Seysenbi, 21 Mamyr 2024
Bilgenge marjan 2880 0 pikir 8 Qarasha, 2023 saghat 16:41

Qúbaghúl men Berke maydany

1262 jyly Kishi Aziyagha biyligin ornatqan Qúbaghúl (Hulagu) qaghanatyna qarsy onyng nemere aghasy, Joshy úlysynyng sol tústaghy biyleushisi, Altyn Orda hany Berke soghys ashady.

Soghystyng negizgi bastalu sebebi – imperiyadaghy alghashqy bolyp, islam dinin qabyldaghan Berke, Qúbaghúldyng abbasid halify al-Mústasimdi ólim jazasyna keskendigi bolyp tabylady. Degenmen, soghysqa әkelip soqtyrghan kelispeushiliktin  týpki maqsaty terende jatqan edi. Shynghys hannyng qaldyrghan ósiyeti boyynsha, Qúbaghúl jaulap alghan Arran, Tebriyz, Hamadan jәne Meraga ólkeleri Altyn Ordanyng qúramynda bolugha tiyis edi. Alayda, eginshilik pen zergerlik óneri jaqsy damyghan jәne jemis-jiydekting otany bolyp sanalatyn, sonday-aq, salyqtyn eng kóbi osy ólkelerden týsetindikten, búl alqabtardy Qúbaghúl, Joshy úlysy bolyp sanalatyn Altyn Ordagha bergisi kelmedi. Osy Qúbaghúl imperiyasyna qarsy soghys asharda, Berke han Mysyr súltanymen kelisimge kelip, odaqtas bolugha shaqyrady. Ony sol dәuirdegi ispan elshisi Klaviho ózining enbekterinde bylay dep jazady: «V kachestve opravdaniya svoih deystviy Berke, buduchy musulimaninom, vydvinul religioznye motivy: «On (Hulagu) razrushil vse goroda musuliman, svergnul vse doma musulimanskih sarey, ne razlichal druzey y vragov y bez soveta s rodichamy unichtojil halifa. Ejely gospodi izvechnyy pomojet, ya vzyshu s nego za krovi nevinnyh».

Úly Dalanyng týrki-qypshaghy, әlemdi titirentken Shynghys hannyng nemeresi, Tólening úly Qúbaghúl Kishi Aziyany jaulap alghan son, osy aumaqty tútasymen qamtyghan alyp imperiyasyn qúrdy. Onyng osy Parsy eline joryghyn Klaviho bylay dep jazady: «Ot straha pry etom soobsheniy v gorah nachinalisi zemlyatryaseniya, a serdsa koroley trepetaliy».  Úly daladan joryqqa shyqqan Qúbaghúl armiyasy «ony dvinulisi v pahod s Jeltoy ravniny», - deydi  ghylymy enbekterinde Hilda Hukhem), (tegi, búl Saryarqa boldy ghoy) jolyndaghy Almalyq qalashyghy men orta aziyalyq Samarqand qalasynyng manynda biraz uaqyt bógelip, әskerin demaldyrghan son, 1256 jyly jolyndaghy Amudariya ózeninen ótip, Parsy elin jәne onyng manayyndaghy memleketterdi birneshe joryqtan keyin-aq jaulap alady. Sóitip, osy aumaqta ózining biyligin jýrgize bastaydy.

Búl janadan qúrylghan imperiyanyng qúramyna: Batysyndaghy Irak aumaghy, sonday-aq, ontýstiginde Fars, shyghysynda Horasan, soltýstiginde Medee atyraby (yaghny aitqanda, osy kýngi Ázirbayjan, Armeniya jәne Gruziyanyng jartysy) kirdi.  

Sonymen, 1262 jyldyng tamyz aiynda Berke han ózine baghynyshty әskerdi, yaghny aitqanda Noghay bastaghan otyz myndyq  qoldy Qúbaghúlgha qarsy attandyrady. Ol Kavkazdyng Shemahy aumaghynda Qúbaghúldyng aldynghy otryadtaryn talqandaydy. Degenmen, Kishi Aziya imperatory Qúbaghúldyng ile-shala dereu, janadan jibergen әskeri, Shaberan aimaghynda Noghaydyng qolyn qorshap alyp, tútastay qyryp, tastalqan etip jenedi. Noghay bolsa, qorshaudan әupirimdep birneshe nókerimen  qashyp shyghady. Biraq, 1263 jyldyng 13 qantarynda Berkening ózi bastaghan Altyn Orda qaghanatynyng sarbazdary, Terek ózenining atrabynda Qúbaghúl armiyasyn oisyrata jenedi. Sóitip, Derbent manayyn jәne Shirvan aumaghyn ózine qosyp alady. Osy soghystyng kesirinen, Qúbaghúl óz imperiyasynyng aumaghyndaghy altyn ordalyq saudagerler men kópesterdi qyryp salady. Búghan jauap retinde, Berke han parsylyq saudagerlerdi qatang jazalaydy.

1265 jyldary Qúbaghúl hannyng ólimine baylanysty onyng taghyna balasy Abaqan han otyrady. Altyn Orda әskerining basshysy Noghay, Berkening jarlyghymen búghan qarsy qaytadan joryqqa shyghady. Alayda, sәtsizdikten arylmaghan Noghay úrysta auyr jaralanyp, Kura men Aqsu ózenining angharynda qaytadan qarsylasynan  jenilis tabady. Aqyry bolmaghan son, Altyn Ordanyng býkil armiyasyn alyp, Berke han soghysqa ózi kirisedi. Kura ózenining arghy-bergi jaghalauyna ornalasqan jaulasqan eki jaq, on tórt kýndey әrqaysysy sadaqtan oq jaudyryp, biraz túryp qalady. Jenis eshqaysysyna kelmedi. Biraq, qalayda jenudi maqsat etken Berke han әskerin alyp, ózenning basqa túsynan ótip, jauyn qorshap alugha, Tbilisiyge qaray jol tartady. Osy joryqta densaulyghy syr bergen, Altyn Orda imperiyasynyng iyesi Berke han, jolda qaytys bolady. Hannyng óliminen keyin, Kishi Aziya qaghanatynan ózine tiyesili aumaqty ala almaghan Joshy elining әskeri mysy týsip, keri qaytady. Al, Abaqan han bolsa, aldaghy uaqytta Joshy úlysynan bolatyn kek alu joryghynan saq bolu ýshin, shekaralaryn nyghaytyp, biraz әskerin osynda qaldyrady. Sóitip, eki qypshaq imperiyasyda ózderining tularyn saqtap, qyrghyn soghystan aman qalady.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi

Abai.kz

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