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Basy: Oralghandar eli – Izraili

Jalghasy: Bosqyndyq ómir. Otansyz taghdyr

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Jalghasy: Qiyaldan shyndyqqa deyin...

Jalghasy: Tәuelsizdikti qorghau jolyndaghy shayqastar...

Jalghasy: Tәuelsiz Izrailiding kóshi-qony

Jalghasy: Ómir shyndyghyna ainalghan utopiya

Adamdar Izrailiding ekonomikalyq tabystary turaly oilaghanda, onyng әlemde eng ozyq әskery qaru-jaraqtardy óndiretin әskery ónerkәsibin sóz etedi. Biraq, osy bir qúmdy-shóldi aimaqty qayta týletken ekologiyalyq tabystaryn úmyt qaldyrady. Shyn mәninde Izrailiding adamzatqa ýlgi bolarlyq múnday tabystary ontýstiktegi Negev shólin qúmdaghy gýlstangha ainaldyrghan ghajayyptaryn astyn syza otyryp aitugha bolady.

1906 jyly Polishalyq evrey jas jigit Palestinagha saparlay kelelip, IYerusalimge bara jatqan jolda sazdy alqapty kesip ótedi. Ol evreyler ýshin qasiyetti sanalatyn IYerusalimdegi Dәuit Payghambardyng basyna tәuap etip qaytqan son, Negev aimaghyna soghady. Osy bir qúty qashqan, sýrensiz aimaq jas jigitting sanasyna mәngilikke jazylyp qaldy. Onyng aptap kýnnen quyrylghan qúm men tastary, susyz qatal tabighattan qurap, sarghayyp ketken ósimdikteri jelmen bayau terbelip, múnly әn salyp túrghanday edi. Jas jigit qúmdy dalagha qarap, jabyrqap-jasyghan joq. Ishtey óz-ózine sert berip, kýnderding kýninde osy dalany gýl jaynaghan qútty mekenge ainaldyrugha bel baylady. Búl jas jigit Izrailiding túnghysh premier-ministri David Ben-Gurion bolatyn.

Izraili halqy David Ben-Guriondy qúmdy dalany jan-tәnimen sýigen, tipti oghan jadylanyp qalghan jan dep qúrmetteydi. Álem elderi kóshbasshylarynyng birde-bireuine óz halqy osynday ataq pen mәrtebe  bermegen shyghar. Ol alghash ret Negev shóline kelgen kezde eshkim de emes bolatyn. Bylaysha aitqanda, arabtardyng mekenine kelgen qaydaghy bir kelimsek, tyng iygerem dep tyrashtanghan jankeshti bireu sanalatyn. Soghan qaramastan, ol osy bir qúmdy alqapty baghyndyrugha bel baylap edi. Sol kezdegi armanshyl jas, bolashaq sayasatkerge tәn asqan sezimtaldyqpen osy bir eshkimge kerek bolmaytyn qúlan jortpas qúla týzdi týpting týbinde evreylerge beretin shyghar dep boljady jәne sony armandady. Mine býgin búl aimaq Izrailiding aiyrylmas bir bóligi, gýlge oralghan, týgin tartsan, mayy shyghatyn  evreylerding qútty qonysyna ainaldy.  Sol kezde kóptegen evrey eriktileri Palestinanyng soltýstik aimaghyna toptalyp, tyng iygerudi bastaghan kezde David Ben-Gurion óz armanynyng jetegimen Negev aimaghynyng Sde-Boker degen jerine kelip, sol jerdegi kibustyng qyzmetine belsene aralasty. Sol bir arman qughan, albyrt ta azapty kýnderin ol : «Tyng iygeru kezinde azapty enbekten sharshap-shaldyghu, ashtyq pen indet bizdi kezek mazalaytyn. Biraq, jan qalauymyzben jasaghan enbekten lәzzat alushy edik. Sol kezdegi arman qughan eriktiler bolashaqqa degen senim men talpynystan qanattanyp, jan sala enbek etetin. Tipti, olar әielderding kibustyng sharuashylyq júmystaryna aralasuyna jol bermeytin. Sebebi, әielder enbekke aralassa, bolashaq evrey memleketining iyeleri sanalatyn úrpaq tәrbiyesin bosansytyp aluy mýmkin ghoy. Ózderining talap etuimen erlermen qatar enbek etemin degen basy bos qyzdar ashana, balabaqsha qatarly jenil-jelpi enbekti mise tútpay, egis basynda erlermen enbek jarysyna týsuding ózin ózderine baqyt sanaytyn»-dep eske alatyn. David Ben-Gurion óz taghdyryn osy qúmdy alqappen baylanystyrdy. 1953 jyly ol premier-ministr qyzmetinen ketken son, dereu Sde-Bokerdegi kibus júmysyna bilek sybana kirisip ketti. Ol ózin bir kezdegi premier-ministr emes, kibustyng qatardaghy enbekkeri retinde sanady. Biraq bir qyzyghy, sodan bastap Sde-Boker auyly Izrailiding beyresmy sayasy ortalyghy siyaqty memlekettik joghary lauazymdy mansaptylary men salmaqty sayasy túlghalardyng ayaghy ýzilmeytin mekenge ainaldy. Keyin ol taghy memlekettik qajettilikten ýlken sayasatqa qayta oralugha mәjbýr boldy. 1966 jyly ol 77 jasqa kelip qartayghan shaghynda parlament deputaty salauatymen Sde-Bokerge kóship kelip, júmysyn jalghastyrdy. 1973 jyly 87 jasynda sol arada qaytys bolyp, óz ósiyeti boyynsha sol jerge jerlenip, qúmdy daladan mәngilikke túraq tapty.

David Ben-Gurion qatarlylar qaytkende evrey qonys audarushylarynyng Palestinagha irge teuip, túraqtap qalatyndyghyn jәne evreylerding auyl sharuashylyghyn damytudaghy ózekti mәselelerding ne ekendigin óte jaqsy bildi. Múndaghy eng sheshushi mәsele su kózderi bolatyn. Jalpylama aitqanda, Izrailiding su baylyghy mýlde jetkiliksiz. Soltýstik ónirlerding jyldyq jauyn-shashyn mólsheri 450-500 mm ainalasynda. Ontýstik ónir 200 mm-ge de jetpeydi. Eng ontýstigindegi qúmdy alqapqa mýlde tamshy da tambaydy. Ónirlik jaqtan alghanda soltýstikte su mólsheri jetkilikti. Al ortalyq pen ontýstik aimaqtary sudyng tapshylyghynan zardap shegedi. Soltýstik aimaqtarda su arnalarynyng biteluinen kóptegen sazdy alqaptar qalyptasqan. Mәselening kilti soltýstiktegi basy artyq sudy ortalyq jәne ontýstik aimaqtargha jetkizip, soltýstik pen ontýstik birdey iygiliktenetin jaghdaygha jetkizu.

1951 jyldan bastap tәjiriybeli su sharuashylyghy injenerlerining múqiyat jobalauymen 7 jylgha josparlanghan su kózderin retke salyp, atyz-aryqtardy qayta jasau qúrylysy qolgha alyndy. Izrailidikter Iordaniya ózenining arnasyn ózgertip, 40 km sozylghan kanal qazu arqyly Galiyley tauynan shyghysqa qaray Hula kólining ainalasynan 6 000 gektar qúnarly, jana egis alqaptaryn qalyptastyryp, astyqty ólshemmen ýlestiretin dәuirdi týpkilikti ayaqtastyrdy. Odan song soltýstikting suyn ontýstikke aparu qúrylysy bastaldy. Izrailidikter Tiyveriad (Galiyley tenizi) tenizining suyn nasospen tartyp, ony belgili bir biyikke kótergennen keyin, Galiyley tauynan asyryp, batysqa qaray ortalyq jәne ontýstik aimaqtargha jetkizedi. Búl jobanyng qarjylyq shyghyny joydaqsyz boluymen birge sayasy jәne diny kedergilerge de tap boldy. Tiyveriad tenizine qúyatyn Iordaniya ózeni Izraili, Siriya jәne Iordaniyagha ortaq ózen sanalady.  Sol sebepti Siriya men Iordaniya Izrailidikterding ózen suyn mólsherden kóp paydalanuyna qarsy boldy. Búdan tys, Iordaniya ózeni Yahudy dini fanattarynyng jýreginde qasiyetti su sanalady. Oghan qol tiygizu Tәnirding shamyna tiyedi dep esepteledi.

Ekonomikanyng kýre tamyry mәselesin sheshu ýshin premier-ministr David Ben-Gurion 1953 jyldan bastap su qúrylysyn bastaugha búiryq berdi. Siriya da qarap qalghan joq. Olar da auyr tehnikalaryn Iordaniya ózenining jaghalauyna jiberip, ózen suyn joghary jaghynan búryp әketuge oqtaldy. David Ben-Gurion esh nәrseden taysalmastan Siriyanyng qúrylys tehnikalaryn zenbirekpen atyp, kýl-talqan etuge búiryq berdi. Izrailidikter Tiyveriad tenizinin  batys-soltýstik búryshynan teniz suyn 360 metr biyiktikke tartyp shygharyp, sodan son, kýrdeli su arnalary tunnelider, su soru qondyrghylary jәne diametri 2,74 m keletin beton qúbyrlarmen sudy 144,8 km shalghaydaghy orta jәne ontýstik aimaqtargha jetkizdi. 1964 jyldyng 5-mamyrynda «memleketting su arnasy» dep atalatyn osy bir alyp keshenning qúrylsy ayaqtalyp, su berile bastady. Osy su arnasynyng kómegimen Negev ónirining sumen qamtyluy 75% artyp, sol aradan 57 000 gektar jerge jasyl alqap ornady. Mine, solay qúmdy alqapty gýlstangha ainaldyru jobasy armannan shyndyqqa ainaldy. Bir qyzyghy, «Tәnirdi shamdandyramyz» dep baybalam salghan kertartpa dindarlardyng ózi diny tәpsirlerden IYezekiili Payghambardyng «kýnderding kýninde bir alyp ózen qúmdy kesip aghady», «su barghan jerding bәrinde tirshilik gýldep ósedi» degen sәuegeylik ósiyetterin tauyp shyghypty. Jәne sol arqyly Alla elshisining bir kezdegi aitqandary tәuelsiz Izrailide shyndyqqa ainalghandyghyn әlemge әigilep, jar salyp, jarnamalap jatty.

Izrailidikterding enbekqorlyghy men aqyl-parasaty, dau joq, qúrmetke layyq.

1952 jyly AQSh-tyng Kaliforniya shtatynan maqta ósiruding mamany Sem Hamberg Izrailige tuysshylay keledi. Kisi tanyp, baghalay biletin Izrailidegi saqqúlaq sayasatkerler ol kisining kelgenin dereu premier-ministr David Ben-Gurionge jetkizedi. Premier qolyndaghy barlyq sharuasyn qayyryp qoyyp, dereu ol kisini óz kabiynetine shaqyryp, qabyldaydy. Jәne oghan Izrailiding maqta óndirisine kómek kórsetuin qiyla ótinip, bylay deydi: «Sem myrza! Siz osynda maqta ósiriniz. Biz ony toqityn zauyt qúrayyq!». Premierding izgi kónil, shynayy sezimine tolqyghan fermer oghan kelisim beredi. Biraq ol Negev aimaghynyng qansyghan qu median dalasyn kórgennen keyin basyn shayqap, keri qaytpaq bolady. Dәl onyng attanar sәtinde auyl sharuashylyghymen eshqanday qatysy joq bir adam ony qalugha kóndiredi. Sol kezdegi Izraili qúrlyq armiyasynyng shtab bastyghy, general Igaeli Yadin oghan qiyla ótinip, Izrailiding basqa ónirlerin de aralap qaytugha kenes beredi. Sem Hamberg myrza soltýstiktegi Beyt-Shean ózeni jaghalauynan  maqta ósiruge qolayly egis alqaptarynyng barlyghyna kóz jetkizedi. Ol dereu AQSh-qa qaytyp, 10 kýnnen song Amerikanyng ataqty su qúrylys injenerin ertip kelip, mәseleni mayshammen qaraugha kirisedi. General Igaeli Yadin oghan jatyp jastyq, iyilip tósek bolyp, әskery qosyndardy oghan kómek kórsteuge búiryq berip, Izraili jerinde túnghysh ret maqtany tabysty egip shygharady. Mine, osynyng arqasynda Izrailidikter nebәri 10 jyldyng kóleminde kiyer kiyimnen de eshkimge alaqan jaymaytyn jaghdaygha jetti. Qazir Izraili orta shyghysta maqta óndirip, maqta ónimderin eksportqa shygharatyn birden-bir el. Izrailidegi maqta óndirisining kólemi jemis alqaptarynan keyingi ekinshi oryn alady. Maqtanyng birlik ónimi jaghynan әlemdik kóshbasshy sanalady.

Izrailidikter ózderining jankeshti enbekqorlyghymen azyq-týlik mәselesin sheshti desek, olardyng auyl sharuashylyq salasyndaghy tolaghay tabystary ghylym men tehnikanyng eng jana jetistikterin sәtti paydalanudyng esebinen jýzege asty. Izrailidikter óz jer aumaghynyng jartysynan kóbining auyl sharuashylyghyna jaramsyz shóleyt aimaqtar ekenin, shóldi baghyndyrmay, odan әri damudyng bolmaytyndyghyn da jaqsy týsinedi. Búl jaqta dayyn túrghan shet eldik tәjiriybe de joq bolatyn. Sol sebepti, bolmashy sudy tókpey-shashpay, ónimdi paydalanu ýshin auyl sharuashylyghy tehnologiya ghalymdary әlemdegi eng ozyq býrkip suaru men tamshylatyp suaru tehnologiyasyn tapqyrlap, azghantay sumen auyl sharuashylyq daqyldarynyng qajetin óteuge qol jetkizdi. Mamandar daqyldardy eguding mýlde jana tәsilderin tәjiriybeden ótkizip, tolaghay tabystargha jetti. Olar aldymen sudy ayamastan egistik jerdi qandyra suaryp, dereu topyraqty tynaytyp, jerding qúnaryn arttyratyn jonyshqa túqymyn egetin. Jonyshqa jer betine ónip shyqqan son, ony býrkip suarugha kirisetin.  Mine, osylay shóleytting sary týsi jap-jasyl atyzdargha ainalatyn. Búdan tys, olar taghy jasandy jolmen janbyr jaudyru, teniz suyn túshy sugha ainaldyru jәne qaldyqty sudy qaytadan paydalanu siyaqty tehnologiyalardy keninen paydalanyp, sudy eki esege deyin ýnemdeuge mýmkindik aldy. Izrailiding suarmaly egis alqaptary 1948 jylghy 30 400 gektar-dan 1988 jyly 216 000 ga deyin keneydi.

Izraili memleketi qúrylghannan kýni býginge deyin Izrailiding halyq sany ondaghan ese kóbeydi. Al, auyl sharuashylyghy óndirisining ónimdiligi 20 esege juyq úlghaydy. Izrailiding túnghysh Preziydenti Haim Veysman bir kezderi bylay degen bolatyn: «Tek bizge bir tostaghan su, bir týiir túqym bolsa boldy, bizding últymyz ashtan ólmeydi». Shynynda, Izrailiding túnghysh preziydenti evrey halqynyng aqyl-parasatyna erekshe senimdi edi. Izrailiding býgingi jetistigi de sol aqyl-parasattyng jemisi. Izraili ýkimetining әr jyly Izraili auyl sharuashylyq ghylym-tehnikasyna bóletin qarjysy 100 mln dollardan asady. Býgingi kýnde Izrailide 3500-den asa joghary tehnologiyamen shúghyldanatyn auyl sharuashylyq kompaniyalary bar, 7 auyl sharuashylyq instituty júmys isteydi. Osynday ghylym-tehnika qyzmetkerlerining jan qiyarlyq enibekterining arqasynda, Izraili shekti egis alqaptarynan jylyjaylar arqyly tórt mausymda da toqtausyz ónim alady. Bir ghana qyzanaqtyng ózinen joghary tehnologiyanyng kómegimen әr gektaryna әr mausymda 300 tonnadan astam ónim jinaydy. Búl aspan astyndaghy ashyq atyzdardyng 4 esesine ten. Izrailidikter ýshin sudyng әrbir tamshysy qymbat. Sol sebepti, qaldyq sudyng 90% qayta óndelip paydagha asyrady. Búl auyl sharuashylyghyna qajetti sudyng 20% qamtamasyz etedi. Býgingi kýnde Izraili óz halqyna qajetti auyl sharuashylyq ónimderining dәndi daqyl, ósimdik mayy jәne et ónimderinen tys, basqa qajetti azyq-týlik ónimderimen ózin tolyqtay qamtamasyz etuge qabiletti. Qamtamasyz etip qana qoymaydy, asqan bóligin kóp mólsherde Europa elderine eksportqa shygharyp, elding valutalyq kirisin tolyqtyryp otyrady. Búdan búryn da aitqanymyzday, Izraili orta shyghystaghy  jaratylystyq shart-jaghdayy bәrinen nashar memleket. Biraq, auyl sharuashylyq salasynda jetken jetistikterin kórshilerimen mýlde salystyrugha kelmeydi. Keshegi  jerding sorlysy, qúlan jortpas qu dala, menireu qúmdy alqap Negev aimaghynyng ózinde óndirilgen sansyz shoq gýlder әue tasymalymen Europa bazarlaryna kýn sayyn jóneltilip jatady.

Ózge elding tabystarymen jete tanysqan sayyn, óz jerin-óz otanyng turaly oilamau, tolghanbau mýmkin emes. Bizding tәuelsiz, keng baytaq Qazaqstanymyzdyng ekonomikalyng әluetin ayaday Izrailimen salystyru mýlde mýmkin emes. Bizdegi mýmkindik olardy myng orap alady. Halqymyzdy da bireuden kem-qor jaralghan sapasyz tobyr dey almaysyn. Kerisinshe biz ózimizding tekti, jasampaz, sauatty, tózimdi, dana halqymyzben kýlli әlemge maqtansaq jarasady. Al, sonda el jasaghan en baylyqty bizder nege jasay almay otyrmyz?! Men búl súraqqa qazaqtyng qayratker úly, marqúm Aytan Nýsiphanúlynyng kýndeligindegi ýzindi arqyly jauap bergendi jón kórip otyrmyn. Ol ótken ghasyrdyng 90-jyldarynda qoyyn dәpterine bylay dep jazypty: «Núrsúltan Nazarbaev qay bir jyly Izrailige saparlay barghanda, shól dala men taqyr taulardyng gýlge oranghanyn kórip, tan-tamasha bolypty desedi. Sonda evrey әriptesterining biri: «Sizderde osylay ete alasyzdar әli-aq» degende bizding patshamyz oilanyp jatpastan:   «Oybay-au, men múnday halyqty qaydan alamyn?» depti ghoy.

Men bolsam sony estigen sәtte: «Men senderdegidey dana kósemdi qaydan alamyn?» dep qarsy súraq qoyar edim-au evreylerge.

Izraili úrpaqtary ala-qúlalyghy jóninen bizden beter edi. Biraq kósemderi sonday qyryq jamau elding basyn biriktire aldy. Tilin de, dinin de, dilin de qorghap, damyta bildi. Golidmeyer siyaqty anyzgha ainalghan adamdary boldy. Al bizde halyq jýreginen dәl osynday oryn tapqan kimder bar? Olar aqyl-parasatymen ghana emes, jeke basynyng iriligimen de halqynyng sýiispenshiligine bólendi. Olar halqymen birge tondy, halqymen birge ashyqty, halqymen birge bar tauqymetti tartty, quansa quanyp, jylasa birge jylady. Aqyrynda halqymen birge biyikke kóterildi.

Al bizde she?.... Áy, qaydam.....»(Aytan Nýsiphanúly «Qayghyndy qayran qazaq arqaladym..» 2-tom, 10-11bet. ) - dep kókiregi qars airylady.

Mening ruhany ústazym Aytan Nýsiphanúly qazaghynyng qayghysyn qayyspay kótere jýrip, mezgilsiz baqilyq boldy. Ol kisi de Izrailidaghyday әdiletti sayasy jýiening tәuelsiz Qazaqstanda ornaghanyn armandady. Últymyzdyng býgingi kóshbasshylarynan Alash arystarynday jan qiyarlyqty, Izraili kósemderindey qara qyldy qaqjaratyn әdilettilik pen parasattylyqty talap etti.

Men de Aytan agham siyaqty Izrailidegidey әdiletti sayasy jýie ornaghanda, mening qazaghym da kýlli әlemdi tanqaldyratyn ne bir keremetterdi jasaytyndyghyna imanday senemin.

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