Dýisenbi, 6 Jeltoqsan 2021
Ózgeler 3090 9 pikir 10 Shilde, 2021 saghat 18:30

Ugo Chaves jәne Venesuelanyng kýireui

Bireuding jamanshylyghyn qazu qazaq әdetinde joq. Áytse de aqparattyng aghyny tasqyndaghan zamanda, aidyng kýnning amanynda kóz aldymyzda qúrdymgha ketken «Venesuela oqighasy» tәuelsiz elimizding tizginin ústaghandar ýshin ýlken sabaq bolary anyq!

Endeshe, azamat retinde siz milliondaghan aqsha tabudy, memleketting sәn-saltanatyn kórudi jәne túraqty aqshalay tólemderdi aludy únatasyz ba? Sizding jalaqynyzdy birneshe esege kóbeytip, baghany ýkimet belgilep, erkin naryqty joyyp jiberuding qúny qansha bolady eken? Osy turaly mәlimetti Latyn Amerikasyndaghy eng bay memleketting populizm kezinde qalay kýiregeni arqyly dәleldep kóreyik!

Býgingi kýni 32 million halqy bar Venesuela azamattarynyng 5 milliony óz elinen qashyp ketti, olardyng kópshiligi kórshiles Kolumbiyagha ótip ketken (The Economist, qyrkýiek 2018).

Álemdegi eng iri múnay óndirushi Venesuelada 2004-2015 jyldar aralyghynda molshylyq boldy, búghan shiyki múnay baghasynyng ósui jәne 750 milliard dollarlyq kiris tapqany sebep bolghan edi. Syrtqy sauda kirisining 96%-y múnaydan qúralady.

Alayda populist sayasatker Ugo Chaves kommunistik sayasat jýrgizip, әleumettik qamqorlyqty keneytip «jalpaq shesheylikke» salyndy.

1998 jyly preziydent bolyp saylanghannan keyin Chaves sheteldik investorlardy tyqsyryp shygharyp, barlyq múnay ken oryndaryn memleketting baqylauyna aldy. «Tabighat baylyghy -  halyq menshigi», dep jariyalap, dayyn aqsha tarata bastady.

Bastamasy retinde «PDVSA» - memlekettik múnay kompaniyasyna $62 mlrd obligasiya shyghardy. Qytay men Reseyden alghan syrtqy qaryz óte qysqa merzimde bes esege artyp, 150 milliard dollargha jetipti. 2008 jylghy elding syrtqy valuta qory 42,3 milliard dollar bolsa, ol tórtten birine qysqarypty.

Venesuela ýkimeti 1999-2014 jyldar aralyghynda әleumettik qamsyzdandyru baghdarlamalaryna 718 milliard dollar júmsaghan, búl azamattardyng enbekke  qyzyghushylyna kedergi keltirdi. Enbek naryghynda dýrbeleng tuyp, kompaniyalar júmys kýshining tapshylyghyna tap boldy.

Sosialistik kóshbasshy sement jәne qúrysh qúi siyaqty barlyq salalardy sanattargha bólip, jýzdegen kompaniyalardan barterlikti nemese «memleket belgilegen baghany ústap túrudy» talap etti. Búl sheshim óndiristik sektorgha qatty soqqy berip, importtyq tauarlardy arzandatty.

Búl el 2008 jyly barlyq ónimning 70 payyzyn ózderi shygharatyn.  Al qazir tek 20 payyzyn ghana shygharady.

Oppozisiyalyq baqylaudyng memleketke aralasuy joyylyp, sybaylas jemqorlyq óristedi. Esirtkining importy órkendep, halyqaralyq dengeyde tyiym salyndy. Chavesting ekonomikalyq kenesshisi Djordj Djordaniyding payymdauynsha, tek songhy 10 jylda 300 milliard dollar jemqorlyq jolynda joghalghan.

Venesuela biyligining jyldar boyy óz halqynyng miyn juu ýshin paydalanyp kelgen múnaydyng әlemdik baghasy әlemdik naryqtarda qúldyrap, kiristi qysqartty.

2014 jyldyng shildesinde 98 dollar bolghan múnay jyl sonynda 47 dollargha jetti. Odan qúldyrap, 2016 jylgha deyin 35 dollardan boldy. 2014-16 jyldar aralyghynda 121 milliard dollar tabudy kózdegenimen, biraq bolghany 48 milliard dollar tapty. Infraqúrylymdyq investisiyalardyng jetispeuinen memlekettik «PDVSA» múnay kompaniyasynyng óndirisi tәuligine 3,2 million barreliden 1,5 tarmaqqa deyin tómendedi.

Ekonomikalyq daghdarysqa jauap retinde ýkimet valuta saudasy men audarymdaryn shektedi, jeke túlghalar men kәsipkerlerge salyqty kóbeytti, azyq-týlik pen dәri-dәrmek tapshylyghyn tudyrdy. 2012 jyly 66 milliard dollar importtaghan el 2018 jyly tek 9,2 milliard dollar júmsaghan.

Kezinde barlyq kirisin memleketting qamqorlyghymen qanymdap túrghan  venesuelalyqtar  qazir kýnine jarty kilo et alu ýshin bir apta boyy júmys isteytin halge jetti.

2017 jyldyng ayaghynda Venesuela ekonomikasy kezekti auyr soqqygha úshyrady. El 10 milliard dollarlyq syrtqy qaryzgha tap boldy. Barlyq dýniyesi qúnsyzdana bastaghan Venesuelanyng zauyttary men jyljymaytyn mýlik obektilerine AQSh kәsipkerleri payda tabu ýshin kire bastady.

Aymaqta ziyandy ekonomikalyq sayasat jýrgizgen Venesuelamen AQSh biyligi barlyq sauda-sattyq jasaugha tyiym saldy. Búryn Venesuela tauarlarynyng ýshten birin satyp alatyn Amerika saudany toqtatqandyqtan, Venesuela halqy ashtyqtan zardap shegude.

Venesuela daghdarysyn Halyqaralyq Valuta Qory songhy 50 jyldaghy «әlemdegi eng jaman oqigha jәne auyr daghdarystardyng biri» dep sipattady.

Amantay Toyshybayúly

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