Jeksenbi, 19 Mamyr 2024
Alashorda 13395 72 pikir 9 Jeltoqsan, 2018 saghat 18:30

Shynghyshannyng qazaq ekenine qatysty derekterdi Qytay men Resey qalay búrmalady?

Jalghasy. Basy myna siltemede.

ShYNGhYSHAN da ASylúya (AS) dinastiyasynan...

(Bórijiging ruy men shapyrashty, manghyl taypasy men aday tuys)

Shynghyshannyng kim ekenin týsinu ýshin, Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyn oghan deyin biylegenderding kimder ekenin týsinip alu qajet. Al ol ýshin HIII ghasyrda músylman elderi tarihyn jazghan arab ghalymy Ibn әl Asirding enbegindegi mynau joldardy zerdelep alghan abzal. «V etom godu (750 g.) Hubaysh ibn ash-Sh.b.l y te, kto s niym, vyshly iz kreposty y dobralisi do Ferganskoy zemli, zatem voshly v turkskuu oblasti y pribyly k saru Sina... V etom [godu] possorilisi ihshid Fergany y sari Shasha. Ihshid poprosil pomoshy u sarya Sina, y [tot] dal emu podkreplenie iz 100 tysyach voinov, sarya Shasha okrujili, y on sdalsya na milosti sarya Sina, y tot ne prichinil zla ny emu, ny ego pribliyjennym. Izvestie ob etom dostiglo Abu Muslima, y on vyslal na voynu s nimy Ziyada ibn Saliha. Ony vstretilisi na reke Taraza, y musulimane pobedily iyh, perebily 50 tysyach y vzyaly v plen okolo 20 tysyach, ostalinye bejaly v Siyn. Bitva proizoshla v mesyase zu-l-hidjja v [sto] tridsati, tretiem godu (iili 751 g.)»

Kórip otyrghanymyzday, búl jerde Hubaysh ibn ash-Shybyl degen týrkining 750-jyly arab әskerinen qashyp Ferghanagha jetkenin, sosyn týrkiler aimaghyndaghy Sin patshasyna barghanyn aitady. Yaghni, Sin patshalyghy týrkiler elinde ornalasqanyn kórsetip otyr. Ferghanadan ary jatqan týrkiler ólkesi – qazirgi Qazaqstan, Shynjan men ishki Mangholiya jәne Mangholiya memleketi aimaqtary. Qazaqstan aumaghyn VIII ghasyrda týrki ashinalyq Týrkash (týrgesh) toby biyledi, yaghny bizding jerimizde Týrgesh qaghanaty boldy. Al qazirgi Shynjan men Mangholiya jerleri Ýiqyr qaghanatyna qarady, ony jujandyq súrbóras-Shiybórash (shiyvey) toby biyledi. Osy asylúyalyq eki top údayy ózara baqtalas, jau bolghan. Derektegi Sin patshalyghy – sol Ýiqyr qaghanaty aimaghy. Siyn atauy dúrysynda – Shiyn, naqtyraq aitsaq, Shyn.

Ejelgi Huni imperiyasy biyleushisi «Shynýi» dep ataldy (Shaniu) jәne Shyng patsha tek asylúyan ruynan (siluani) saylandy. Ertede Huni imperiyasy bolghan aimaqtar arab jazbalarynda «Shyng patshalyghy aimaghy» dep tanyghan (reseylikter búl derekti jasyru ýshin ony oryssha audarmalargha «Siyn» dep engizgen jәne ol ataudy Qytay memleketi dep búrmalaghan). Shynghyshangha deyin, HII ghasyrdyng basynda sol aimaqtan kelip Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyn basyp alghan patshany Ibn әl Asir jazbasynyng orysshasynda «týrki hatay Kur han As Sin patsha» dep jazghan. Dúrysy – týrki hazaq Qúz han As Shyng patsha. Óitkeni, qytay týrkilik halyq emes ekeni arabtargha ejelden mәlim jәne arabsha «hatay» men «hazaq» úqsas jazylady (reseylikter qazaqtyng ejelden bar ekenin jasyru ýshin ony oryssha audarmada «hatay» dep búrmalaghan). Ibn әl Asir hatay tilinde «Kur» atauy «asa biyik» degen maghyna beretinin aitady. Qazaq asa biyik shyndy «qúz» deydi jәne arabsha «kur» men «kuz» úqsas jazylady. Sondyqtan ol adamnyng esimi «hatay Kur han» emes, «hazaq Qúz han» ekeni dausyz. Ibn әl Asirding VIII-HII ghasyr derekterinde Sin patshalyghyn týrkiler eli dep kórsetui Sin atauy men Qytaydyng esh baylanysy joqtyghyn pash etedi.

Jogharydaghy derekte Tashkent (Shash) әkimimen jaulasqan Ferghana biyleushisi 750-jyly Sin patshasynan kómek súraghany, Sin patshasy sol jyly oghan 100 myng adamdyq әskery kómek bergeni jazylghan. Qytay imperiyasynyng ile-shala sol jyly onday әskery kómek jibere aluy esh aqylgha simaydy. Onyng ýstine, Qytayda VIII ghasyrda bolghan memleket «Tan» dep atalady jәne onyng sol ghasyrda ishki alauyzdyqtan óte әlsiz bolghany el tarihynda bayandalghan. Qytayda VI ghasyrdan bastap Shynghyshan zamanyna deyingi memleketter ishinde Sin nemese Shin degeni joq (Suy – 581-618 jj, Tan – 618-907 jj, Sun – 960-1279 jj, Yuani – 1280-1368 jj). Sondyqtan «Siyn» atauyn Qytaymen baylanystyru – qatelik, solay degen Resey imperiyasynyng zymiyan sayasaty ghana.

Anyghynda, 751 jylghy Talas shayqasyna Qytay әskeri mýlde qatyspaghan. Ol shayqas, qúramynda Týrgesh qaghanatynyng jauyngerleri bar músylman arab әskeri men Ýiqyr qaghanaty (Shyng patshalyghy) әskeri arasynda bolghanyn Ibn әl Asir deregi aighaqtaydy. Resey әdeyi búrmalap: «Qazaqta memleket bolmaghan» dedi, Sin patshalyghyn Qytay imperiyasy dep týsindirdi. Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan jerinen dәmesi zor Qytay imperiyasy da óz tarihyna: «751-jyly Talas shayqasynda Tan imperiyasy әskeri men arab әskeri soghysqan» degen jalghan derekti qosyp qoydy. Osylaysha bizding key jerlerimiz «Qytay qúramynda bolghanyn» dәleldeuge mýmkindik aldy jәne Qytaydyng key kartalarynda solay dep kórsetilip jýr.

Týrgesh qaghanaty әskerlerin Resey sayasatkerleri «qarluqtar» dep tariyhqa engizdi, anyghynda olar da «qazaq» dep atalghan edi (arap әskerimen odaqtas bolghan qazaqtar). Arab әripterining jazylu úqsastyqtary olargha solay búrmalaugha mýmkindik berdi (arabsha onnan solgha qaray oqylatynyn eskertemiz): كزاقkazaq, كرلقkarluq. Arabsha jazbada "qazaq" pen "qarluq" úqsas jazylatynyn Resey imperiyasy sheber qoldandy. Osylaysha músylman qazaqtardy «qarluq» qylyp tariyhqa engizip, Týrgesh qaghanatynyng ornyna Qarluq qaghanaty payda bolghan dedi. Shyndyghynda, ol – «Qazaq handyghy» dep atalghan memleket, onyng biyleushileri IH ghasyrda músylmandyq qabyldap, islam dinin memleketting resmy dini etken. Sol músylman qazaqtar memleketin de búrmalap Qarahanidy atauymen qalyptastyrghan – Resey imperiyasynyng qúitúrqy sayasaty. Orystar arab jazbasyndaghy «Kazahkan» atauyn «Karahan» dep búrmalap, «Karahanidy» atauyn tariyhqa engizgen. Ibn әl Asir jazbasyn orysshalaghanda «Kazahkan» atauyn әdeyi «Kara-hakan» dep orystyq «-» belgisi arqyly ózgertip jibergen. Arabsha jazyluynda eki atau birdey dese de bolady, tek «z» әrpining ýstinde noqat bar, al «r» әrpining ýstinde joq: كزحكنkazahkan, كرحكنkarahakan. Resey imperiyasynyng iydeologtary arabsha jazbalar ereksheligin óz sayasattaryna sheber qoldandy, olar arabsha jazbalardaghy «qazaq» atauyn ynghaylaryna qaray «karluk», «karahan», «kypshak», «kay», «kimak», «hatay», «haladj» dep әrqalay búrmalap jasyrdy.

Qytaydaghy Sini degen memleket bizding dәuirimizge deyingi III ghasyrda boldy. Alayda, ony ornatqan Shihuan biyleushi sunnu-huni elinen ekeni mәlim. Al huni patshalary «Shyn» dep ataldy. Sondyqtan ejelgi Sini memleketin dúrysynda «Shyn» degenimiz jón. Odan keyin ataluy «Siyn» sózine jaqyn Szini imperiyasy tek HII ghasyrda ghana payda bolghan. Dese de, ol memleket qazirgi Manjuriyada payda boldy jәne ony ornatqan – manjur jýrjandar (jurjen), Soltýstik Qytay jeri onyng qúramyna vassaldyq kýide endi. Keyin sol manjur jýrjandar (jýrjen) HVI ghasyrda Qytay men qazirgi Mangholiyany jaulap alyp Sini imperiyasyn ornatty. Osy Sini atauy da ejelgi Shyng patshalyghy atauymen baylanysty qoyylghan (ony «sini» qylghan – qytay tili). Manjur qolbasshysynyn: «Bizge tuys halyq eken» dep Qazaq handyghyn shabuyldaudan bas tartuy manjurlardyng kim ekenin kórsetedi (әriyne, qytay men halha tilderi yqpalymen manjurlar ózderining qazaqy tilderinen HVI ghasyrdan keyin tolyq airylghany mәlim).

Manjurlardyng jurjen ruy Jujan qaghanatyn biylegen dinastiyadan taraydy (Súrbóras-shiybórash dinastiyasy, qytaysha – Shiyvey). Manjur jýrjenderi men Shynghyshan әuleti ejelgi Shiyvey úrpaqtary dep tanylady. Sondyqtan HII ghasyrdaghy Szini imperiyasy men HVI ghasyrdaghy Sini imperiyasy ataulary dúrysynda – Shyn, ekeui de manjur jýrjandar ornatqan Shyng imperiyasy bolyp tabylady. Jogharyda kórsetilgen HII ghasyrdaghy Qúz han As Shyng patsha – sol Szini imperiyasynyn biyleushisi. Onyng últy hazaq ekenin jәne Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyn jaulap alyp, biylegenin Ibn әl Asir derektegenin aittyq.

Odan bir ghasyrdan keyin, HIII ghasyrda Orta Aziya men Qazaqstandy ghana emes, sonymen qatar Iran men Kavkazdy jәne Shyghys Europagha deyingi aimaqtardy da jaulap alghan Temirshyn patsha óz esimin Shyng As han dep ózgertti (ony «Chingishan» qylghan ózge tildi jazbalar yqpaly). Óz esimindegi jәne jana esimindegi Shyng atauy onyng ejelgi Shyng patshalary biyligin jalghastyrushy ekenin rastaydy. Oghan deyingi patshanyng Qúz han As Shyn esimi men onyng ózining Shyng As han esimi ózara baylanysty. Ol ekeui de ózderin ejelgi Huni imperiyasyn biylegen Asylúyalyq Shyn patshalarynyng (Shaniu-shynýi) tikeley izbasarlary dep tanyghan. Shynghyshan ústanghan Yas (Yassy) dәstýri dúrysynda Asylúya dinastiyasynyn biyligin zandastyratyn «As konstitusiyasy» bolyp tabylady. Altyn orda astanasy Ibn Batuta jazbasynda As-saray dep kórsetilgenin ózbek ghalymdary anyqtap berdi (orys ghalymdary ony «Aq Saray» dep búrmalaghan). Osy derekter men Shynghyshan esimi dúrysynda «Shyng As han» ekeni, onyng ejelgi Huni imperiyasyn biylegen Asylúyang (siluani) dinastiyasy úrpaghy bolghanyn dәleldeydi.

Qúz han As Shyng imperiyasyn (Szini imperiyasyn) joyghan Tarbaghataydan shyqqan Tatar patshasy. Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan HIII ghasyrdyng basynda az ghana jyldar sol Tatar patshasy iyeligine ótkenin jәne Horezmshah pen Tatar patshasy arasyndaghy qaqtyghystar Shynghyshan joryghyna deyin jalghasqanyn, Horezmshahtyng «Tatar hany iyelenbesin» dep Qazaq handyghynyng kóptegen qalalaryn (Taraz, Qúlan, Isfidjap, Talasaghyn (Balasaghyn) qalalary)) qiratqanyn Ibn әl Asir anyq jazady. Ibn әl Asir derekterinen Seldjuk pen Horezmshah әuletteri men Tatar hanynyn әuleti Týrki Ashinalyq dinastiyagha jatatyny anyq bayqalady. Al Qúz han As Shyn men Shyng As han (Shynghyshan) әuletteri olardyng baqtalasy jujandyq Shiybórash-shiyvey dinastiyasynan bolady (Shynghyshan әuleti men Tatar hany jau bolghany belgili).

Qazirgi Mangholiya aimaghyn Jujan-jýrjan qaghanaty zamanynan Shynghyshannyng ata-babalary – Shiybórash-shiyveyler biyledi. Shynghyshan ruy – Bórijigin, maghynasy – bóri ruyn. Ejelgi Huni imperiyasynda «shyghys djuk hanzadasy» jәne «batys djuk hanzadasy» degen lauazymdar bolghan, osy fakti «jik» atauynyng erteden kәzirgi «ru» atauy ornynda qoldanylghanyn kórsetedi (mysaly: «seldjuk» dúrysynda «asyljik» bolady). Shynghyshannyng atalary jaghymsyz estiletin «shiybórash» atauyn HI ghasyrdan keyin «bóri jigin» dep ózgertkenin qytay jazbalary aighaqtaydy. Olardyng Manjur elindegi tuystary «jýrjen» atauymen saqtaldy. Al bizding aimaqta qalyp músylmandyqqa ótken shiybórash toby óz ataularyn «shapyrash» dep ózgertken. Jogharydaghy derektegi Hubaysh ibn ash-Shybyl degen biyleushi de shiybórash tobynyng úrpaghy («Shybyl» degen ru shapyrashty taypasynda bar). Onyng Shyng patshasyna baryp bas saughalauy da solay ekenine aighaq. Qazaq ghalymdarynyng genndik zertteuleri Shynghyshangha eng jaqyn qazaq taypasy shapyrashty ekenin dәleldep berdi.

Orhon eskertkishterinde, han tәjderinde tazqara qúsy (samúryq-qúmay) beynelengen. Shynghyshan tuynda da sol tazqara beynelengeni jәne Altyn ordanyng әuelgi eltanbasynda sol tazqara beynesi bolghany mәlim (Resey gerbindegi qústyng tazqara ekenin paydalanghan key orys ghalymdary «Altyn orda orys memlekettiligining bastauy» dep otyr osy kýni). Sol Orhon eskertkishterining birinde túmsyghyna túmar ilingen tazqara qúsy beynelengen, túmar – shapyrashty taypasynyng tanbasy (Shynghyshannyng ata-babalary osy eskertkish arqyly músylman tuystarynyng tanbalary túmargha ózgergenin eskertip ketken). Músylmandyq qabyldaghan shapyrash-shiybórashtar ru tanbasyn jansyz beynege auystyrugha mәjbýr boldy. Óitkeni, jandy beyneli tanba islam sharighatyna qayshy edi. Sondyqtan olar tazqara beynesin ýsh búryshty túmargha auystyrghan (Resey gerbin tolyq ýsh búryshpen kómkerseniz, ol túmar beyneli bolyp shygha keledi). Músylmandyq qabyldaghan shiybórash-shapyrash toby qarapayym ru-taypalarmen qúdalasyp aralasty, osy sebepti olar handyq qúru qúqynan airylyp qarapayym taypa bolyp qalyptasty. Al qazirgi Mangholiya aumaghynda bolghan shiybórashtar «bóri jigin» dep atalghanyn aittyq. Olar tek aq taypamen, qonyrat ruymen ghana qúdalasu dәstýrin ústanghandyqtan, býkil týrki әlemin biyleu qúqyn saqtap qaldy. Qúz han As Shyng men Shyng As han sol mýmkindikterin tolyq paydalynyp, óz zamandarynda Euraziyada alyp imperiyalar ornatty.

Shynghyshan úrpaqtary músylmandyq qabyldau arqyly handyq qúqyn joghaltatyndaryn jaqsy týsindi. Sondyqtan olar «Tóreler – qara taypamen qyz alyspaytyn aqsýiek ru» degen dәstýrdi engizdi. Ol zandy músylman qazaqqa týsindiru qojalargha jýkteldi, osylaysha qojalar biylikke jaqyndaugha mýmkindik aldy jәne "Qojalar da aqsýiek tobynan" degen týsinik qalyptastyrdy. Osy derekter men tújyrymdar Orhon eskertkishteri Shynghyshan ata-babalaryna tiyesili ekenin jәne shapyrashty taypasy men bórijiging (Shynghyshan ruy) arghy teginde bir tuystyq bolghanyn rastaydy. Memleket halqyn ýsh jýzge bólgende, ózderine tuys shapyrashty taypasy otyrghan aimaqqa «Úly jýz» atauyn bergen desek, qatelespeymiz. Al Orhon eskertkishterine oghyzdyq dialektide jalghan jazbalar qashap engizgen – Resey imperiyasy. Osylaysha, olar eskertkish iyelerin qazaqtildi emes, «oghyztildi» qylyp kórsetti. Olardy Shynghyshannyng ata-babalary emes, «Týrki Ashinalardyng ata-babasy» dep búrmalap tariyhqa engizdi.

Jýrjan atauyn «jujan» qylghan «r» dybysy joq qytay jazbalary.  Jujan-jýrjandardyng әskeri manghystaulyq manghy taypasy bolghan, manjur atauy sol manghy men jurjandardyn ortaq atauy retinde qalyptasqan. Olar syanibiy-hidan elin basyp alyp biylegen, olargha «manjur» degen atau bergen – sol syanibiy-hidan eli. Jujan-jurjan biyleushileri «jurjen» atauymen Manjur qúramynda jeke ru bolyp saqtalghan. Manjur-jurjandar ózderine baghynyshty syanibiy-hidan elin «halyq» dep atady. Sondyqtan syanibiy-hidan eli atauy keyin «halha» bolyp ózgerip ketti. Manjurlar men hidan-halhalar qazirgi Shyghys Manjuriyada erteden kórshi otyrghany mәlim.

Qazirgi Mangholiya aimaghyn Jujan qaghanaty zamanynan Shynghyshannyng ata-babalary shiybórash-shiyveyler biylegenin, olardyng atauy keyin Bórijiging bolyp ózgergenin aittyq (maghynasy – bóri ruyn). Jujan әskeri negizinen manghystaulyq manghy taypasy bolghanynda aittyq. Sol Manghy taypasy adamdaryn kópshe týrde «manghylar» degendikten, taypa atauy HI ghasyrdan keyin «manghyl» bolyp qalyptasqan (manghy taypasynyng Europa dalasyndaghy bóligin ondaghy slavyandar kópshe týrde «mangyty» dep ataghan. Sondyqtan olardyng atauy «manghyt» bolyp qalyptasty jәne noghay últynyng negizin sol manghyt taypasy qalyptastyrdy). Shynghyshan zamanyndaghy manghyl taypasynyn eng belgili ruy – taydjut, onyng dúrysy – adayjúrt (ony «taydjut» qylghan «r» dybysy joq qytay jazbalarynyng yqpaly). Ataqty Jebe qolbasshynyng óz esimi – Jorghaaday, ol – taydjut ruynan. Altaydaghy sol taydjut ruy mekendegen aimaqta Aday degen kól әli de bar. Osy derekter Shynghyshan әuletining әskery kýshi manghyl taypasy ekenin kórsetedi, olardyng qazirgi «manghol» dep atalatyn halhalargha ýsh qaynasa sorpasy qosylmaytyny anyq.

Shynghyshan zamanynda qazirgi halha-mangholdar Manjuriyanyng shyghysyn mekendegen halha-hidan eli bolatyn. Olar Mangholiya aimaghyna keshegi HVI ghasyrda ghana kelip qonystandy. Býgingi Mangholiya – ejelden qazaqtar mekendegen aimaq (nayman, arghyn, kerey, uaq, merki, manghyl, bórijigin, jalayyr, qonyrat taypalary). Mangholiya aumaghyn әueli HVI ghasyrda Shyghys Sibir men Baykalda payda bolghan Shonqyr (jonghar) handyghy jaulap aldy (halqy budda dinindegi oirat pen qyrghyzdar bolghan). Artynsha olardy Shyghys Manjuriyadan shyqqan manjur jýrjandar talqandap, Mangholiya aumaghyn olardan tartyp alghan. Manjur jurjandar әsker retinde ózderine baghynyshty halha-hidan elin paydalandy. Osylaysha halhalar sol HVI ghasyrda qazirgi Mangholiya aumaghyna kelip qonystandy. Ondaghy qazaqtar ysyrylyp Bayan ólkesine shoghyrlandy, kóbisi qazirgi qazaq dalasyna auyp ketip, HIH ghasyrlarda ghana qaytadan ataqonystaryna kóship barghan.

Shonqyr handyghy Resey sayasatymen tariyhqa «Jonghar zandyghy» bolyp endi (shong qyralyp qyrghyz degen maghynada). Ol memleket talqandalghanda, oirattardyng Altay tauyna jan saughalaghandary onda altay, shors tәrizdi týrkilik últtardy qalyptastyrdy. Oirattardyng manjurlargha baghynghandary halhalargha sinip, manghol tildi oirattar bolyp ózgerdi. Al qyrghyzdardyng ýlken toby qazirgi Qyrghyzstangha auyp kelip, ondaghy qazaqtardy ózderine sindirip, músylmandyq qabyldap, qyrghyz degen halyqqa ainaldy.

Qyrghyzdardyng bir toby Altaylyq týrki últtarynyng qúramynda óz atauymen saqtaldy (qyrghyzdardyng qazirgi otyrghan jerine tek HVII ghasyrdyng basynda Mangholiyadan auyp kelgenin HIH ghasyrdaghy orys tarihshysy Levshin anyq derektermen kórsetken). Shonqyr-Jonghar handyghynyng halqy týrki tildi oirat pen qyrghyz boldy, qazaq pen jonghar esh tilmәshsiz ózara týsiniskeni barshagha mәlim. Sondyqtan qazirgi qalmaq pen mangholdy jongharlardyng tuysy deu – qatelik, qalmaq pen qazirgi mangholdardy qazaq tilmәshsiz týsine almaydy, óitkeni ekeui de halha-hidan elinen.

Qazaq halqynyng ejelden Euraziyany biylep-tóstegen kóne halyq ekenin Resey imperiyasy barynsha jasyryp baqty. Olar ejelgi danqty tarihy baryn biletin eldi baghyndyru qiyn bolaryn jaqsy týsindi, sol sebepten qazaqtyng tarihyn kýlparsha qylyp ózgertti. Al qyrghyzdardy Orta Aziyada erteden bar kóne halyq qylyp kórsetumen boldy. Óitkeni, taudaghy shaghyn aimaqta otyrghan az ghana qyrghyzdan Resey imperiyasynyng bolashaghyna esh qauip tónbesi anyq edi. Al orasan ýlken aimaqty mekendegen qazaq halqynyng aman saqtaluy jәne kóbengi Resey imperiyasynyng bolashaghyna qauipti bolatyn. Olar Shynghyshannyng qazaq ekenin jәne ol ornatqan imperiya Alash orda ekenin de jasyrdy. Alash ordany tariyhqa «Altyn Orda» qylyp engizdi. Óitkeni, altyn – halha-manghol men qazaq tilinde bir maghynada, al alash – qazaqtyng ekinshi balama atauy («alash» atauy memleketting qazaqqa tiyesili ekenin aighaqtaytynyn jaqsy týsindi, sondyqtan ony «altyn» atauymen almastyrdy). Resey imperiyasy HIH ghasyrda Qytay imperiyasynan qazirgi Mangholiya aumaghyn tartyp alghany, sol aumaqtaghy halha eline Mangholiya atauymen avtonomiyalyq jeke memleket ornatyp bergeni mәlim. Memleketteri Mangholiya dep atalghandyqtan onyng halqy (halhalardy) «manghol» dep atalyp ketti. Osylaysha orys ghalymdary: «Shynghyshan zamanyndaghy manghyl eli men qazirgi halha-manghol – bir halyq» deuge mýmkindik aldy.

 (Jalghasy bar)

Bekjan Ádenúly

Abai.kz

 

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