»  jipti jәne eki sabaudy shúbata salyp shiydi býktep oraugha kirisedi.

Orarda shiydegi tartylghan jýnge ýlken qara qazandaghy qaynap túrghan ystyq sudan eki әiel eki shelekke su qúiyp alyp kelip jayylghan jýnning eki jaghynan eki ýlken shómishpen alyp sýzgi shómishting ýstinen qúiyp shasha sebedi. Su jerge aghyp ketpes ýshin eki-ýsh adam tez-tez oraydy.Oralghan jýn tartylghan shiydi arqan men shyrmalap qatty tartyp tanyp  baylaydy. Tanylghan kesken terektey shiiyding ýsh jerinen  ýsh arqannyng orta túsyn orap úshynan alty adam  tartyp eki jaqqa  kezek domalatady. Jaqyn ýige:

-«ýiindi qoy basty»,-dep aiqaylaydy. Olar shashu, qúrt-irimshik t.b. dәm alyp shyghady, kiyiz basushylar shashudy bólip jep ,kýlisip arqa-jarqa  bolyp qalady.Kiyiz shiray bastaghanda shiyden shygharyp astyna shy tósep, eki basy keletin jaqqa biyik qatty zat qoyyp, kiyizding basyn soghan tirep, júmsaq  qúrmen 5-6 jerden buyp sol qúrdan ústay 5-6 әiel bilekteydi.Basyn biyiktikke sýikete  aunatady ol basy jelinsin degeni 3-4 ret auystyryp buyp, bilekteydi.Kiyiz pysyp, shiraghan son  eki ret bos shiyrshyqtap bilekteydi. Boldy degende  býktep, buyp sudyng jaghasyna aparyp kiyizden aqqan su túnghansha su qúyady.Búl kiyizdi kirleu deydi.

Kiyiz pysyru

Kiyizdi basyp bolghan song jayyp keptirip bir aptadan song auyl әielderi qayta jinalyp ýlken qara qazangha su qaynatyp alady. Kepken kiyizdi jayyp qoyyp ystyq sudan әjepteuir seuip shiyrshyqtap oraydy. Otyrghan adamnyng sanyna qaray shiyrshyqtalghan kiyizdi qúrmen shalyp buyp qatar otyrghandar buylghan jipten ústap aunatyp bilekteydi. Ýsh-tórt qayta ishin syrtqa auystyryp qayta-qayta shiyrshyqtap buyp bilekteydi. Kiyiz shirap qayraqtay bolyp qatayady. Múny «kiyiz pysru» - deydi. Kiyiz osylay dayyn bolady.

Tekemet basu

Qazaq halqy «tekemet basu» ýshin de qoydyng kýzem tiri jýninen auyl әielderi jinalyp tulaqqa salyp sabaydy. Jýn aq týtek bolyp sharby búlttay shudalanyp map-mayda týtilgen son, shetin aiqastyryp kóktegen shiyge salyp shabaqtaydy. Shabaqtalghan jýnning betine arnauly taldyrmalap oiyp qoyghan oydy ara-arasyn tolyqtyryp jýn tartady. Jýn tartylghan shiydi orarda qazanda qaynap túrghan sudan shelektep әkelip eki әiel eki jaghynan shómishpen sebezgilep su shashady. Oralghan shiydi arqanmen shandyp qatty buady. Tanylghan shiyding ýsh jerinen ýy arqannyng ortasyn orap 6 úshyn 6 adam ústap eki jaqqa kezek-kezek domalatady. Kiyiz pysyp bilekteuge jaraghan song shiyden shygharyp qolmen bilekteydi. Kiyiz әbden shiraghan song býktep sudyng jaghasyna aparyp qúiylghan su túnyp móldiregenshe kiyizge su qúiyp kirleydi. 4-5 tәulik jayyp qoyyp, kepken song әielder qayta jinalyp, su qaynatyp seuip, qayta bilekteydi. Kiyiz naghyz babyna kelip qatayghan song jayyp keptiredi. Tekemetti de osylay pysyrady. Tekemetti kepkennen song bas-ayaghyn qiyp tenep, tegistep ynghaygha keltirip qoyady. Tekemet osylay jasalady. Ýige qonaq kelgende tósek ornyna qoldanylatyn kólemdi, әri qalyng tósenish osy tekemet.

Búl da qazaq halqynyng bardy baghalap qolmen jasap koldana bilgendigining bir kórinisi.

Úrshyq

Dóngelek qús tastyng ortasyn tesip jәne qayyng aghashtyn  ýiilinen (bezinen) dóngelek formagha keltirip ortasyn tesedi.Jylqynyng ortan jiligining shoqpar basynan da opyryp alyp qorghasynnan maygha qaynatyp eritip te ortasyna sap bolatyn aghashty  shanshyp túrypólsheuli dóngelek zatqa qúiyp ta úrshyqtyng bastaryn jasaydy. Juandyghy shynashyq qolday  rghay. Tobylghy, sekseuil úshqat qayyng aghashtarynyng bútaghyn kesip alady.Úzyndyghy eki qarys, tórt eli nemese eki qarys, bir sýiem aghashty arshyp keptiredi. Úrshyqty kepken sapqa saptaydy. Úrshyqtang basqy jaghynan  tórt eli shygharghan  úshyn tesip, múryndyq  aghash ne temir ótkizedi. Búl úrshyqqa maqta jipte, jýn jip te iyiruge bolady.

Shuda jip iyiru

Qos órkeshti týieni kýzegen son  tamaq shudasynan, ne órkesh shudasynan maydalap týtip, yspalap qolgha ilinetindey ilmek shygharyp, shoqparday shýike jasaydy. Shýikening ilgegin sol qolynyng ortan qolyna ilip týtilgen mayda jýndi jinishkertip  úrshyqtyng múryndyghyna oraydy. Ong qolymen úrshyqty ong jambasyna  salyp, ózine qaray  tartyp iyiriedi. Qoldaghy shýike tasuylghansha  iyirip úrshyqtyng saby jaghyna oray qoyady. Shýike tausylghan song jipti eki qabataghyny da bir kez bolatynday  mólsherlep sol qolynyng sausaghyna orap ýzip alyp, shumaq jip jasaydy.Búdan birneshe shumaq jip shyghady. Onymen syrmaq, ýy jabdyghy barlyghyn tige beredi.

Jiyek iyiru

Qoydyng jaz shygha qyrqylghan óli jýninen jabaghy emes shudalanghan biyazy jýnnen tandap alady. Ony әbden juyp shuashynan aryltyp, qystayghy jabysqan shóp-shalannan tazartady. Jýn kepken song maydalap týtedi. Jýnnen sýiemdey júmyrlap búrap  ony býktep bir jaghynan  túiyqtap, sol  júmyrlanghan jýnge týtken jýndi yspalap orap, shoqparday shýike jasaydy. Shýikening ortasyndaghy qolgha iluge qolaylap qoyghan ilmekti sol qoldyng ortanghy sausaghyna iledi. Shýikening úshyn tarqatyp  úrshyqtyng búdasyna orap, úrshyqty ong jambasqa salyp, onqay iyirgende úrshyqty algha qaray zyryldatyp, solaqay iyirgende  úrshyqty artqa qaray zyryldatady. Úrshyqty algha qaray iyrigende  ong qay, artqa qaray iyirgende solaqay jiyek blyp shyghady. Tek bir tal jiyekti ýsh mәrte iyirgende ghana, óndi tanday jiyek bolyp ýilesedi. Jipti jiyekti iyirip keleptep qoyyp qyzyl-jasyl, qyzyl, sary, kýlgin degendey qajetke qaray әrtýrli boyaugha boyaydy. Ejelgi uaqta boyau kóp kezikpegende raughashtyng (sary aghash) dep te ataydy tamyryn qazyp alyp, arshyp keptirip. Kepken song týiip qaynatyp sýzip basytqysyna ashutas salyp, soghan boyaghan. Oiystyrghan syrmaq jasau ýshin jiyekti osylay dayyndaydy. Jiyek basatyn jipti týienin  tamaq, órkesh shudasynan shumaq-shumaq iyirip qoyady.

Qara ala syrmaq oiy

Aq qara kiyizdi bettestirip kóktep qara kiyiz jaghynan bormen ne sabynmen, aq sary týsti boyau qaryndashtarymen әr mýiizin ten, anyq syzyp alady. Ótkir pyshaqpen, iykemdi ortasha ótkir qayshymen eki qabat kiyizdi qatar ústap bir qalyptan audarmay oyady. Oighanda janaghy býtin kiyiz bytyqy-shytyqy bolyp qoparylghan, qopsyghan bir retsiz ýiilgen  qiqymgha úqsap qalady. Oighan  oishy múqiyat qarap, әr oighan mýiizin ózining ornyna qoyyp  kókteydi. Oighan mýiizdi aqtyng ornyna qara kiyizdi, qara kiyizding ornyna  aq kiyizdi salyp taptadayghyp kókteydi.

Qara ala syrmaqty jasau

Ábden kóktep alghan song qalta týsirmey, irku qaltyrmay jórmeu qajet. Eki qabat kiyizdi oighanda eki  syrmaqtyng beti shyghady. Ekeuinde jórmep bolghan  song qalyng shiraq kiyiz ben  astarlap kókteydi.Sodan song jiyek basady. Jiyek bir ónnen jetui par óndi  bolady. Jiyek basylyp bitken song aq óndi ongha aq, qara óndi ongha qara salu jip salyp, jipting ónimen jiyighyp syridy. Tóniregine tórt-tórt sausaq pen ilip bir jaq  qoldaghy sary, bir jaq qoldaghy qyzyl jip bolady.Bir adam qolyndaghy jipti ary-beri ótkizip shalady.Bir adam syrmaqtyn  shetine japsyryp tigedi.Sonda tanday týsip syrmaqtyn  kórkemdigin, arttyrady.Qaraala syrmaq kiyizden osylay jasalady.

Qara ala syrmaqtyng mólsheri

Qaraala syrmaqtyng eng ýlkeni úzyndyghy ýsh kez, kóldeneni kez jarymnan eki kez bolady. Múnday syrmaq shamaly bay, biy-tórelerding ýiinde 20-30-gha deyin bolady. Ýlken qaraala syrmaq ýiding kórki. Tór aldyna salghanda ýige kórkem sәn bergen jәne qonaq qonghanda astyna tósektik bolghan. Ýlken qaraala syrmaqtyn  eng aituly qajettiligi, el kóshkende  týiege artqan jýkting ýstine japqan .Ol qazaq kóshinin  ereksheligin  aiqyndap kóshting sәn-sәuletin arttyrghan. Taghy bir erekshe qajettiligi qyz úzatqanda 9-dan jasaghan jasaudyng bas toghyzy  osy ýlken qaraala  syrmaq. Tósek boyymen jasap tósekting aldyna salady. Bir kisige arnap jan-jaghy bir kezden tórt búrysh jasalghan týrin bir kisilik  mayauza deydi. Osyghan úqsas dóngelek týri de bolady. Erding ýstine arnap yqshamdap jasaydy. Al, qazyr zaman talabyna say oiystyrghan qaraala syrmaqty divannyng kólemimen jasap ýstine salyp jýr. Bir kisilik oryndyqtyng ýstine de ólshep tigedi. Mashinanyng kisi otyratyn oryndyqtaryna say jasaydy. Áyteu oiystyrghan kiyiz syrmaq  zamana talabynan qalar emes. Qazaq barda jasay bermek.

Terini iyleu tәsili

Maldy soyghan song qanyn, sólin, shuashyn aryltyp juyp tazalap alady. Aldymen terige ashy jaghyp sorlaydy.  Sor singen song qyrghymen qyryp tastaydy. Kýn ysyp túrghanda sabagha pisilgen irkitten bir ton shyghatyn 6-7 terini qatarlastyryp jayyp qoyyp soghan jaghalay jaghady. Irkit terige әbden singenshe terini kýn jalap ketpeu ýshin iydi irkitti kebersingen terining jeri bolsa soghan jetkize jaghyp qayta-qayta irkitti qúiyp qolmen sipap siniredi. Iy әdben singen song bir apta býktep qoyyp iydi әbden terining boyyna siniredi. Teri iyde jatqanda mal basyp ketuden saqtaydy. Óitkeni iydegi teri ón boyy balqyghan bos bolady. Eger mal basyp ketse keyin iylengende sol jeri oiylyp týsip qalady. Iy terining boyyna singen song terini jayyp tobarsytyp ýy tireytin úzyn baqannyng ashasyna berik jip baylap terining púshpaghynan myqtap baylap terining púshpaghynan myqtap baylap iyleytin adam janalaydy. Odan song iyrekteydi. Odan song qalghan-qútqan jalbyraghan zat bolsa qyrghymen qyrady. Jaqsy ii bolghan teri appaq bolyp ton tiguge dayyn bolady.

Terining týrleri

Qys aiynda soghymgha soyghan qoydyng terisi óni qalyn, jýni jetilgen teri. Jazghytúrym óli jýndi qyryqqan song 2-3 aidan keyin soyghan qoydyng terisi týleme teri dep atalady. Óni әli qalyndamaghan júqa, jenil bolady. Tua sap ólgen qozynyng óni júqa, jýni qysqa búira bolady. 3-4 ay bolghan qozynyng terisi jýni ósinki «kórpeldes» jýndi teri atalady. 7-8 ay bolghan qozynyng terisi jýni ósip jetilgen senseng jýndi qozynyng terisi atalady. Búl terilerding bәrine de airan irkitten iy jaghyp iyleydi. Ekshkining terisi óni qalyng iylegende qiyndyq tughyzady. Annyng terileri qasqyr, qarsaq, taueshki terisinde solay iyleydi. Týlkining terisine soya salyp túz jaghyp sonynda ony qyryp tobarsytyp airan jaghyp, ne sýt býrkip iyleydi. Týlkining terisin biteu soyady. Jýnining altyn óndes taldaryn syndyrmau ýshin biteu jerining ishine eki aghash súghyp aiqastyryp ary-beri kerip jýnine kýsh týsirmey iyleydi.

Janay iyrek

«Angha shyqpas anshy da saylamay qaru saymanyn»  demekshi qanday bir nәrse jasau ýshin aldymen ony jasaytyn qúral, saymany dayyn boluy lәzim. Teri iyleu ýshin iy jaqqan terini iykemge keltiretin «janay» atalatyn aituly aspap qajet. Basy iymek tik búryshty bir kezdey úzyn aghashtyng iyilip kelgen jerine ústaranyng jýzindey ótkir bir qarys temir keltirip myqty bekitedi. Aghashtyng songhy úshyn tesip ayaq etigimen siyatyn berik qayys ótkizedi. Janay osylay jasalady. Teri iyleytin adam qayystan ayaghyn osylay ótkizip baqannyng basyna baylap tómen salbyrap túrghan terini bir qolymen ústap janaymen qyryp terini qúrys-tyrysynan tazalap, maydalap, óndep shyghady. Sodan song bir kezdey qatqan qayyng aghashtan ýsh eli qalyndyqtaghy aghashtyng bir qyryn júqalap keptirip iyrek shygharady. Búl «iyrek» atalady. Álgi terini sol iyrekpen iyrekteydi. Eng sonynda qalghan-qútqan jalbyr japyraq bolsa temir qyrghymen óndeydi.

(Jalghasy bar)

Egeuhan Múqamәdiqyzy

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