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Din men tin 46553 41 pikir 12 Shilde, 2018 saghat 01:59

«Alash Ordany» tútas halyqtyng qoldamauynyng astarynda din problemasy jatyr

Dinning qogham ómirindegi rólin baghalay almau, sanaspau әr kezde qoghamdaghy sheshilui tiyis mәselening ontayly sheshiluine kedergi bolyp jatady. Osy týsinikten osy kýnge deyin aryla almay kele jatqan jayymyz bar. Osy qatelikti kezinde Alash qayratkerleri de basynan ótkergenin sol kezendegi qazaq qoghamyndaghy diniy-ruhany ýderisterge taldau jasaghanda týsine alamyz. Áriyne, ol kezendegi qazaqtyng diny tanymynyng ózinde bir izdilik bolmaghanyn da eskeruimiz kerek. Ruhany tútastyghy әlsiregen halyqtyng syrttan týrli aghymdar jeteginde ketetini belgili jayt. «Alash» partiyasy qayratkerlerining tútas halyqty júmyldyryp, sondaryna erte almauynyng astarynda osy din mәselesi jatqandyghyna әli kónil bólgenimiz joq.

Osy mәseleni terenirek qozghap, qazaq dalasyndaghy 17-19 ghgh. diniy-ruhany ýderisterge taldau jasaytyn bolsaq, onda diny faktordyng alashtyqtardyng azattyq jolyndaghy kýresinde kedergi keltirgenine kóz jetkizuge bolady. Nege? Osy súraqqa jauap beru ýshin songhy ýsh-ghasyrdaghy diniy-ruhany ýderisterge taldau jasau qajettigi tuady.

Qazaq halqynyng ruhany tútastyghynyng jikteluining basy Esim hannan bastalyp, Tәuke hannyng «Jeti jarghysymen» ayaqtalghany, Yasauy joly ókilderi-qojalardy ruhany sayasy biylik jýiesinen shettetip, olardyng ruhany basshylyqtaghy ornyn naqshbandiya tariqaty ókilderine, rulyq taypalyq jýiedegi basshylyqtaghy ornyn әr rudyng taypanyng ózinen shyqqan ókilderge berui boldy. Nәtiyjesinde qazaq halqynyng ruhany tútastyghy ydyrady. Naqshbandiya tariqatyn tolyghymen qabyl etken ru-taypalar ózbektendi. Qazaqstannyng Ontýstik ónirlerin mekendeytin ózbek halqy osy sayasiy-ruhany reformanyng jemisi. Memleketting qúrylymdyq jýiesi búzyldy. Búrynghy qara – qoja – tóreden túratyn memleketting basqaru jýiesi ydyrap, onyng ornyna hannyng absoluttik biyligine negizdelgen jýie qalyptastyryldy. Búl qazaq halqynyng ruhany tútastyghyn ydyratugha baghyttalghan әreketting jeniske jetui edi. Múnyng sony qazaq halqynyng Jonghar shapqynshylyghy kezeninde ózinen sany az halyqtan oisyray jeniluine әkelgeni belgili. Abylay hannyng dәstýrli qazaq qoghamyn qayta qalpyna keltirmek bolghan әreketi sәtsiz ayaqtalyp, múnyng sony ol kisining dýniyeden ketuimen ayaqtaldy. Qazaq dalasyndaghy osy tike-tiresti jiti baqylap otyrghan Resey patshalyghy sol 18 ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda ózining sayasy maqsatyna tiyimdi paydalanghysy keldi. Úzaq jyldargha sozylghan zertteu júmystary arqasynda, otarshyldar, qazaq qoghamynyng ruhany tútastyghyn ydyratpay túryp, ony tolyghymen sayasy túrghydan iygeru mýmkin emestigin aiqyn sezindi. Orys zertteushileri ol kezende qazaq dalasyn sharlap, onyng әdet-ghúryp, salt-dәstýrin, jalpy ruhani, mәdeny bolmysyn býge-shigesine deyin zertteude bolatyn.  Búl Resey imperiyasynyng Qazaq handyghy tarihtan ketpey túryp, qazaq dalasyn dini-iydelogiyalyq túrghydan iygeruge baghyttalghan әreketke kirisuine mýmkindik berdi. Ol әreket Ufa jәne Simbirsk namestniygi O.A. Ingelistromnyng úsynysyna sәikes II Ekaterinanyng jarlyghy boyynsha Ufa qalasynda músylman diny basqarmasynyng 1789 jyly ashyluynan bastaldy. Sóitip, alghash ret qazaq dalasyn diniy-ruhany túrghydan iygeruge baghyttalghan Resey imperiyasynyng sayasaty iske qosyldy. Ol diny basqarma Orynbor muftiyligi dep ataldy[1.104]. Maqsaty – qazaq dalasyn dini, ruhany túrghydan ydyratu, músylmandardyng diny negizde bas kóterulerining aldyn alu edi. Ol ýshin arnayy osy maqsatqa dayyndalghan moldalar qazaq halqynyng dәstýrli dinine qayshy keletin uaghyzdar jýrgizuge tiyis boldy. Olar qazaq arasyna kirip, qazaqtyng dәstýrli diny tanymynan ajyratugha, tanym negizderin ózgertuge kýsh saldy. Ol moldalardy qazaq arasynda «zakaznoy moldalar» dep atady. Óitkeni, әrbir qazaq auly olardyng oqyghan qarajaty men ózge shyghyndaryn tólep, satyp alatyn. Orynbor muftiyligi qazaq arasynda ózining múnday ruhany ydyratushylyq baghytyndaghy әrektining auqymyn myna sifrlardan-aq kóruimizge bolady. XVIII ghasyr sonynda qazaq arasynda Resey imperiyasynyng sayasatyn jýrgizetin 28 ahun, 969 molda, 114 meshit, 1921 mudarris boldy [1.105]. Olardyng qazaq halqynyng dәstýrli diny tanymyna qarsy әreketin qazaq ziyalylary kórmey qalghan joq. Olar qarsy әreket etti. Diny túlghalar qazaq halqynyng ruhany tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalugha kýsh saldy. Múny biz Kenesary hannyng Resey patshalyghyna qarsy kýresin qoldaghan Maral ishan mysalynda kóre alamyz. Onyng qazaq halqynyng tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalu jolyndaghy әreketi, tek diny uaghyzben ghana shektelip qalmay, qolgha qaru alyp kýresuge de shaqyrdy. Qazaq jerining soltýstiginde tuylghan Maral ishan Reseyding otarshyl sayasatymen  kýrese jýrip, Syr boyyna kelip, túraqtaydy. Sayasy kýreste jene almasyn sezgen ol qazaq halqynyng ruhany tәuelsizdin saqtap qalugha kýsh salady. Ol din isterin Reseymen emes, Búharamen baylanystyrghandy jón sanady. Búl әreket óz jemisin berdi[2]. Qazaq dalasynyng ontýstik ólkesining halqy diny qyzmetkerlerdi Búhara qalasynda oqytudy qolgha aldy. Búl әreket Syr ónirinde keninen etek jaydy desek artyq aitqandyq emes. Oghan Maral ishan әrekti tikeley yqpal etkenine dau joq. Búhara qalasyndaghy medreselerde oqyp, qazaq arasyna qayta oralghan túlghalardyng qazaq halqynyng ruhany ósuining kezekti baspaldaghynyng biri bolghany anyq. Eng bastysy, Búhara qalasyna barghan jastardyng aldymen «Mir Arab» medresesine baruynyng ózi jas talapkerding ózge diny aghym sonyna ermeuin qadaghalap, diny tanymyn qalyptastyryp baryp, ózge oqu oryna auysatynyn kóremiz. Óitkeni, «Mir Arab» medresesining negizin qalaghan, saldyrghan Yasauy jolynyng ortaghasyrlardaghy kórnekti ókili, Múhammed Shaybany hangha pir bolghan, Sauran qojalarynyng ókili bolatyn. Ol jerde 20 ghasyr basyna deyin Yasauy joly negizinde bilim berilip keldi. Bilim aludy osy oqu ornynan bastaghan jastar odan keyingi oqu oryndarynda qansha bilim alsa da, ózge aghym sonyna ilese qoymaytyn. Sol sebepti, Búhara qalasynda oqyp, bilim alghan Syr boyy ahundarynyng oi-pikirleri qazaqtyng dәstýrli diny tanymynan alshaq bolghan joq. Ony Syr boyy ahundarynyng mysalynan kóre alamyz. Alayda, qazaq halqynyng ishinde olargha da kýdikpen qaraghanyn kóremiz. Oghan mysal retinde Bazar jyraudyng Qaljan ahungha arnaghan myna óleninen kóruge bolady:

Jany ardaqty jaqsynyn,

Kýnde biri ólsin der.

«Janazasyn oqy» -dep-

Shaqyrushy kelsin!-der.

«Sqat, Qúran shygharyp,

Mal men mýlkin bólsin!» der.

Sol bólingen oljadan,

«Ózgelerden kóbirek,

Sybaghama bersin!» der.

Búl moldalar tilegi. [3.162]              

Biraq, Búhara qalasynda oqu bitirip kelgen diny túlghalardyng kópshiligi Resey tarapynan dayyndalghan moldalardan ýlken ereksheligi boldy. Olardyng dýniye, mal ýshin emes, halyqtyng ruhany tútastyghyn qalyptastyrugha, ózgelerding ruhany yqpalyna týsip qalmaudyng aldyn alu ýshin qyzmet etkenin kóremiz. Oraz-Múhammed ahun Beketayúly, Aldashbay ahun Ernazarúly, Qaljan ahun Bólekbayúly siyaqty túrghalar qazaq halqynyng ruhany tәuelsizdigin saqtap qalu jolyndaghy naghyz kýreskerler boldy. Búlardyng enbekterining arqasynda «Syr sýleyleri» degen atqa ie bolghan aqyn-jyraular shoghyry dýniyege keldi desek artyq aitqandyq emes. Sonymen qatar, Búhara medreselerinen bilim alghan týlekter arasynda qazaq ruhaniyatyna jana serpin, jana lep әkelegen túlghalar kóp boldy. Mysaly, Túrmaghambet syndy túlghalar arab, parsy halyqtaryndaghy inju-marjandardy qazaq tanymyna say qayta jyrlap, qazaqtyng ruhany bolmysynyng ayasyn kenitti. Qazaq halqynyng Resey patshalyghynyng dini-iydeologiyalyq sayasatyna qarsylyghy Syr boyy men Ontýstik ónirlerde osynday sipat alsa, soltýstik jaghynda tikeley qarsylyqqa úlasyp jatty. Halyq «zakaznoy moldalardy» dindi búzdyng dep, auyldardan qughany Qúbanghaly Halid enbekterinde jazylghan. Onyng sony jalpy qazaq halqynyng ózderin muftiylik qúramynan shygharu turaly patshagha aryz jazugha úlasqanyn kóruge bolady. Patsha ókimeti qazaq halqynyng osy aryzyn paydalanyp, qazaq halqyn hristian dinine ótkizuge әreket jasaydy. Belgili qazaqtan shyqqan islam dinining kórnekti qayratkeri Saduaqas Ghylmanidyng «Qazaq halqynyng Nikolaygha qarsy shyghuy, ony bastaushy Shaymerden Qosshyghúlovtyng tarihy ghúmyrnamasy» atty maqalasynda qazaq halqynyng ózining diny tanymyn qalay qorghaghany jazylghan. Oqigha bylay bayandalady: «Óitkeni, patsha qolyndaghy Bas Arhiyereyin jiberipti. Sol búiryq boyynsha auylnay men bolystar, biyler әr stansiya basyna bes ýy tigip, 80 at, 100 qoy soyysty dayarlap qoyyp, ózderi 10 qoydan jep, kýtip jatady. Arhiyerey uyezdik nachalinik Kanaualov (Kanovalov) degenning ýiine týsip, 1200 qazaqty shirkeu týbine jinap qoyyp, Kupryan degen orysty tilmash qylyp, altynday jarqyraghan kiyimin kiyip shyghyp: «Qazaq halqyn músylman dep muftiyge qaratqan әuelgi jaqsy basshylarynyz agha súltan ózderinizding sәbetteriniz boyynsha: «Bizge muftiyding keregi joq. Biz әdet zanymen túramyz» dep bizge aryz bergen. Sol tilek boyynsha sizderdi muftiyden shygharghan. Osy kýnde sizder dinsiz túrsyzdar! Sol sebepti sizderdi aq patshanyz jaqsy, anyq dinge salugha jiberdi. Óitkeni, memleket sizderge din tauyp beruge mindetti. Endi sizderding din turaly úlyqtarynyz - men. Óz tilderinmen jazdyryp, altyn din kitabyn alyp keldim» [4, 62-63  bb.]. Osy maqalada aitylghan, tatar moldalaryna qarsy shyghugha sebep bolyp jýrgen «әdet zany» qazaq halqynyng diny dýniyetanymynyng ózegi bolghan Yasauy joly bolatyn. Kezinde belgili jazushy Sәbit Múqanov qazaq halqynyng әdet-ghúrpy turaly ózining «Han qazyq, by toqpaq» atty maqalasynda bylay dep jazdy: «Qazaqtar islam dinin týgel qabyldaghannan keyin, әdet zanyna sharighat ýkimi aralasty. Múnday zandylyq arabtardan bastap músylman elderining bәrinde bar. Arabtar әdet zanyn – tariqat, din zanyn – sharighat – dep ataydy. Ózge músylmandar da solay ataydy. Qazaqta sharighattan tariqat basym boldy. Búl zandy qoldaushylar biyler» [5, 82 b.]. Búl qazaq halqynyng ózining dәstýrli diny tanymy men әdet-ghúrpy, salt-dәstýrin qalay qorghaghanyn kórsetedi.

Qazaq dalasyndaghy Resey patshalyghynyng diniy-ruhany saladaghy qysymyna qarsy kýres múnymen ayaqtalghan joq. XIX ghasyr sony men XX ghasyr basynda býkil Evraziya músylmandaryn týgel qamtyghan jәdidshildik atty qozghalysqa úlasty. Olar toqyraugha týsken músylman halyqtaryn oyatyp, Islam әlemin jana satygha kóteremiz degen ýmitte boldy. Alayda búl jәdidshildik qozghalystyng týbi óz bastauyn Abd al-Uahhab Najdy negizin salghan uahhabiylikten alatynyn ol kezde kópshilik bile qoyghan joq. Sol kezding ózinde búl aghymnyng qaterli ekendigin kóre bilgen Islam ghúlamalary olardy әshkereledi. Mysaly, daghystandyq ghúlama Abd al-Hafiz Uhly ózining bir shygharmasynda jadidshiler turaly bylay deydi: «Vtoroe techenie — eto gruppa djadidov. (Birinshisi uahhabiylik) Ono nazyvaetsya obnovlencheskoy partiey (hizb al-djadiyd). Ego osnoval samyy vredonosnyy seyateli smuty shayh Djamal ad-din al-Afgani. Y eto naibolee vrajdebnoe techenie po otnoshenii k posledovatelyam istinnogo islama, y ono vo mnogo raz bolee vrednoe y sbivaishee s pravednogo puty v etom islamskom miyre, chem pervoe techeniye. Djamal ad-din al-Afgany zahotel vnesty smutu v religii v Afganistane, to praviyteli Afganistana izgnal ego iz svoih zemeli. V 1286 godu hidjry, Djamal ad-din al-Afgany otpravilsya v Egiypet. On jil v uniyversiytete “al-Azhar”, obuchalsya tam y nachal rasprostranyati zlo y zablujdeniye. Vtoroy seyateli smuty — eto Muhammad ‘Abdo. Ego duhovnaya jizni proshla v slujeniy shaytanu y v ispolneniy [del], protivorechashih religii» [6]. Búl aghymnyng jaqtaushylary uahhabiylerge tәn tanymmen sopylyq jolgha, halyqtyng dәstýrli senim negizderine qarsy shyqty. Oghan mysal retinde Ghúmar Qarashtyng myna ólenin keltire alamyz:

Sopysyp nadan jýrgeni-

Qanahagha kirgeni.

Qúlash jarym tas tizip,

Moynyna orap ilgeni.

Shartyn bilmey qoldanyp,

Shatasyp әbden býlgeni.

Riyazat shegip úiyqtamay,

Karamat týrli kórgeni.

Hluette zikir aitam dep,

Tiriley kórge kirgeni.

Múnyng bәrin oilasam,

Nadandyqtyng kelgeni [7, 52-53 bb.].

Jәditshildik baghyttyng dәstýrli din negizderine osynday qayshy keletin tústarynyng barlyghyna qaramastan   búl joldy qoldamaghan XX ghasyr basyndaghy músylman halyqtarynan shyqqan intelliygensiya ókilderi bolghan joq dep aitsa bolady. Mysaly, “Islam tuday. ru” jariyalanghan indiyalyq tarihshy Abuzar Hayry maqalasynda bylay deydi: «V serediyne devyatnadsatogo veka eto dviyjenie (djadidizm) rasprostranilosi sredy musuliman Rossiy s seliu ih prosvesheniya. Djadidity podnyaly svoy golosa v polizu izmeneniya (politiki) izolyasiy (musuliman ot ostalinogo mira). Ony borolisi protiv ogranichennosty islamskogo bogosloviya y za vvedenie svetskih predmetov v uchebnyy plan musulimanskih obrazovatelinyh uchrejdeniy. Takie intellektualy kak Abdul Nasir ali-Kursavi, Shahabuddin ali-Mardjani, Husayn Faizhan, Shamsuddin Kulitesi, Muhammad Nasir Tunteri, Ziyauddin Kemali, Alimdjan Barudy y Musa Djarullah byly vydayshimy lichnostyamy vo vremya nachala boriby za prosvesheniye. Ih sobstvennaya tradisionnaya sistema maktabov (nachalinoe obrazovaniye) y medrese (srednee obrazovaniye) obespechila mnojestvo obrazovannyh y izvestnyh uchenyh. No k konsu 19-ogo stoletiya obrazovaniye, poluchaemoe v etih uchrejdeniyah, stalo bolee uzkim y provinsialinym, v to je vremya eto bylo bespolezno dlya ekonomicheskogo razvitiya.» [8]. Osy mәseleni terenirek zerttegen tatar zertteushilerining kózqarasy, kerisinshe, jәditshildikke teris kózqarastary qalyptasa bastaghanyn kóruge bolady. Onyng sebebi, jәditshildik kózqarastyng týpki shyghu tegin anyqtaghan song ghana, búl baghyttyng halyqtyng diny tanymy negizderine keri yqpalyn sezine bastady. Ol turaly osy jәditshildikke baylanysty ótkizilgen arnayy otyrysta qarastyrylghan bolatyn. Sol otyrysta Reseyding strategiyalyq zertteuler institutynyng Privoljskiy bólimining basshysy Rays Sulaymanov bylay degen bolatyn: «Vtoraya polovina XIX v istoriy Rossiyskoy imperiy harakterizovalisi ekonomicheskim podemom, burnym razvitiyem promyshlennosti, chto priyvelo razlojenii tradisionnogo obshestva. Vsledstvie etogo vozniklo dva moshnyh politicheskih techeniya - liyberalinoe y konservativnoe. Eto yavlenie samo po sebe bylo svoystvenno ne toliko russkomu obshestvu, no y mnogim narodam, naselyaishim rossiyskuy derjavu. Ne byly isklucheniyem y tatary, v srede kotoryh poyavilisi dva obshestvenno-politicheskih dviyjeniya - djadidizm (ot arab. ali-djadid - novyy metod) y kadimizm (ot arab. kadim - drevniy, staryi). Sootvetstvenno, priyverjensev pervogo techeniya nazyvaly djadidistamy ily djadidami, priyverjensev vtorogo - kadimistami. Poyavlenie oboih napravleniy tatarskoy obshestvennoy mysly pervonachalino bylo svyazano s sistemoy obrazovaniya, gde djadidy vystupaly storonnikamy ego sekulyarizasii, v to vremya kak kadimisty byly ego protivnikamy y vystupaly za sohranenie tradisionnoy sholasticheskoy pedagogiki. Odnako k rubeju nachala HH veka y osobenno posle revolusiy 1905-1907 gg. oba techeniya oformilisi iz sugubo didaktiko-pedagogicheskih v obshestvenno-politicheskie y religioznye dviyjeniya. Sootvetstvenno, djadidy vystupaly v kachestve storonnikov evropeizasiy tatarskogo obshestva, v politicheskoy sfere oriyentirovalisi na razlichnye «reformistskiye» politicheskie iydeologiy (ot kadetov y eserov do bolishevikov), v to vremya kak kadimisty byly priyverjensamy konservatizma v forme pravogo monarhizma. [9].  Búl jerde R.Sulaymanovtyng mәseleni dúrys qoyyp otyrghanyn kóruimizge bolady.   Áriyne, jadidshilerding diny oqu oryndaryna ghylymy pәnderdi engizui, sol kezendegi sayasi-ekonomikalyq talaptargha jauap bergeni ras.  Búl ýderisten 19 ghasyrdyng sony men 20 ghasyr basyndaghy qazaq zialy qauym ókilderining de búl ýderisten syrt qalmaghanyn kóremiz. Qazaq zertteushilerining arasynda jәdidshildik kózqarasqa qazirgi kýnge deyin ong bagha berip kelgenin aitugha tiyispiz. Mysaly, D. Qamzabekúly búl baghytty arnayy tújyrymdama retinde baghalaghan: «Jәdidshildik – birynghay sayasy sipatty qozghalys emes, ol aghartu isi men ruhaniyatty tútastay qamtyghan iydeyalyq negizi bar konsepsiya, әri aghym. Konsepsiya bolatyn sebebi, onda dara aghartushylardyng oilaryna taban tiregen, iydeya men tәjiriybening arasyn qosqan kózqarastar jýiesi bar. Al, aghym boluynyng mәnisi, ol belgili kezende Resey músylmandaryna aghartudyng bir jolyn, biraq tiyimdi jolyn kórsetti» [10, 33 b.].  Jәditshilder turaly múnday kózqaras basqa zertteushiler tarapynan da qoldau tapqanyn kóremiz. «Alash» partiyasynyng ókili Ghúmar Qarashtyng diny kózqarasyn zerttegen B.Tayyrova Ghúmar Qarash dýniyetanymyn zerttey kele, mynaday qorytyndygha keledi: «Jәdidshildik – týrkilik әleumettik-etikalyq kenistikte payda bolghan jәne islamnyng auqymyndaghy ruhany janghyru jolyndaghy әleumettik subektilerding әreketterining jiyntyghy. Onyng týpki astary aghartushylyq prinsipteri arqyly qogham men adamdy jetildiru» [11, 35 b.]. Jalpy, tәuelsizdikten keyingi jәditshildik kózqarasqa qatysty jýrgizilgen zertteu júmystarynyng barlyghy derlik búl qozghalystyng sol kezendegi iygi yqpalyna toqtalady. Biz ony ÚGhA Filosofiya jәne dintanu GhZIY-i tarapynan jariyalanghan «Ghúmar Qarash» atty jinaqta jәditshildik baghyt-baghdaryna taldau jasay kele avtorlar mynaday qortyndygha keledi: «Osynday әr tarapty týsindirmeler men kózqarastardy negizge alsaq, bizdinshe, Qazaq jerindegi jәdidshildikting dәstýrli islamnan nemese qadimshyldyqtan basty aiyrmashylyghy men negizgi erekshelikteri mynaday: 1. Islam dini men últtyq iydeyany kiriktirudi negizge alady. Búl ýndestikting ózin ýsh baghytta ajyratyp kórsetip beruimizge bolady: birinshisi, músylman dinining iydeyalyq birligin, retteushilik qyzmetin últtyq ruhty óristetuge qoldanudyng ózindik bir ýlgisin jasap beredi. Ekinshisi, «músylman» men «últ» úghymynyng eshqaysysyna basymdylyq bermey, qatar alyp jýrudi jәne ony ómirlik tәjiriybede qatang saqtaudy ústanady. Ýshinshisi, últtyq birlik pen ruhty paydalana otyryp, islam dinine bet búrudy qoldaydy. Sondyqtan olar el ishindegi sayasiy-әleumettik mәselelerge belsendi týrde aralasyp otyrudy da joqqa shygharmaydy, tipti niyetimen qalaydy» [12, 68 b.]. Jәditshildikting sol kezendegi qazaq qoghamyndaghy rolin búlay baghalau, kitap avtorlarynyng diniy-ruhany ýderister tarihy men olardyng baghyt-baghdaryn dúrys saraptay almaghandyghyn kórsetedi. Mysaly, Saduaqas Ghylmanidyng «Zamanymyzda bolghan ghúlamalardyng ghúmyr tarihtary» atty shygharmasynda qazaq dalasyndaghy din ghúlamalarynyng kópshiligi jәditshildikti qoldamaghanyn kóruimizge bolady. Ol turaly atalghan shygharmada kóptegen mysaldar bar. Olardyng barlyghyna taldau jasamay-aq, bireuine toqtalsaq, qazaq ishinde jәditshildikke qarsylyqtyng pәrmendi bolghanyn kóruimizge bolady. Mysaly, Arqagha aty mәlim bolghan qadym baghytynyng ókili Nauan Haziretting myna jazghandary sonyng dәleli. Ol kisi: «Usul-y jadid deganlary 73 fiyrqanyng fiyrqa-y najiyadan basqa bir bad fiyrqanyng zahib bolghan mazhabiy-dýr. Hususan, bad mazhabynyng payda bolghan ibtidasy Hasan Basry zamanynda-dýr», dep, usul-y jaditting shyghu negizin mughtazila aghymymen baylanystyrady[13, 194 b.]. Qadymshylardy da qabyl etpeytin qazaqtyng dәstýrli diny tanymyn ústanghan aqyn-jyraular toby bolghandyghyn biz jogharyda aityp óttik. Egerde sol kezendegi barlyq diny baghyttardyng arajigin ajyratyp, ol baghyttardaghy erekshelikterge taldau jasay otyryp, qortyndysyn shygharghanda avtorlardyng tújyrymy basqasha bolghan bolar edi.  Olar, kerisinshe, óz oilaryn mynaday tújyrymmen odan әri bekite týsedi: «Endeshe, jәdidshildik – islamdyq sholastika men radikaldy, keritartpa baghyttargha qarsy әrbir dәuirding zamanaui-ondy qúndylyqtarynan tys qalmaudy kózdeytin músylman dinindegi iykemdelgish-túraqty qalypty qatar alyp jýrudi quattaytyn dualistik sipatty, barynsha әmbebap konseptualdy, dinnen tamyr tútas tartqan iydeya dep tújyrymdauymyzgha bolady.» [12, 70 b.].

Áriyne, jәditshilerding diny sholastikadan bas tartyp, ghylym-bilimge qaray jastardy baghyttauyn dúrys dep baghalaugha bolady. Alayda, olardyng halyqtyng dәstýrli diny tanym negizderine qarsy shyghuy halyqtyng kópshiligi tarapynan qoldau tappady. Ol zandy da. Jәditshiler týgil, qadymshylardyng ózin qabyl ete qoymaytyn qazaq qoghamynyng ózindik ereksheligi bolghandyghyn týsine almay kele jatqan jayymyz bar. Ol erekshelik – Yasauy mәdeniyeti atalghan ruhany әlem bolatyn. Manghystau jyraulary, Syr sýleyleri, Qaratau atyrabynyng aqyndary, Abay, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr Jýsip sol mәdentiyetting ókilderi boldy jәne búlardyng  qazaq arasyna ruhany yqpaly zor edi. Kez-kelgen últ-azattyq qozghalys ózining is-әreketin halyqtyng ruhaniy-mәdeny bolmysymen sabaqtastyra jýrgizbeytin bolsa, onda ol qozghalystyng yqpaly halyq arasynda pәrmendi bolmaytyny belgili. Osy orayda, kóp bóligi jәditshildik iydeyasymen sabaqtas bolghan Alashtyqtardyng qazaq qoghamymen etene aralasuyna olardyng ústanghan iydeyalyq baghyty kedergi bolghan siyaqty. Biz múny M.Dulatúlynyng «Mudәrris әpendige jazghan bir mәtbuim» atty óleninen bayqaymyz. Ol óleninde ol kisi bylay deydi:

«Tandaghy tәnirden» dep bizding qazaq,

Jetti ghoy týbimizge sol ghafilat.

Qaranghy bir sarayda qamaudamyz,

Esigin kim ashady, búl jahalat? [13].

Búl jerde M.Dulatúlynyng qazaq qoghamynyng artta qaluynda qazaqy bolmystyng boykýiezdigin, nadandyghyn әshkerelep otyrghanyn kóremiz. Áriyne, búl jerde Mirjaqyp Dulatovtyng qazaqqa jany ashyp, qazaq qoghamyn qaytsem oyatamyn degen úmtylysyn kóruge bolady. Dinge qatysty ekinshi bir óleni «Qazaq halqyna diny bir uaghyz» dep atalady. Búl ólende qazaq arasyna «zakaznoy moldalardyn» qajettigin, olardy satylyq jýiemen bir-birine baghyndyra otyryp, diny qúrylym jýiesin qúrsa, sonda halyqtyng diny ústanymy dúrys bolar edi degen pikirdi aitady. Alayda, ol úmtylys qazaqqa ózge halyqtyng ruhaniy-mәdeny yqpalyn arttyru arqyly emes, sol qazaqtyng ishki ruhany quatyn arttyru arqyly jýrgizu kerektigin týsinbedi. Onyng ýstine búl ústanymnyng qazaq bolmysyna say kele bermeytinin eskere bermeydi. Mine, búl baghyttaghy ústanymdar jalpy Alashtyqtargha ortaq bolghan siyaqty.  Búl mәseleni tereninen qozghap, әli jauaby tabylmaghan súraqtargha jauap beru ýshin әli kóp zertteu júmystary jýgizilip, jauap berilui tiyis. Alayda, biz aityp otyrghan mәseleler Alash qayratkerlerining últ-azattyq jolyndaghy kýresining mәni men manyzyn tómendete almaydy. Kerisinshe, Alashtyqtar ózderining últ-azattyq qozghalysyn qazaq ruhaniatymen sabaqtastyra jýrgizgende jenilmegen bolar ma edi?-degen oy mazalaydy. Múnday jenilis bir qazaq qoghamyna ghana tәn emes, Orta Aziyadaghy últ-azattyq qozghalysyna tәn ekendigin kóruimizge bolady. Alash qozghalysy Ontýstik qanatynyng tarihyn zerttegen, «Alash Hәm Týrkistan» atty monografiyalyq zertteuding avtory Haziretәli Túrsyn búl turaly mynaday Mústafa Shoqaydyn: «Býkil Týrkistan túrghyndarynyng kónil-kýiine yqpal jasamaq bolghan osy eki úiym – «Shuroy Islamiya» men «Ghúlamalar kenesi» bir-birimen qyrqysyp jatty. «Týrkistan músylmandar kenesi» osy ekeuin jaqyndastyra almay әurege týsti.  Osy eki úiymnyng arasyndaghy alauyzdyq bizding últtyq tәuelsizdik jolyndaghy kýresimizdi bәsendetip, júmysymyzdy bylyqtyrdy.»-degen pikirin keltiredi de, ony ary qaray bylaysha tarqatady: «Osylaysha Týrkistandaghy últtyq memlekettilik ýshin kýrestegi diny sipatta bayqalghan alauyzdyq qoghamdyq úiymdar men sayasy partiyalardyng baghdarlamalyq qújattarynda naqty kórinis tauyp, odan әri terendey týsti [14, 138 b.].

Jalpy jәditshildik qozghalys turaly osy kýnge deyin zertteushilerding pikiri әli bir arnagha toghysqan joq. Onyng bir-eki mysalyn jogharyda keltirdik te. Biraq bir mәsele moyyndaluy tiyis. Ol – jәditshilerding týp negizi uahhabiylikke baryp tireletinin moyyndau. Biz sol kezde ghana jәditshilerding tarihtaghy roline, sonymen birge, qazirgi kýngi elimizdegi diniy-ruhany ahualgha etken yqpalyna dúrys taldau jasap, baghalay alamyz. Kezinde tәuelsizdikting alghashqy jyldarynda jәditshildik qozghalysqa berilgen ong bagha, elimizge uahhabiylik iydeologiyanyng kedergisiz enuine tikeley yqpal etti. Ókinishke oray, búl mәsele әli ghylymy túrghydan taldanyp, óz baghasyn alghan joq. Múnday mәsele bizde ghana qalyptasyp otyrghan joq. Edil boyy músylmandary da jәditshilik zardabyn әli tartyp otyr. Ol turaly kezinde uahhabiyler qolynan qaza tapqan Tatarstan muftiyining orynbasary  Valiolla Yakubov haziret tatar halqynyng dәstýrli dini men salt-dәstýrin, mәdeniyetin jan-tәnimen qorghaghan túlgha edi. Ol ózining dәstýrshildik  baghyty men uahhabiylikten keletin qauipti qanday bolatynyn «Islam tradisii» atty maqalasynda jazghan bolatyn. Ol maqalada mynaday joldar bar: «Odnako spravedelivosty rady nado otmetiti, chto reformatoramy dviyjet svoe ponimanie problemy, voshiyshenie protestantizmom, reformami, hotya ony ne zadumyvaytsya, horoshy ly reformy, polezny ly oni, kak sotnosyatsya s tatarskim etnosom? ...Zadacha dnya – preodolenie evrosentrizma v poznaniy realinosti, formirovanie uvajeniya k sobstvennomu narodu, ego dostiyjeniyam. Inache je etot strannyy simbioz vahhabizma y djadidizma, obedinivshihsya v atake na mazhab y tradisii mojet pobediti, no sredy obediyteley, kak eto vsegda byvaet, ostanutsya toliko vahhabity. Neobhodimo trezvaya osenka, - rady chego y dlya kogo zatena vsya eta voznya, komu eto vygodno y chto nas jdet. Nemeskuy intelegensii privlekaly v fashizme patriotizm y vozmojnosti revansha, no vmeste s nimy ony poluchily mnogo eshe chego. Takim obrazom, reformatory pomagaya seychas vahhabitam unichtojiti mazhab y svyazannuuy s nim tradisionnui tolerantnosti tatar, ostanutsya na ediyne s vahhabizmom so vsey ego obskurantistkoy prelestiu predsatvlenii: antromorficheskim ponimaniyem Boga, ksenofobiey y neterpimostiu. Mojet byti, lushche uchitisya na chujih oshibkah y ne povtoryati pestovaniya pusti y svoego «musulimanskogo» no vse je fashizma.» [14[11, 35 b.].].  Ol osy kýresting basynda boldy jәne osy jolda ózin qúrban etti. Ókinishke oray, búl qatelikti biz de basymyzdan ótkerip otyrmyz. Ghasyrlar boyy zaryghyp kýtken tәuelsizdik uahhabiylerding últsyzdandyru úranynyng qúrbandyghyna ainalady?- ma degen qauip kýn sanap artyp keledi. Qazirgi meshitke baryp, uaghyz tyndap jýrgen jastardyng 90 payyzynyng diny tanymynda uahhabiylik tanymgha qaray auytqu bar. Búl qazaqtyng ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan diny tanymy men sol tanym negizinde qalyptasqan mәdeniyeti de solyp barady degendi bildiredi.

 

Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter:

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  9. Materialy kruglogo stola posvyashennoy k problemam djadidizma.
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Jandarbek Zikiriya Zamanhanúly, Qoja Ahmet Yasauy atyndaghy Halyqaralyq qazaq-týrik uniyversiyteti, «Yasaui» ghylymiy-zertteu ortalyghynyng agha ghylymy qyzmetkeri

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