Jeksenbi, 3 Nauryz 2024
Janalyqtar 5707 0 pikir 31 Nauryz, 2011 saghat 06:53

Sayan Aqmolda. Qazaqtyng janyn terbegen....

Qazir qobyzdy narqobyz jәne qylqobyz dep ekige bólip jýrmiz.
Qylqobyz - býginde júrtshylyqqa әbden kóztanys bolghan, kýy tartugha arnalghan túrqy shaghyn aspap. Al narqobyzdyng shanaghy ýlken. Sol ýlken shanaqtyng ishine aina qondyrylghan, basyna jezden, iә temirden soghylghan shyldyrmaqtar ilingen, ýni kýrkiregen zor, juan bolyp keledi. Derekterge sýiensek, narqobyzdy, negizinen, baqsylar shalghan siyaqty. Baqsy saryny atalatyn tútas bir janr ghasyrlar boyy osy narqobyzben oryndalyp kelgen.

Qazir qobyzdy narqobyz jәne qylqobyz dep ekige bólip jýrmiz.
Qylqobyz - býginde júrtshylyqqa әbden kóztanys bolghan, kýy tartugha arnalghan túrqy shaghyn aspap. Al narqobyzdyng shanaghy ýlken. Sol ýlken shanaqtyng ishine aina qondyrylghan, basyna jezden, iә temirden soghylghan shyldyrmaqtar ilingen, ýni kýrkiregen zor, juan bolyp keledi. Derekterge sýiensek, narqobyzdy, negizinen, baqsylar shalghan siyaqty. Baqsy saryny atalatyn tútas bir janr ghasyrlar boyy osy narqobyzben oryndalyp kelgen.

Al pendening jan syryn - týpsiz qorqynyshyn, berik senimin, jalghyzsyraghan qamyryghyn, atoylaghan serpinin, ómir men ólim arasyndaghy túnghiyqqa shomghan tebirenisin pash etetin qobyz kýii óz mýmkindigining shyrqau biyigine, joghary professionaldyq dengeyine qylqobyz arqyly jetken edi. Búl arada atap aitar bir mәsele - bizge emis esimderi ghana jetken kónelikti qobyzshylardyng kóbi abyz, jyrau, baqsy bolghandyghy. Attary qazaq eposyna, anyzdaryna arqau bolghan Sypyra, Ketbúghalardyng jyrau ekendigin, Qoylybay, Kerbúgha, Qaraqoja, Shýmen, Baubek, Jamansart, Tilekterding abyz bolghandaryn shamalaymyz. Qazaqqa Qorqyt kýileri atalatyn qúpiyaly, syrly sikldy mirastaghan Soqyr Nyshan - Nyshan baqsynyng óneri qobyzben kýy tartu salasyndaghy songhy dәstýr boldy. Biraq, qobyz kýii shynymen týrlengen uaqyt, "altyn ghasyr"- XIX gh. edi. Búl kezende Hanqoja, Erden, Dýken, arqaly, úly kýishi Yqylas qana qobyz kýiin mýlde jana tarapqa baghyttap, ólmes, óshpes múra qaldyryp ketken edi. Yqylas әuletin qazaq arasynda jeti atasynan qobyzshylar dep ataydy.
Qorqyt әuenin, ejelgi baqsylar sarynyn jerine jetkize mengergen Yqylastyng qobyzy janasha tynys ashty, kýnirengen dauysy keudesinen keremet syrly kýige ainalyp aqtaryldy.
Yqylastyng әigili shәkirtteri degende, jadymyzgha bel balasy Týsipbek, sonday-aq Ábikey, Sýgir kýishiler oralady. Osy kýishilerden tikeley dәris alghan Jappas Qalambaev pen Dәulet Myqtybaev - Yqylas ónernamasyn nebir auyr ótkelekten aman alyp ótip, keler úrpaqqa tabystaghan abzal jan, iri qobyzshylar.
Aynalyp ótuge, aitpasqa bolmaytyn taghy bir sóz - qobyzdyn, qobyz kýilerining taghdyry haqynda. Qobyz әueli әsire dindarlar tarapynan, keyin, Oktyabri tónkerisinen song qyzyl ókimet tarapynan "jyn shaqyratyn baqsy qúraly" retinde aiyptalyp, kóp qudalandy. Joyylyp kete jazdap baryp, sherli kóshpendining tiri ruhy ispettenip, qayta oraldy. Biraq kóp qazyna - sanyn eshkim de sanap bolmas - bir zamanghy úlan ghayyrdyng bir ghana júrnaghy, tenizding tamshysy desek kerek-ti. Sonyng ózi - dәtke quat, kónilge medeu.
Qazaq dәstýrli muzykasyn ghasyrlar bәigesinen ozdyrghan taghy bir syrly aspap - sybyzghy. Tamyljyp, syzyltyp, uildep qyr kóshpendilerining sansyz buyn, úrpaghynyng janyn terbegen qazaq sybyzghysy adam balasy oilap tapqan ýrmeli aspaptardyng ishindegi ejelgilerding jәne erekshe әuezdilerding qatarynan oryn alsa kerek. Sybyzghynyng dәstýrli ýlgisi quray ósimdiginen jasalady, aspapty jasaugha qara quray, ógiz quray, qyrly quray týrleri paydalanylghan. Sybyzghyshylar sybyzghyny quraydan ózderi jasap alyp tartqan jәne ony jasau әdis-tәsilderinde әrbir ónerpazdyng ózindik ólshemi, óz qúpiyasy bolghan. Babymen jasalghan sybyzghynyng syrtynan jana soyylghan mal óneshining aq shelimen nemese jas tólding ash ishegimen qaptaydy. Múnday sybyzghynyng ýni taza, ystyq-suyqtan ainymaydy jәne úzaq uaqytqa deyin shydaytyn bolady. Quray sybyzghyny tartqanda oryndaushylar quraydyng ózegin sumen býrkip otyrady eken. Sebebi, quraydyng ishi keuip, qansyp ketuine baylanysty dybystyng birkelki shyghuyna, boyauyna kedergi jasaydy. Quraydan jasalghan sybyzghynyng dybysy әuezdi, júmsaq, tabighy shyghady. Sonday-aq sybyzghynyng quraydan basqa da aghashtan jәne jezden jasalghan týrleri bolady.
Sybyzghy, bir qaraghanda, qarapayym aspap bolyp kóringenimen, ýrmeli aspaptardyng ishinde dybys shygharuy jaghynan kýrdeliligimen erekshelenedi. Sybyzghyda mýshtik bolmaydy, ol - tiske qoyylyp tartylatyn aspap. Sonday-aq dәstýrli sybyzghyshylar kýy tartu barysynda ýsh týrli dybysty ýndestirip otyrady eken. Búl dybystardy kәnigi tyndaushylar sybyzghynyng ýn-dybysy, auyz janghyryghy, sybyzghyshy kómeyining dauysy dep ajyratady. Ýrmeli aspaptargha kómey dauysyn qosyp oryndaushylyq Sibir halyqtarynyng qos dauysty әn - jyr salu dәstýrine jaqyn bolyp keledi. Búl ýrdis qazaqtyng sybyzghyshylyq dәstýrinde manyzdy oryn alghan. Osy tәsildi sybyzghyda paydalanghanda kómey dauysy kýiding negizgi tonyn sozyp ústap túrady, al sybyzghynyng ýni bolsa, kýiding әuenin jýrgizip otyrady.
Sybyzghyshylyq dәstýr respublikamyzdaghy Shyghys Qazaqstan jәne Batys Qazaqstan ónirlerinde oryndaushylyq erekshelikterine qaray keng taralghan.
Shyghys Qazaqstan sybyzghyshylyq dәstýri degende, jer betindegi әldeneshe kóne órkeniyetke altyn besik bolghan, alyp Altay taularynyng (A.Okladnikov) bauyrynda qanat jayghan elding keyin zaman yghymen bir kezdegi ataqonys, qazirgi Qytay, Múnghyliya jerine eki bólinip, qonys audaruy sebepti, atalmysh sybyzghyshylyq dәstýr qazir Qazaqstanmen qatar sol elderde de saqtalyp otyr. Altay ónirindegi sybyzghyshylar arasynda sybyzghy tartysyp, kýy jarystyru, óner synasu salty XVII ghasyrda belgili bolghandyghy jayly derekter bar. Jәne osy bir oqshau ýrdis bertinge, XX ghasyrdyng 50-shi jyldaryna deyin jalghasyp kelgendigi, oghan Tileke men Janteli, Sherubay men Músa, Ospanghaly men Shanaqtyng sayystary aighaq bolatyndyghy anyq.
Shyghysta keng taraghan sybyzghylar kóbinese ýsh-tórt oiyqty bolyp jasalady, dybystyq obertondargha bay, dybys qatarlary majorly lad bolyp keledi. Kýilerining sazy әn tektes, birneshe әuenning qaytalanyluynan qalyptasqan. Búl ónir kýilerining iri oryndaushy, jetkizushileri - Kәlek Qúmaqayúly, Shanaq Aughanbaev, Beyilhan Qaliaqparúly, Qúsman Maqmyrza, Talghat Múqyshev syndy sybyzghyshylar.
Batys Qazaqstan sybyzghyshylyq dәstýrining kórnekti ókilderining biri - sybyzghyshy Sarmalay. Sarmalay kýilerin bizge jetkizgen sybyzghyshy Ysqaq Uәliyev edi. Onyng oryndauyndaghy Sarmalaydyng birshene kýilerin ghalym Ahmet Júbanov notagha týsirip, jaryqqa shyghardy. Búl ónirding taghy bir ókili Mәkәr Súltanghaliyevting kýileri ónertanushy Bolat Sarybaevtyng oryndaluynda jetti. Batys Qazaqstan ónirining sybyzghy kýilerining әueni bayau bolyp keledi, diapozonnyng kendigi, registrlyq mýmkindikterdi meyilinshe paydalanghany jәne dybys qatary minorly lad sybyzghysyna oryndaluymen erekshelenedi.
Keng taraghan, býkilhalyqtyq sipat alghan muzykalyq aspaptar - qobyz, dombyra, sybyzghydan basqa jetigen, shanqobyz sazsyrnay, adyrna, sherter siyaqty kóne aspaptar siyrek bolsa da, býginde halyq arasynda taratylyp jýr. A.Levshiyn, A.Alektorov, A.Eyhgorn, S.Rybakov, Sh.Uәliha-nov, Á.Marghúlan, A.Júbanov syndy zertteushiler kóne saz aspaptary turaly qúndy derekter jazyp qaldyrdy. Ataqty aspap tanushy, ghalym Bolat Sarybaev 1960 jyldardan bastap qazaqtyng úmyt bolghan kóne saz aspaptaryn qaytadan qalpyna keltiru isin qolgha alyp, bagha jetkisiz enbekter jasady.
Býginde halqymyzdyng kóne saz aspaptary janasha týrlenip, dәstýrli muzykadan óz ornyn aldy.

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Shanqobyz - ýrmeli-tilsheli aspap. Aspap tútastay temirden jasalynyp, eki úshy sýiirlenedi. Ortasynda jinishke tilshesi bar, syrt pishini liragha úqsaghan. Ortasyna bekitilgen tilshesin sausaqpen shalyp terbeliske keltirip tartady. Shanqobyzdyng júqa aghashtan jasalghan kóne ýlgisi erteden belgili. Shanqobyzdy kóbine qyz-kelinshekter tartqan. Búl aspap týrki halyqtarynda, әsirese Altay tobyna jatatyn týrkilerde taraghan.
Sazsyrnay - X ghasyrdan beri belgili aspap. Sazsyranaydyng negizgi núsqasy 1970 jyly kóne Otyrar qalasynyng eski júrtynan tabyldy. Aspap saz balshyqtan kýidirilip jasalghan, bes dybys oiyghy bar.
Adyrna - sadaq pishindi bolady. Jebe keletin orta túsyna deyin shanaq ornatylady. Shanaqtyng eki betine teri kerilip salynady. Ýstingi bólshekterine ishekter taghylady. Ishekterding eki jaghynan sausaqpen ilip tartu arqyly әuen, sazdar oryndalady.
Jetigen - kóne ishekti aspaptardyng biri. Aspaptyng kóne týrin jasaghanda shaghyn taqtaydyng astyn astausha etip oiyp, betine jeti qyl ishek taqqan. Ár ishekting astynda bir-birden asyq qoyylghan. Asyq tiyekting mindetin atqaryp, kýige keltirgende, asyqty әri-beri jyljytyp otyrghan.
Sherter - ýsh ishekti shertpeli aspap. Shanaghy jalpaq tik búryshty etip jasalady. Bet qaqpaghynyng jarty bóligi terimen kerilip, qalghan bóligi qaraghay qaqpaqpen jabylady. Moyyny qysqa, juandau bolyp keledi.

Sayan AQMOLDA,
qobyzshy, zertteushi,
Talghat MÚQYShEV,
sybyzghyshy, zertteushi

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