Seysenbi, 26 Qazan 2021
Áne, kórding be? 5017 6 pikir 27 Tamyz, 2021 saghat 16:28

Talibandy kimder basqarady?

Talibannyng Aughanstandy basyp aluyna kim mýddeli?

Taliban radikaldy qozghalysynyng sodyrlary Aughanstan biyligin basyp alyp, 1996 jyldan 2001 jylgha deyin tәlipterding baqylauynda bolghan «Aughanstan Islam әmirligi» memleketin qayta qúrugha uәde berdi.  Songhy 20 jyl ishinde qozghalystyng ózi de, basshylyghy da ózgerdi. Býgin oqyrmangha songhy jyldary Taliban tobyn basqaratyn negizgi kóshbasshylar turaly mәlimetterdi úsynbaqpyz.

Haybatulla Ahunzade
Talibannyng jogharghy kóshbasshysy

Taliban radikaldy qozghalysynyng ókilderi tiziminde birinshi bolyp úiymnyng qazirgi jogharghy kóshbasshysy — Hibatulla Ahunzadeni ataghan jón. 1980 jyldardaghy kenestik nauqan kezinde ol mujahidter jaghynda soghysqan, alayda onyng maydandaghy shayqastargha qatysuy turaly aqparat joq. Ahunzade 1994 jyly Talibangha qosylghannan keyin kóp úzamay qozghalystyng negizin qalaushy Molla Múhammed Omardyng senimdi adamdarynyng birine ainaldy.

1996 jyly «Aughanstan Islam әmirligi» qúrylghannan keyin ol әskery sottyng bastyghy jәne Jogharghy Sot tóraghasynyng orynbasary qyzmetin atqardy. The Washington Post gazetining habarlauynsha, eki sot ta úrlyq jasaghany ýshin qolyn kesu jәne auyr qylmys ýshin taspen úru siyaqty qatang jazalau sayasatyn ústanghan.

2001 jyly «Islam әmirliginin» joyyluy Ahunzadeni Aughanstannan ketuge jәne kórshiles Pәkistangha kóshuge mәjbýr etti. Onda ol negizinen diny músylman mektepterinde sabaq berdi. Ahunzade Aughanstangha tek 2013 jyly qozghalystyng jetekshisi Múhammed Omar qaytys bolghannan keyin oraldy. Ahunzadening ózi Omardyng múrageri Ahtar Múhammed Mansúrdyng óliminen ýsh jyl ótken song Talibandy basqardy. Ony arnayy operasiya kezinde AQSh әskeri joydy. Aytpaqshy, Ahunzade Talibannyng әskery operasiyalary men terroristik aktilerin aqtaytyn jarlyqtar shygharugha jauapty dep sanalady.

Ahundzadening beynesi negizinen júmbaq. Songhy jyldary «Taliban» jetekshisi kópshilikke kórinbeydi, al BAQ ókilderi onyng qaytys bolghany turaly, sonday-aq koronavirustan qaytqany jóninde birneshe ret habarlady. Alayda búl resmy týrde rastalghan joq.

Ol qazirgi zamanghy tehnologiyalargha teris qaraytyn, atap aitqanda úyaly telefondy qalay paydalanu kerektigin bilmeytin konservativti teolog retinde tanymal. Al Batysta әskery tәjiriybesi az adam retinde sipattalady. Negizinen esirtki saudasymen tolyqtyratyn qarjy salasyndaghy maman dep sanaydy.

Abdul Ghany Baradar
Talibannyng bet-beynesi

Abdul Ghany Baradar býginde toptyng «bet-beynesi» jәne sayasy qanatynyng jetekshisi retinde tanymal. Ol batys elderining ókilimen, sonymen qatar Aughanstannyng búrynghy biyligimen beybit kelissózder kezinde baylanys ornatyp, búl oqigha resmy týrde Taliban elin basyp alumen ayaqtalghan. Ótkenine kóz jýgirtsek, «Islam әmirligi» kezinde terroristik jәne әskery operasiyalardy ýilestiruge jәne olardy qarjylandyrugha jauapty Talibannyng basty әskery strategterining biri boldy.

2001 jyly AQSh-tyng Aughanstandaghy operasiyasy bastalghan kezde Baradar Taliban memleketining Qorghanys ministri qyzmetin atqardy. «Islam әmirligi» qúlaghannan keyin ol Pәkistangha ketip, onda toghyz jyldan keyin jergilikti qauipsizdik kýshteri men SRU-dyng birlesken kýshimen qamaugha alyndy. Baradardyng tútqyndaluy 2018 jylgha deyin sozylyp, AQSh sheshimimen Pәkistan týrmesinen bosatyldy. Sóitip onyng kómegimen Vashington Aughanstandaghy jaghdaydy sheshu ýshin Talibanmen kelissózder jýrgizuge sheshim qabyldady.

Bostandyqqa shyqqannan keyin Baradar pragmatikalyq jәne diplomatiyalyq túlgha retinde bedelge ie bolghan Talibannyng bas diplomaty boldy. Ol AQSh-tyng búrynghy Memlekettik hatshysy Mayk Pompeomen jeke kelissózder jýrgizdi. Sonymen qatar, kezdesuge Mәskeuge kelip, Qytay ókilderimen baylanys ornatty. The Wall Street Journal aqparatyna sәikes, 2020 jyly Taliban diplomaty AQSh-tyng sol kezdegi preziydenti Donalid Tramppen telefon arqyly sóilesip, Aq ýiding basshysymen tikeley baylanysqan Talibannyng alghashqy kóshbasshysy atandy.

Múhammed Yakub
Taliban negizin qalaushysynyng úly

Toptaghy taghy bir manyzdy adam әri qozghalystyng eng jas jetekshilerining biri – Taliban negizin qalaushy Múhammed Omardyng ýlken úly Múhammed Yakub. Shamamen, Yakub 1990 jyly dýniyege kelgen. Ákesi siyaqty, ol da molda. 2013 jyly Omar qaytys bolghannan keyin tanymaldyghy artty.

The Wall Street Journal sholushylary Yakubty radikaldy qozghalystyng baysaldy ókili dep ataydy.

Qazir ol úiymnyng qaruly kýshterin basqarady. Dese de, alghashynda ony Omardyng yqtimal múragerlerining biri retinde «Taliban» kóshbasshysy atap jýrgen. Yakub 2013 jyly qozghalystyng basqa ókilderimen qaqtyghysqa baylanysty әkesining ornyn alghan joq.

Sodyrlardyng basshylyghynan basqa, ol qazirgi Taliban basshysynyng orynbasarlarynyng biri. Qozghalystyng ózinde aitylghanday, 2020 jyly top jetekshisi koronaviruspen auyrghanda Yakub uaqytsha úiym jetekshisining mindetin atqarushy boldy. Aughanstandy Taliban basyp alghannan keyin, ol alghashqylardyng biri bolyp qozghalys sodyrlaryn aughan әskerleri men Ýkimet mýshelerine ziyan tiygizbeuge shaqyrdy. Sonymen qatar eldegi bazarlar men dýkenderding túraqty júmysyn baqylaudy talap etti. Bir jyldary Yakubty óldi degen de aqparat taraghan.

Sirajuddin Hakkaniy
Taliban sodyry

Taliban basshylary turaly aita otyryp, qozghalystyng eng radikaldy qanaty sanalatyn «Hakkany jelisi» basshysyn aitpay ketuge bolmaydy. Ángime Aughanstanda birqatar diyversiyalar men terrorlyq aktilerdi úiymdastyrdy dep resmy aiyptalghan Siradjuddin Hakkany turaly bolyp otyr. Atap aitqanda, Hakkany jelileri 2008 jyly Kabuldaghy Serena qonaq ýiine shabuyl jasap, sodan keyin úiym AQSh-taghy terrorister tizimine engen.

Hakkany qanaty kópten beri AQSh bastaghan halyqaralyq koalisiyany joigha tyrysyp, ony Aughanstandaghy missiyasynyng basymdyqtarynyng biri dep atady. Alayda, joy әreketteri óte sәtti bolmady. Tek 2017 jyly «Hakkany jelisi» 5 mynnan astam jauyngerdi qúrady. Jaqynda top Aughanstan-Pәkistan shekarasyn basqardy.

AQSh Federaldyq tergeu burosy Taliban komandiyrin ústaugha kómektesetin aqparat ýshin 10 million dollar úsynady. Ayta keteyik, «Hakkany jelisinin» kóshbasshysy sonymen qatar 2020 jyly The New York Times onyng «Taliban neni qalaydy?» degen aidaryn jariyalaghandyghymen belgili. Al 2010 jyly ol 144 betten túratyn «Mudjahidterding iygiligi ýshin әskery sabaqtar» kitabyn shyghardy. Onda ol bas kesu men jankeshtilik jarylystardy qoldaytynyn jazyp, Batys músylmandaryn halyqpen aralasugha, qyrynugha, batystyng kiyimin kiige jәne «shydamdy bolugha» shaqyrdy.

Sher Múhammed Abbas Stanikzay
Taliban sayasy kensesining basshysy

Talibannyng taghy bir manyzdy ókili – Katardaghy Taliban sayasy kensesining qazirgi basshysy Sher Múhammed Abbas Staniksay. 1980 jyldardyng ayaghy men 1990 jyldardyng basynda ol «Aughanstandy azat etu islam odaghynyn» ontýstik-batys maydanyna basshylyq etti. Al Taliban biylikke kelgennen keyin Aughanstan islam әmirligi Syrtqy ister ministrining orynbasary boldy.

Stanikzay aghylshyn tilin jaqsy biletindigin kórsetip, batystyq BAQ-qa jii súhbat berdi. 1996 jyly ol sol kezdegi preziydent Bill Klintonnan Talibannyng Aughanstandaghy biyligin moyyndauyn súrau ýshin Taliban delegasiyasynyng basshylyghymen Vashingtongha bardy.

«Islam әmirligi» ydyraghannan keyin Katargha ketip, onda tәlipterding sayasy kensesining ashyluyna yqpal etti.

Stanikzay óz júmysy kezinde Qytaydan kelgen týrli delegasiyalarmen kelissózderge qatysty, sonday-aq Ózbekstan men Indoneziyagha saparmen bardy. Birqatar BAQ 2020 jyly Stanikzay Taliban basshylyghyna nemqúraydy qarady jәne onyng Katar kensesine әseri aitarlyqtay tómendedi dep jazady.

Abdul Hakim Hakkaniy
Taliban kelissózshisi

2020 jyly Abdul Hakim Hakkany Stanikzaydyng ornyna Katar tәlipter kensesining kelissózder tobyn basqardy. Búghan deyin teolog Talibannyng basty sayasy organy ornalasqan Kvetta qalasyndaghy islam diny mektebine basshylyq etken.

Kvettada Hakkany tәlipterding sot jýiesi men diny qyzmetkerler kenesin basqardy, qozghalys ókilderining qatygezdigin aqtau ýshin jarlyqtar shyghardy. Ony Talibannyng jogharghy basshysy Hibatulla Ahunzadening jaqyn jәne senimdi túlghalarynyng biri dep te ataydy.

Taliban degenimiz ne?

Aughanstan biyligin basyp alghangha deyin Taliban qozghalysy teologtar men dala komandirlerine bólingen radikaldy jәne qalypty ókilderden túratyn shashyranqy top bolyp sanaldy. Songhy jyldary әrtýrli sarapshylar men búqaralyq aqparat qúraldary qozghalys ishinde ýsh ýlken kýsh — Hakkany jelisi, Yakub molda toby jәne Ahunzadening jaqyn jaqtastary baryn aitady. Olardan basqa, úiymda kóptegen basqa fraksiyalar bar. Biraq olar negizinen osy ýsh topqa sýienedi.

INION RAS (Resey ghylym akademiyasynyng әleumettik ghylymdar boyynsha ghylymy aqparat instituty) zertteushisi Georgiy Asatryan óz súhbatynda:

«Aughanstangha tәlipterding shabuyly kezinde biz Talibannyng jogharydan kelgen búiryqtardy jәne olardyng demeushilerinin, negizinen Pәkistannyng búiryqtaryna óte baghynatyn ortalyqtandyrylghan qúrylym ekenin kórdik. Sondyqtan fraksiyalar manyzdy emes. Qozghalystyng Pәkistanmen tereng integrasiyalanghan jәne Pәkistan qauipsizdik kýshterining strategiyalyq tapsyrmalaryn oryndaytyn, birtútas maydanda әreket etetin jetekshisi men basshylyghy bar. Búl óte tyghyz qúrylym», - degendi aityp týiindegen. Atalghan sózge sýiensek, Taliban men onyng fraksiyalarynyng ishki qúrylymy turaly barlyq pikirler mәnsiz bolyp shyghady.

Eskertu: Taliban - Qazaqstanda Jogharghy Sottyng 2005 jylghy 15 nauryzdaghy sheshimine sәikes qyzmetine tyiym salynghan qozghalys.

Dayyndaghan Ramina Chakirbaeva

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