Senbi, 23 Qantar 2021
Bilgenge marjan 6811 44 pikir 26 Jeltoqsan, 2017 saghat 09:52

Ókiresh Shal kim?

Atadan balagha auyzeki qalyp kele jatqan shejireler bir izdi bola bermeydi. Ala-qúlalyq, janylys jii kezdesedi. Sondyqtan da shejirelerdi ondy- soldy paydalanyp, olardy naqtyly fakti retinde aldygha tartu asa dúrys emes siyaqty. Al olardyng ishindegi jeke túlghalar jayly sóz basqa. Úly babalarymyzdy, asa iri ru basylaryn anyzdan arshyp alyp, tarihy derekter arqyly ghylymy týrde zertteu asa qajet. Sebebi, aldyda ótken atalarymyzdyng ómir joly, әr babanyng tarihy, týptep kelgende, qazaq tarihynyng bir-bir paraghy. Osy paraqtardy týgendesek qazaq halqynyng tarihy tolygha týsedi.

Sol atalarymyzdyng biri, biregeyi – Nayman Ókiresh Shal. Shejirelerding әrtýrliligine oray «Ókiresh Shal»  keyde – Toqpan degen kisining laqaby. Keyde, Toqpan-Ókiresh Shaldyng úly. Óz zamanynda Ókiresh Shaldy – «Aqmyrza», «Aqsofy» dep te atapty. Qalay dep atasa da sol shejiredegi «Ókiresh Shal» qazirgi ýsh-tórt milliongha juyq naymannyng teng jartysynyng úly babalary, naymannyng «Ókiresh Shal» tarmaghynyng bastauy.

Key shejireler, shejireshiler barlyq naymandy Ókiresh Shaldan taratady. Kelesisi ýsh topqa bóledi. 1. Ergenekti nemese Altay naymandary (Kókjarly, Bura, Sarjomart, Teristanbaly); 2. Ókiresh naymandar nemese Tólegetaydyng tórt úly (Qarakerey, Matay, Sadyr, Tórtuyl); 3. Úlytaudyng naymandary (Baltaly, Baghynaly). Qaytalap aitamyz biz shejire derekterin ghana úsynyp otyrmyz. Búl «naqtysy osy» degendik emes. Janylys boluy әbden mýmkin. Ázirshe dәl jauabymyz joq, biraq aitpasqa taghy bolmaydy, Shymkent, Týrkistan, Qyzylorda qalalarynda, sol manda, Astana týbinde Dýrmen naymandar toptasa ornalasqan. Qazaq shejiresine kirmey qalu sebebin, qazaq handyghy әbden qalyptasyp, qazaq rularynyng shejireleri túiyqtalghan song qosylghan dep topshylaghan jón siyaqty. Dýrmender ÝI ghasyrdaghy nayman konfederasiyasynyng qúramynda bolghany, yqylymnan beri nayman ekeni anyq. (E. Sәlimbay. Ata-baba tarihynan, Almaty-2007 jyl, 34 bet) Biz osylardyng ishinen Ókireshten – Belgibaygha, odan – Sýiinishke (Sýgirshe), odan Tólegetaygha (Tóle-ataygha, Tóle-Qytaygha) týsetin tarmaghyn bólip alyp qarastyrmaqpyz. Sebebi, biz aldy-artyn emes, Ókiresh Shaldyng jeke basyn andamaqpyz. Ángime dara túlghasynyng kim ekenin anyqtauda.

Men shejire boyynsha Ókiresh Shaldan taraymyn. Alayda atamyzdyng «kindiginenbiz» degenge kýmәndimin. Áriyne, Ókiresh Shaldyng kindik tólderi bar, bireui men boluym da yqtimal. Oghan dau joq. Ángime bir jarym, eki million adam turaly. Endi, kýdigimdi taratyp aitayyn. Ol ýshin atamyzdyng qay tústa ghúmyr keshkenin anyqtau kerek. Osyghan keleyik.

M.Tynyshbaev «Ákemning aituyna qaraghanda Tólegetay on altynshy atam» deydi. Búl manyzdy. Tynyshbaev shejireni naqtyly tarih demeydi, «aytuynsha» dep kórsetedi. Tólegetaydan Ókiresh Shalgha deyin jәne eki ata bar. Barlyghy – 18. Búl mólsheri, әr atagha 25 jyldan bólsek, 450 jyl. Búghan Belgibay tughandaghy Ókiresh Shaldyng 93 jasyn qosamyz. Barlyghy – 543 jyl.  M.Tynyshbaev 1879 jylghy 12 mamyrda tughanyn óz qolymen jazypty. Demek, 1879-dan  543-ti alamyz. Sonda Ókiresh Shal mólsheri – 1330 jyldary dýniyege kelgen. Mýmkin sәl erterek, ne keshirek. Shejirelerde  bir-jar ata úmytylyp qalatyny bar.

Qarakerey Qabanbay batyrdyng shejiresimen alsaq ol kisiden Belgibaygha deyin   12 ata – 300 jyl. Oghan Ókiresh Shaldyng  93 jasyn qosamyz. Barlyghy – 393 jyl. Endi Han batyr tughan  1692 jyldan  393-ti alamyz. Onda Ókiresh Shal 1299 jyly tuady. M.Tynyshbaevtyng shejiresimen óksheles. Shejiredegi múnday alshaqtyqtar qalypty nәrse. Sóitip, nysana  XIII ghasyrdyng ayaghy nemese XIV ghasyrdyng basy. Naymannyng bir tarmaghy osy mólsherde tuuy tiyis.

Dәl osyghan sene almaymyn. Shejire eng kemi 6-8 ghasyrgha janylady. Sebebi:

  1. Nayman Memleketi VI-VII ghasyrda qytaydyng jazba tarihyna engeni anyq. Orhon jazularynda Qarjaubay Sartqoja dәleldegen Aryq búqa men Semiz búqa sekildi handar bar.
  2. Ókiresh Shaldan – Sýiinish (Sýgirshe), Sýiinishten – Tólegetay (Tóle atay), (Tóle Qytay). Bayqasanyz Ókiresh – jalqy, Sýiinish – jalqy, Tólegetay – jalqy. Tólegetaydan Qytay da jalqy. Sonda Qytay HV ghasyrdyng ayaq sheninde dýnie esigin ashady. Qytaydan (keyde Kitәi, dúrysy Qytay siyaqty) – Qarakerey, Matay, Sadyr, Tórtuyl. Búlar mólsheri HVI ghasyrda tuady. Odan beri bes jýz jylday uaqyt ótipti. Endeshe, Naymannyng bir ghana tarmaghy Qytaydan tughan balalar bes ghasyrda eki milliongha jeteghabyl degenge senesiz be? Shynghyshannan búryn jasap kele jatqan, V-ghasyrda iz tastaghan qyrghyzdar sodan bergi 1500 jylda 3 millionnan endi asty. Endeshe, Ókiresh Shaldyng úrpaqtary HV ghasyrdan beri qansha qaulasa da býgingi jan sandary – 2 milliongha deyin ósui mýmkin emes. Biraq, osynsha adam bar.

Demek bir qúpiya bolghany ghoy. Ras, solayy solay. Osy syrdy ashu ýshin tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory Baqyt Ejenhannyng «Nayman handyghynyng memlekettik qúrylymy» atty enbegine jýginemiz. («Qazaq Ordasy» 2003 j №3). Ghalym «Naymannyng әkimshilik atauy «Shal» dep senimdi jazady, dәlelder úsynady. «Jamighat tauarihtyn» «Shynghys han» shejiresinde Nayman Kýshilikting әpkeleri, qaryndastary men ruy turaly әngimede osy sóz bar: «Ámin Shal, Tartu Shal, Tayan Shal, Týnge Shal aghayyndy. Tórteui de Kýshilikting ruynan. Shal-hanzada degen maghyna beredi. Nayman Tayan  hannyng bir әmiri, әky begining aty Titik Shal. Al osy Titik Shaldy «iani Chao Biy-Shiy»-da «Titik saqal» dep jazghan. Sonday-aq, «Lyao shiy»-ding «Shalgha» bergen týsiniktemesindegi «úl» degen sózdi «patsha úrpaghy hanzada» dep týsinu kerek. Búl naymandardy hanzadanyng «Shal» dep kórsetuimen maghynasy birdey. Shal nemese saqaldyng mәnsap kólemine kelsek, olardyng is-qimylynan (atqaryp jýrgen qyzmetterinen) mynany kóremiz: Shal – syrtqa qol bastap shyghady; jat ru-taypalardyng isterine qatysady; el arasyndaghy arazdyqtardy kelistiredi; zandy atqarady».

Baqyt Ejenhannyng osy derekterin taratyp aitsaq Shal:

1. Áskerbasy. Óz betinshe, derbes sheshim qabyldaydy.

2. Syrtqy sayasat mәselelerin sheshedi, shekara qorghanysyn basqarady, bodan elderge biylik jýrgizedi, ishki isterine aralasady.

3. Sottyn, biyding bar qyzmetin atqarady. Ýkim shygharady, tórelik aitady;

4. Memlekettik zandardyng jýzege asyryluyn baqylaydy. Zang búzushylardy aiypqa tartady. (sottaydy).

Kórip otyrsyzdar, «Shal» hannan keyingi lauazym iyesi.  Jeke-jeke salany basqaratyn uәzirler siyaqty emes, memleketting barlyq salalaryna tikeley aralasady. Uәzirlerden әldeqayda joghary lauazymdy adam – Shal. Al uәzirden joghary hanzada ekeni kimge de bolsa mәlim. Shaldyng qyzmet auqymy asa ken.

Demek, «Shal», sóz joq, han úrpaghynan. Endeshe sol tústa-aq Han basqaratyn derbes memleket nemese úlys bolghany ghoy. Ol, ne degende de, mol júrt. Áytpese, handyq, memleket qalyptaspasa hanzada qaydan bolsyn. Búlay desek, naqty tarihy derekterge jýginsek, VI ghasyrda bar nayman HIII ghasyrdyng ayaghynda, tabany jalpaq jeti jýz jyldan son, ózinen jeti jýz jyl kishi Ókireshten qalay tuady? Jeti ghasyr búryn bar, óz ata-babasyna  Ókiresh qalay әke bolady? Sóz basyndaghy kýdigim osynda jatyr.

Ókiresh Shal barlyq naymannyng atasy emes. Ókiresh Shal ózi ómir sýrgen kezdegi sol tústa, sol manda toptasqan naymandardyng basyn qosyp, biyleushisi. Onyng lauazymyn úlyq by deysiz be, úlys bii deysiz be, kishi patsha deysiz be, óz erkinizde. Búl bir jaghy. «Shal» sózin saralau osyghan alyp keldi.

Ekinshi jaghy «Ókiresh» ne maghyna beretinin tapsaq kórinedi. Múny qazaq naymandary jadydan shygharyp alghan eken. Biraq Samarqandaghy ózbek naymandary úmytpapty. Sonymen «Ókiresh» ne maghyna beredi? Babamyz Samarqan manynda dýniyege kelip, sýiegi Samarqannan otyz shaqyrym jerdegi Ýrgit tauynyng eteginde Ókiresh atalatyn auylda jerlengen degendi Samarqandyq ózbek naymandarynan 2006 jyly estigen edim. Al qazaq arasynda múnday derek joq. Osy sebepti qolda bar jighan-tergenderimizdi terendete jәne bir qaradyq.

Rashid ad Din nayman men qidandardyng songhy hany Kýshilikting tauly Badahshanda Saryqol shatqalynda óltirilgenin mynghúldardyng «altyn aqsha men asyl tastardyng mol qazynysyn alghanyn» jazady. Demek, Kýshilik han sopa basyn alyp qashpaghany, ordasymen, júrtymen sheginip, qazynasyn ala jýrgeni ghoy. Naymandardyng aldy býgingi Tәjik jerine kelip ornalasqany kórindi (Rasynda da qazir Tәjikstanda loqay-qazaq, olardyng ishinde ózderin naymanbyz deytin ýlken qauym bar).

Molanyng basyna jergilikti ózbek ókiresh naymandar jinalyp, qyzyl besjúldyzdan 1988 jyly belgi qoyypty. «Ukrach qobirstoni» dep jazypty. 2011 jyly ózbek naymandarymen kelisip, temirdi alyp, ornyna biyiktigi  3,5 metr, eni 1,5 metr qyzyl granit qúlpytas qoydyq. Qazaqstannan azamattar baryp as berdik. Auyl janynda Qaranayman, Qyzylnayman, sәl әrirek Dýrmen nayman auyldary. Búlarda ózderin Ókiresh Shaldan taratatyn ózbek naymandary  túrady. Osy manda Tórtuyl, Janghúly, Baltaly, Baghanaly, Sadyrsay, Qanly, Qaraqúrsaq, Qarakesek, Zarman, Shanyshqyly, Taraqly, Manghyt, Jaghalbayly, Qataghan, Balghaly, Sarqúl, Kereyt, Naymansay, Qaranayman tabighy qoryghy, Qanjyghaly, Naymansaray, Qarabaghanaly, Shapyrashly, Shanyshqyly, Uyshun, Dýrmen, Qonyrat, Shómekey, Qiyat atty qyshlaqtar ornalasqan. Naq bir qazaq jerinde jýrgendeysin. Osy qyshlaqtarda «ózbekpiz» deytin osy rular túrady. Búl bizding kózimizge týskenderi. Kóne ataularyn joghaltqandary qanshama eken? Mysaly, Kenes ýkimeti túsynda Ókiresh nayman, qaranayman, qyzylnayman auyldaryn qosyp, «Moskva» kolhozy atapty, qazir Ámir Temir atyndaghy sharuashylyqqa úiysypty.

Osy naymandar «Ukirach» «Kishi búqa» degen maghyna beredi deydi. «Búqa» naymannyng handyq atauynyng qosymshasy ekenin dәleldeu qajet emes shyghar. Oghan VI ghasyrdaghy nayman handary Aryq búqa, Semiz búqa, HII ghasyrdaghy Inanygh Bilge búqa, HIII ghasyrdaghy Baybúqa, Taybúqa, Ketbúqa, Kelbúqa babalarymyzdy aitsaq ta jetkilikti. «Kishi búqa» – «Ókireshtin» maghynasy taghy ainalyp hanzadagha soqty. «Ukirach» degenimiz osy jerde kishi handyqtyng biyleushisi dәrejesinde túr dep payymdaugha keletindey. Sebebi, biz ýsh jyl aralasqan ózbek ukirach naymandary – Qúdaychukur Hakimov, Taufih Yunusov aqsaqaldar Ukirach babalaryn Samarqan ghana emes, Tauly Badahshan, qyrghyz, qazaq elindegi naymandardyng sol kezdegi dara biyleushisi degen pikirde. Ata jas kezinde asa iri әskerbasy eken, keyin egdelene kele naymandardyng hany. Asa dindar. Ózi arydan tartar naghyz qarakókting úrpaghy – nayman handarynyng bútaghy. Onda da ar jaghyn atyn atap, týsin týstep aitady.

– Naymannyng songhy hany Kuchuluk Tauly Badahshanda Jebe noyanmen jekpe-jekte ólgen son, Jebe Kuchuluk hannyng qatyn-balasyn, ini-qaryndastaryn týgeldey Mynghúlgha ala ketipti. Biraq bir úlyn nókerleri jasyryp qalypty. Sonyra Kuchuluk Hannan qalghan osy úldyng atyn estip, manyna at túyaghy jeter jerdegi nayman jinalyp, bir qauymgha jetipti. Múny Ketbúqa estip, Ulugh Taugha (Úlytaugha) shaqyrtady. Joshyhannan payza bergizip, bar naymannyng biyleushisi etip taghayyndaydy. Búl hanzada Ókiresh atanyng aldy. Ókirach atanyng arghy jaghy Kuchuluk hannyng úrpaghy, Ketbúqanyng zamandasy. Biz Kuchuluk hannyng osy әuletinenbiz, – deydi qariyalar.

Sóitip, ózbekter Ókiresh Shal naymannyng songhy hany Kýshilikting keyingi úrpaghy ekenine kuәlikke jýredi. Osynda jan bar. Bytyryp ketken, eshkimge moyynsal bolmay, Shynghyshanmen on bes jyl arpalysqan órkeude naymandy úiystyryp, bas iygizu ýshin soghan layyq teging boluy qajet. Seni sonda ghana moyyndaydy. Múnday adam Kýshilikten qalghan bir tól – Ókiresh Shal. Onyng ýstine Ketbúqa shaqyrtsa, onyng Úlytauda otyrghan, Joshydan keyingi Úlyq by kezi. Ketbúqanyng naymandargha ish tarta, bar naymandy bir ortagha jinaugha pәrmen berui zandy. Ózi nayman adamnyng janashyrlyghyn týsindiru qajet emes.

Ózbek qariyalarynyng aituynsha Ókiresh Shal qartayghanda әskerin ókizipti. Keyinirek Ámir Temir (Aqsaq Temir) Shalgha osy mandy syilapty.

– Múnda dihan naymandar túrypty. Biz malshy ekenbiz. Osynda kelip, túraqtaghaly beri kóshpeymiz. Malshy naymandar Jizaq, Nauaiyge qaray túrady. Búl jaqta nayman kóp. Bir ghana Samarqan oblysynda, eng azy, bes jýz myndaymyz. Bәrimiz de tegimizdi bilemiz. Jalpy ózbek júrty nemere, shóberelerinen qyz alyp, qyz berise beredi. Biz óitpeymiz.

Ózbek naymandary osylay dedi. Terenirek ýnilsek, «Shal» men – «Ókiresh» bir maghynada túr «Hanzada». Osy jerde taghy saual tuady. Onda nege qosarlap «Ókiresh Shal» deymiz? Jekelep ne Ókiresh, ne Shal dese de bolghanday eken. Búl súraqqa myna sózder jauap beredi. Toqtyq-Barlyq, Bayan-súlu, Aq-Shaghan, Kelte-Múqyry, Úryjar-Múhanshy. Osylardaghy barlyq – mynghúl qalmaqsha, qazaqshasy – toqty, bayannyng qazaqshasy – súlu, aqtyng qalmaqshasy – shaghan, keltening qalmaqshasy – múqyr, Aqshanqan dep te jatamyz. Múqanshyny qazaqshalasang – úry, qaraqshy shyghady. Búl da solay. Tilimizde qalmaq-mynghúl tilindegi sózge qazaqshasy qosylyp aitylatyn tirkester kóptep sanalady. Keybir qosarly sózder jergilikti dialektini týsinikti etu ýshin de jýredi. «Shaldyn» әueldegi kóne úghymy, maghynasy úmytyla bastaghan son, «Ókiresh» qosylghany kórinip túr. Kónesi «shal» siyaqty.

Sóz reti kelgende aita keteyik. G.N.Potanin naymandardan «Kók búqa» anyzyn jazyp alyp, bylay dep atap kórsetipti: «Naymandardyng bir bóligi osy kýnge deyin ózderin ógizding úrpaghymyz» deydi. (Gh.Baynazarova «Qasiyetti Týrki eli, Almaty, «Óner», 66 bet)

Zer salsaq Ókiresh Shaldyng ghúmyry ýsh kezenge bólinedi.

1. Áskerbasy. Tolghan el aldyndaghy shaghy.

2. Jalpy naymannyng Eltútqasy. Júrttyng sózin ústaghan, biylik aitqan shaghy.

3. Dinge bet búruy. «Aqsofy», «Aqmyrza» ataluy. Balalary ólip, túl qaluy. Ýilenui.

Qazaq shejiresinde osy ýsh kezenning birinshisi jalghyz auyz «Eshkimge ese bermegen eken» degen sózben aitylady. Ókiresh naymandar Samarqannan Syrgha, odan Arqagha, odan Shyghys pen Jetisugha qonys audaryp, kóshi-qonmen jýrgende, jana ortagha beyimdelu barysynda «Ókireshtin» naymangha ghana tәn lauazymdyq maghynasy tasalanypty. Al sýiegi jatqan ózbekter este tútqan. Búghan nayman handyghynyng bir jola joyyluy, naymannyng memlekettik lauazymdarynyng qoldanystan shyghyp qaluy da әser etkeni dausyz. Biraq, 1625 jylgha deyin Samarqanda biylikting bir úshyn ústap otyrghan naymandar «búqany» paydalanbasa da, «Ókiresh» – Kishi búqany úmytpapty. Týpki maghynasyn saqtap qalghan. Jeke handyqtyng iyesi «búqa» sol kezdegi nayman aldymen Altyn Ordanyn, odan Aq ordanyng qúramyndaghy bir rugha ainalghan song soghan layyqtalyp, kishereyip «ókireshke» kóshken synayly.

Qazaq tarihynda óz orny bar bir babamyz – Ókiresh Shaldyng kim bolghanyn, qay mezgilde ómir sýrgenin, atqarghan qyzmetin qoldan kelgenshe anyqtaugha tyrystyq. Terendete zertteuge kópshilik atsalyssa jón bolar edi.

Kamal Ábdirahman

Abai.kz

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