Beysenbi, 23 Mamyr 2024
Abay múrasy 1242 10 pikir 28 Nauryz, 2024 saghat 12:44

Qazaq minezining ózgeruine bodandyqtyng әseri qanday?

Suret avtordyng jeke múraghatynan alyndy

Qazaq minezining ózgeruining sebebi. Kóshpeli dәuirdegi tәnirshildik ayasynda qalyptasqan ejelgi «er minezdi» bolmysynan airylyp, býgingi qazaq momyngha ainalghany, «qoy minezdi» bolghany jii aitylyp jýr.

Qazaq bolmysynyng osynday ýlken ózgeriske týskenin jasyrugha bolmaydy. Óitkeni búrynghy dәuirge kóz salyp, qazaqtyng ejelgi jәne býgingi bolmysyn salystyratyn bolsaq, búghan kózimizdi onay jetkize alamyz. Búl ózgeristing de sebebi bar.

Kóshpeli tirshilik býkil bolmys kórinisterin bir Tәniri retinde qabyldap, qorshaghan ortamen tolyq ýilesimdi ómir sýruge mýmkindik berdi. Yaghni, ómir tabighy boldy. Al kóshpendilikting әseri әlsirep, tabighattyng yqpalynan shyqqanda búrynghy tabighy tirshilik jasandy  ómirge ainalyp ketedi. Múnday ózgeristi otyryqshylyqqqa tolyq ótken elderden kóruge bolady. Sózimiz týsinikti bolu ýshin bir mysal keltireyik. Alghashqy shyqqan tegi bir bolghanymen, býgingi qazaq pen ózbekterding bolmysynda ýlken aiyrmashylyqtar bar. Otyryqshylyqqa búryn ótken ózbek halqynda jasandylyq bayqalady. Solardyng biri qonaqjaylyq. Áriyne, ózbekter de óte qonaqjay halyq. Biraq, qazaq pen ózbekting qonaqjaylyghynda aiyrmashylyq bar. Ózbekter qazaqtargha qaraghanda ýnemdi, ýlken ysyrapqa jol bermeydi. Al qazaq bolsa bir kýndik meyramy ýshin qaryz alyp, ony ómir boyy tóleuge dayyn. Sebebi, qazaq bir Tәnirge senip, tabighat ne berse, sonymen ómir sýrip ýirengen. Ózbek bolsa, ózining enbegine senip, onyng jemisine sýienip ýirengen. Sondyqtan ol enbegin baghalap, dýniyesin ýnemdeydi, al qazaq bolsa, alghan qaryzyn taghdyrdyng bergen oljasynday kórip, onyng keleshektegi zardabyna kóp kónilin audarmaydy. Aldaghy ómirdi oilamay, toy-dumannyng sonynda jýrgen býgingi ómirimizdi osylay týsindiruge bolatyn tәrizdi.

Biraq, býgingi ómir basqasha. Búl ómir kóshpeli dәuirdegi tәnirshildikting yqpaly әlsiregennen keyin búrynghy ghasyrlar qoynauynan kele jatqan qalpynan aiyrylyp, oghan mýlde qarsy kórinis aldy. Osylay boyymyzdaghy búrynghy kórkem minezderimiz ózderining keri sipatyn alyp, býgingi kýnderi kýnshildik, ishtarlyq, alauyzdyq, kóre almaushylyq, qarabasynyng qamyn ghana oilau tәrizdi kóriksiz qasiyetterge auysyp,  bolmysymyz mýlde basqa týrge kóshti deuge bolady. Halyqtyng búlay ózgeruine, әriyne, onyng ózin kinәlәugha bolmaydy. Tabighatta sekiru degen joq, barlyq qúbylys evolusiyalyq jolmen uaqyt yqpalymen ózgeredi. Sondyqtan, qazaqtyng búrynghy kórkem minezining býgingi ózgeristerge beyimdele almay, ózining keri әserin berui tabighy qúbylys deuge bolady.

Endigi mәsele ózgergen sol «er minezimizdi» qaytadan qalpyna keltiru bolyp otyr. Ol ýshin әueli onyng qalay ózgergenine kóz salyp, ózgeru sebepterin anyghyraq týsinip aluymyz kerek.

Bodandyq әseri. Qazaq bolmysynyng ózgeruine ýlken әser etken sebepterding biri bodandyq boldy. Resey imperiyasy kezindegi qyspaq Kenes dәuirinde kommunistik iydeologiya shenberimen jalghasyp, qazaqtyng búrynghy erkin minezin tolyq ózgertip jiberdi. Sol qyspaqtyng saldarynan ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan últtyq erkin minezden aiyrylyp, býgingi kýnderi  qarabas qamynan shygha almaytyn әljuaz, bolbyr tәueldi qazaqqa ainaldyq. Múnday minezding saldary turaly kóp jazyldy da, aityldy. Adam sanasyn tirshilik jaghdaylary qalyptastyrady degen osy bolsa kerek.

Múnday ózgeristing sebebin Abay bylay dep kórsetedi:

Eriksiz týsken yldidan,
Erkinmen shyqqan ór artyq.
Qorlyqpen ótken ómirden,
Kósilip jatqan kór artyq.

Fәny әlemde jaqsy bolsyn, jaman bolsyn, adam minezining ózgerui syrtqy kýshterding әserimen, yaghni, adamnyng niyetine qarsy, zorlyqpen bolady. Erkinen aiyrylghan adam qúlgha ainalady. Qúldyng ózinde erik bolmaydy. Onyng erki qúl iyelenushining erkimen shekteledi. Ol qol astyndaghy qúlyn ózining erkinshe ózgertip alady. Resey sayasaty da osy әdisti paydalandy.

Qazaq elinde ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan han-súltan biyligin el basqarudan birjolata yghystyryp, jalpy imperiyalyq basqaru tәrtibin engizu ýshin ol 1867—1868 jyldardan bastap Qazaqstan aumaghynda әkimshilik reforma jýrgizildi. Janadan engizilgen sharalar ólkeni sharuashylyq jaghynan otarlaugha  jәne Reseyden qonys audarghan sharualardy odan sayyn kóbeytu ýshin jasaldy. Búl reforma qazaq ólkesinde otarshyldyq tәrtipti nyghaytugha baghyttaldy. Óitkeni birinshiden, qazaq dalasynda súltandardyn biyligi әli de búrynghysynsha saqtalyp qala bergen edi. Olardyng biyligi patsha ýkimetining Qazaqstan aimaghyn neghúrlym tezirek otarlauyna kedergi boldy. Reforma әri qaray ózgertilip, oblystyq, uezdik, bolystyq, auyldyq basqarugha bólindi. Múnday bólshekteu elding birligin búzyp, patsha ýkimetine qazaq halqyn otarlyq qúldyqta ústauyn jenildetti. Basqaru apparatyn әskeriy-poliyseylik funksiyamen qamtamasyz ete otyryp, olardy joghary otarshyl әkimshilikting qatang qadaghalauynda ústady. Otarlau reformasy týrli oblystargha, uezderge bólshekteu arqyly qazaq halqynyng birligin búzyp, býkil el bir әskery basqarmanyng qolynda boluy ýshin jasaldy. Reforma halyqty erkinen aiyryp, ony otarlyq ezgide ústau, birigip bas kóteruine mýmkindik bermeu maqsatyn kózdedi.

Bolystar men auyl starshyndary 3 jyl merzimge saylanatyn. Bolystardy gubernator, al auyl starshyndaryn uezd bastyghy bekitti. Sonday-aq olardy búl qyzmetterden kez kelgen uaqytta alyp tastaugha da qúqyqty bolatyn. Bolystar men auyl starshyndaryn qyzmetke bekitu men qyzmetinen alyp tastaudyng múnday tәrtibi qazaqty orys biyligine tәueldiligin kýsheyte týsti, sonymen birge, el arasyna iritki salyp, ózara tartysty kóbeytti.

Auyl starshyndaryna jәne bolystargha qoladan qúiylghan tós belgiler, sonday-aq arnayy jasalghan mór berilip, olar otarshyl әkimshilikting polisiya jәne tynshylary mindetin qosa atqardy. Olar qazaq dalasynda ýkimetpen alauyzdyq tudyrmaytyn tynyshtyq ornatugha mindettendi. Sonymen qatar zandardyn qatang saqtaluyn, alym-salyqtyng uaqtyly әri tolyq jinaluyn, basqa da mindetti boryshtardyng týgel oryndaluyn qamtamasyz etuge tiyis boldy. Olar sot sheshimderining jәne halyq sottary qaulylarynyng oryndaluyn jýzege asyrugha da mindetti edi. Osylay, jaghympazdyq, paraqorlyq, satqyndyq tәrizdi minezder qalyptasa bastaldy. Búrynghy erkin qazaq tirshilik shyrghalanyna týsip, búrynghy meyirimdi, jomart minezi qatygez, kýnshildik, qúlqyn qamynan asa almaytyn jeksúryn qasiyetter ala bastady. Sóitip, «Ja­na nizam» zany qazaq halqyn ózin-ózi biyley al­maytyn beyshara kýige týsirdi, bir qa­zaqty «alty baqan, ala auyz» etti. Abay ómir sýrgen zaman dәl osyndaygha túspa-tús kel­gen edi. Patshalyq basqarudyng zy­miyan­dyq astaryna, otarlyq zannyng súr­qiya­ly­ghyna kózi jetken Abay: «Qysqa kýnde qy­ryq jerge qoyma qoyyp, qu tilmen qulyq saughan zany qúrysyn», – dep kýiinedi. Qa­zaqtyng ru­hyn, dilin, dәstýrin týbegeyli qúr­tugha ba­ghyt­talghan ayar zannyng astaryn andaghan Abay: «Qyzmet qylma oyazgha, jan­bay jatyp só­nuge. Qalay sabyr qylarsyn, janbay ja­typ sónuge?», – deydi.

Osy kezdegi qazaqtyng minezining ózgeruin synap Abay birsypyra ghibratty sózder jazghanyn bilemiz. Mysaly, «Mәz bolady bolysyn» atty óleninde shendi shekpenge qyzyqqan atqaminerlerdi bylay dep synaydy:

Mәz bolady bolysyn,
Arqagha úlyq qaqqangha,
Sheltireytip orysyn,
Shendi shekpen japqangha.

Kýnde jaqsy bola ma,
Bir qylyghy jaqqangha?
Oqaly ton tola ma,
Ar-úyatyn satqangha?!...

Búl ólende bolys bolghan qazaqtyng minez-qúlqy ýshinshi jaqtan suretteledi. Aqyn bolystyng qolymen jasaghan naqty isin ghana emes, sonymen qatar onyng kóp syryn býgip, býrkip jatqan ishin de ashyp kersete otyryp, adam minezin ashudyng útqyr da, útymdy tәsilin sheber paydalanady. Úlyq arqagha qaqsa, mәz bolyp, iyghyna shekpen japsa, shat bolyp, әr jerde joqty-bardy shatyp, kýpinip, qampayyp, shalqyp jýrgen bolys әldebir quanyshy ýshin ýi-ishin, auyl-aymaghyn týgel әurelep, әbigerge týsiredi. Al isi ongha bassa, kýlmendep, óleng qaghyp, qasqayyp, maqtangha salynady, bas paydasy, qúlqynyng qamy ýshin bireulerdi qaqpangha týsirudi oilaydy, el ishinen bir dәmdini tatyp, óneshi maylana qalsa, qolyn shapalaqtap jas baladay quanady.

Ómir kýresi jýrekti tazalap, adamdy jetilu jolyna salady. Biraq, kýresting maqsaty birigu ýshin emes, bas paydasyna baghyttalghanda, búl kýres jýrekti bylghaydy. Bylghanghan jýrek aqyl men qayratty basqara almaydy, adam qiyanat isterge baryp, kýnәgha batady. Kýnәli is jýrekti odan әri bylghaydy. Osylay, adam kýnәdan kýnәgha batyp, ýzdiksiz qúldyrau jolyna týsedi. Resey sayasaty ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan qazaqtyng birligin búzdy, әrkim óz bas paydasymen ketti. Osylay qoghamda alauyzdyq molayyp, ózara kýres mashyqqa ainalyp ketti. Býkil halyq búl aghymnan shygha almay, últtyq bolmys minez tolyq ózgeriske týsti. Býgingi qazaq minezining ózgerui sol zamannan bastalyp, әli de jalghasyp keledi deuge bolady.

Sol kezde qazaq minezining ózgergeni turaly Abaydyng kóp jazghany belgili. Kýnirene jazghan әigili óleninde ol bylay deydi:

Qalyng elim, qazaghym, qayran júrtym,
Ústarasyz auzyna týsti múrtyn.
Jaqsy menen jamandy aiyrmadyn,
Biri qan, biri may bop endi eki úrtyn...

 ...Bas-basyna by bolghan ónkey qiqym,
Mineky búzghan joq pa elding siqyn?
Ózderindi týzeler dey almaymyn,
Óz qolynnan ketken song endi óz yrqyn.

Búrynghy bolmyspen ýilesimdi kóshpendi ómirde qalyptasqan qazaq bolmysy endi Resey imperiyasy jasaghan jasandy tәrtip qúrsauynda qaldy. Osyny kórgen Abay «Ózderindi týzeler dey almaymyn, Óz qolynnan ketken song endi óz yrqyn» dep, qazaqtyng minezining býgingi ózgerisin týsindirgendey bolady.

Qazaq boyynda kóshpeli dәuir ghasyrlar boyy qorshaghan ortagha beyimdelgish qasiyet qalyptastyrdy. Ózining sol asyl qasiyetin qazaq endi jana dәuirde qoldanugha úmtyldy. Túrmystyng jana ózgerisine beyimdeluge tyrysty. Osylay ol bas paydasy ýshin bәsekelesterin qaralap,  jala jauyp, olardan qútylu joldaryn izdedi.

Bolmys ayasynda qalyptasqan qazaqtyng kórkem minezi osylay kýrt ózgerip, tútas túlghasy úsaqtalyp, adam tanymastay ózgeriske týsip ketti.

Patsha dәuirindegi qalyptasqan minez kórinisi Kenes ýkimeti kelgende әri qaray jalghasty. Mysaly, Kenes dәuirinde ziyaly qauymnyng 25 myny repressiyagha úshyrap, elimizding eng ayauly bóliginen aiyrylyp qaldyq. Onyng sebebi qazaqtar birining ýstinen biri domalaq aryz jazyp, kórsetip otyrghany keyingi ashylghan qúpiya qújattar dәleldep otyr. Orta Aziya halyqtarynyng arasynda múnday shyghyn eshbir elde bolmaghan. Mansap, bas paydasy ýshin kýreste ómirge beyimdelgish jaqsy qasiyetimiz, osylay ózining keri әserin bergen eken.

Býgingi kýnderdegi el basqaruda jylpos, alayaq adamdardyng kóbengi, korrupsiyanyng kýsh alyp ketui tәrizdi kelensizdikter osynyng bir kórinisi bolyp tabylady. Osylay, ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan kórkem qasiyetteri ózine keri әser etip, endi qazaqqa zardap әkelip otyr.

Dosym Omarov,

abaytanushy, teolog

Abai.kz

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