Seysenbi, 17 Mamyr 2022
Alashorda 6040 0 pikir 31 Qazan, 2016 saghat 13:05

Túrsyn JÚRTBAY. «ALAShQA!» (jalghasy)

Jazushy, alashtanushy ghalym Túrsyn Júrtbaydyng (surette) «Besigindi týze!..» kitabynyng jalghasy. Ótken bólimderin myna siltemelerden oqy alasyzdar:

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7271       

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7292    

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7363    

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7851    

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7819    

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7851

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=7963

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8004

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8164

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8190

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8438

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8635

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8747

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8925

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=8955

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=9050

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=9536

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=9857

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=10194

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=10277

http://abai.kz/post/view?id=10532

 

Alty Alashqa ayan, 1916 jylghy 25-iini jarlyghy әleginen Jetisu oblysyndaghy qyrghyz-qazaqtyng basyna qiyamet-qayym kýnder tudy. “Jigit bermeymiz” dep qarsylyq qylghany ýshin oqqa úshyp, qanshasy óz jerinde bir qyrghyn kórdi. Basshy adamdary dargha asyldy. Raqymsyz hýkmetting qaruly әskerine qarsy túra almay kóbi Qytay jerine bosty. Mal-mýlkining kóbi orys әskerining qolyna oljagha týsti. Kórshi mújyqtar jau bolyp, tal týste talandy: óltirdi, adamyn baylap, malyn aidap aldy. Bosqanda aidap kóshken mal-mýlikten jolshybay aiyryldy.

Jayau-jalpy, ýisiz-kýisiz Qytay jerine jetkende qar jaudy, qys týsti. Onda janashyr jaqyn taba almay jantalasty. Ashtan ólip bara jatqan song qalmaq qytaygha bala-shaghalaryn sata bastady. Adam bazary ashylyp, balanyng qúny bir shelek bidaygha shyqty. Boyjetken qyzdaryn, jas kelinshekterin qany qara qalmaqtar qatyndanyp ketti. Ash-jalanash, auyzyna ne týsse sony jep, qayda bolsa sonda jatyp, neshe týrli dertke úshyrap taghy qyryldy. Baqytsyz sorlylardyng múnzaryn, kóz jasyn estir qúlaq, kórer kóz bolmady. Tughan jer, ósken el, keshegi bastan keshken qyzyq dәuren kózderinen bir-bir úshty. Myndap aidap, jýzdep sapyryp shalqyghan baylar bir ýzim nangha zar boldy. Álpeshtep ósirgen balalary telmirip kóringenning kózine qarap, moynyna dorba salyp qayyrshy bolyp ketti. Bay-kedey, jas – kәri, jaqsy – jamannyng aiyrmasy bitip, bәri birdey sorly boldy. Bәri birdey múndy boldy. Atadan – úl, anadan – qyz, jardan – jar aiyryldy. Jýrek – qangha, kóz-jasqa toldy.

Jetim-jesir botaday bozdady.

Júrttyqtan, tirshilikten kýder ýzip, Búl opasyz dýniyege qosh aitysugha tayanyp túrghynda bostandyq tudy. Búl habardy estigende jýrekteri jarylghanday kuanyp, ah dýniye, tym bolmasa elge jetip, Alashtyng ortasynda ólsek, arman bar ma-dep qayta shúbyra bastady.

Taghy ashtyq, taghy jalanashtyq, taghy ólim... Áli joq, dymy qúryghan sorlylar jayaulap qozy kósh jerge jýruge jaramay, kez-kelgen jerde jyghyldy jyghylghany túrghan joq, ólgeni tirilgen joq...

Basy qasynda bolmaghan, kózderinmen kórmegen alashtyng balalary, bir minut kózderindi júmyp, qiyalgha salyp qarandar, sonda kórgendey bolasyndar: bireu tәltirektep ayaghyn basa almay jyghylyp jatqan, bireu ashtyqtan isinip, qanday kýnә, súmdyghymyzdan múnday kýige úshyrattyng qúday! -degendey qimyldaugha shamasy kelmey kólge qarap jatqanyn, joldyng bir shetinde ólip, ólgenine raqattanghanday, mәngilik úiqygha ketken shaldy kóresin. Jas balasyn bauyryna qysyp, qúshaqtaghan kýiinde ólgen qatyndy kóresin. Búlardyng múnday haline qayghyrar eshkim joq, tek quanysh pen as pen toygha jiylghanday top-top qargha-qúzghyn, iyt-qús ólgenderding kózin shoqyp, etin jep, sýiegin kemirip jatqanyn kóresin. Búl ólikter qúdaydyng keng dalasyn sasytqan. Yq jaghynan jan jýrerlik emes, múnyng iyisin ózing iyiskegendey bolarsyn...

Múnyng bәri ertegi emes, bolghan is! Keudede shybyn jany qalghandary eline jetti. Búlar ne kórdi? Qora-qopsy oiran bolghan, qoymalary talanghan, maldan adal qara qalmaghan, jerine egin shyqpaghan, egin salar jan qalmaghan. Ayaq jeter jerde azyq joq, azyqty jerge jeter kólik joq, kólik bolsa – azyq joq, qalyng alash alysta, qany basqadan qayyr joq.

Taghy daghdarys, asharshylyq, taghy ólim...

Bostandyq tudy, jadyrap jaz shyqty, kýrkirep kýn shyqty, biraq ol bisharalardyng basynan qara túman serpilmedi, ghazireyil qylyshyn qynabyna salmady. Basy aman, maly týgel aghayyn jetkilikti jәrdem bere almady. Ári-berden song júrt olardyng halin úmytugha ainaldy.

Qazaq-qyrghyz qyrylyp jatyr eken tabighat ózgermedi, taghy da qys tudy. Bisharalardyng hali búrynghydan myng ese jamangha ainaldy. Bir jyldyng ishinde ólgeni jýz mynnan asty. Endi Búl talayyn óltirgen shyghar. Qansha ólgenin aq kebindey qar jasyryp jatqan shyghar. Mine, qar ketip, jaz shyghugha ainaldy. Qúzghyn, qargha toy qylar, aua sasyr... Biraq adam balasy jan sebil eken: әli ólip bitken joq kórinedi, tirilerine tamaq ta tabylyp qaldy degendi estip otyrmyz: tirileri ólgenderining etin jep jatyr deydi. Búghan Alash, iә quanarsyn, iә jylarsyn, ózing bil. Jylasang – aghayyndyghyn. Biraq sening kóz jasyn ashqa – tamaq, jalanashqa – kiyim bolmaydy. Kóz jasy kómekke jaraytyn bolsa, ózgeden kende bolsa da, olar kózding jasynan kónilding qayghysynan kende emes edi. Aghayyngha, alash, shyn janyng ashysa, shyn jylasyng – kómegindi kórset, jyluyndy ber. Jayshylyqtaghy qayyrshygha beretin tiynyndy berme, ruly eling ólimnen qalghanday jyluyndy ber.

Jogharyda aitylghan oqighany Jetisudyng qazaq qyrghyzy basynan keship otyr. Endi Búl kýnde Jetisugha kórshi Syrdariya oblysynyng qazaghy asharshylyqqa, qyrghyngha úshyray bastady. Búl elde jaz egin, shóp shyqpay, qysqa qarsy maldary jútap, shetten astyq kelmey, keltiruge shamasy kelmey, jetisuday bolmasa da bastaryna qaranghy kýn tudy. Shet jaghasy bóten elderge auyp, búlardyng da adamdary satylyp, berekesi, eldigi ketuge ainaldy.

Osy eki oblystaghy ash, jalanash qazaq-qyrghyz bauyrlargha júrttan jetkilikti jylu jinap, ruly elimizdi ólimnen aman saqtap qalu maqsatymen Semey oblysynyng “Alash” qalasynda qazaq komiyteti hәm jastardyng “Janar” atty úiymy basshylyq etip qauym jasady. 5 martta qauym ortasynan is basqaratyn 5 kisilik komiytet saylap shyghardy. Qauymnyng bastyghy Álihan Bókeyhanov, jәy bastyghy Múqash Poshtayúly boldy.

Komiytet predsedateli – Mirjaqyp Dulatúly, orynbasary – Jýsipbek Aymauytúly, hatshysy – Múhtar Áuezúly, qazynashy – Abdolla Esirkepúly, taghy bir mýshesi Abdolla Qoskeyúly. Mәjiliste 7 myng somday jylu jiyldy. Komiytet qazir iske kiristi.

Sanaly Alash!

Myna eki oblystaghy bauyrlarymyzdyng jayy jogharyda aityldy, biz júrt bolamyz, ózi tizginimizdi ózimiz alamyz dep otyrmyz: júrtymyzdyng bir jaghy mynaday joghalghaly túrghanda kimmen júrt bolamyz?! Keshe bir oblysymyz oiran bolsa, býgin ekinshi oblysymyz mynaday apatqa úshyrap túrsa, erteng ýshinshi, arghy kýni tórtinshi oblysymyzdyng basyna, sýite-sýite bәrimizding basymyzgha múnday halding kelmesine qanday kózimiz jetedi?!

Tútanghan órtti mezgilinde sóndirmesek, ol órtke erteng bәrimiz de shalynbaymyz ba? Sharpylmaymyz ba? Sonda bizdi kim júrt qylady! Onda biz júrt bolmaymyz, joghalamyz.

Meyirlen Alash!

Ruly eling qan jútyp túrghanda sen may jútpa!

Ata-analar! Sender balalaryndy erkeletip mandayynan sipap, kýnge, jelge qaqtyrylmay otyrghanda ózderindey adamdardyng balalary satylyp, kózderine shybyn ýimelep, jetimdikte jýrgenin, bir týiir tamaqqa, bir jútym susyngha zar bolyp, jylap otyrghanyn oilandar! Senderding qatyn-qyzdaryng altyn-kýmiske malynyp, boylaryn týzep jyly ýi, jayly tósekte otyrghanda, olardyng qatyn, qyzdary kýndikte, ash-jalanash abúiyryn jaba almay otyrghanyn oilandar!

Atqa mingen azamat! Senderge el kerek, júrt kerek bolsa basshylyq qylyp, Alashty aman saqtau qamyna kirisinder!

– Namystan, Alash!

– Jigerlen, Alash!

– Tas bauyr bolma, Alash!

                                  Madiyar”.

Osy bir qily zamanda Múhtar dýnie tarihyna jýginip, óz últynyng múnday auyr halge týsken sebebin izdeydi. “Adam balasynyng túrmysy tarih tezine ilingennen beri qaray dýnie maydanyna talay júrt kelip kórnekti oryn alyp, azdy-kópti ómir sýrip, artynan irigen qauday tausylyp kelip, zaman túmanynda qarasy óshti. Sol júrttyng tarihyn alsaq, әrqaysysynyng bastarynan keshirgen әr týrli dәuirler bar. Bir dәuir: ózgeden shoqtyghy asyp, isi órkendep, “tasy órge domalaghan” kez. Búl uaqyttyng adamy ómirding quanyshy, kórikti jaghyn kóp kórip, kýlip tuyp, kýlip ótkenge úqsaydy. Búdan songhy bir dәuir: elding shebi jarylyp, irge ydyrap, “eri moynyna ketip” júrttyghymen qoshtasugha ainalghan kezi. Búl uaqyttyng adamy jan ashyr jaqyny joq, jetim qalghan jas baladay, tirliginde bagha joq, azyp tughan, jylap tuyp, jylap ótkenge úqsaydy”,- dep tolghanady Múhtar. Sonda óksip tughan úrpaqqa kimdi jatqyzdy? Eger de ashyghyn aitsaq, dәl sol tústa Múhtar ózin songhylardyng qataryna jatqyzyp: “túyaq serper” qúrbandyq retinde baghalaghan jas alashtar edi. Ilgeridegi aghalarynyng kókiregi de sherge tolyp, shermende kýy keshken almaghayyp dәuir edi. Sonday qysyltayang zamannyng angharynda salyndy bop sugha ketpey, jaghalasyp jaghagha shyghyp, halqyn qútqaryp qalghysy keledi. Sabylysqan oidyn, sarsangha týsken sananyng ashy zapyrany ashy sóz aitqyzady: “Ár adamnyng tuyp-ósken eli, jasynan jattap ósken ghadeti, nanymy, túrmys qalpy sol adamnyng aqyl, minezine iz qaldyrmay túrmaydy. Búl qaldyrghan iz kónilge kirip, erikti biylep әr adamgha ózining eling sýigizip, eldigin izdetedi. Eldikke kelgen qauipke oqyghan, oqymaghan birdey kýiinip qarsysyna birdey shyghady. Eldigi aman qaluy ýshin ekining biri beynetke, ólimge iә basqa týrli qazagha shydap ketetinin tarih jýzinen kórip otyrmyz. Erte zamannan bolyp kele jatqan bes-on, jiyrma-otyz jyldyq soghystardyng bәrinde bolatyn eki-aq týrli maqsat bar. Bir maqsat – júrtty jem qylu, ekinshisi – eldikten aiyrylmau, ózgege aiyrylmau, ózgege jem bolmau”.

Jas alashtar ekinshi joldy tandady jәne aralarynda el ýshin janyn qighan alghashqy qúrbandyq ta shyqty. Óspirim kezinen qanattas, bir jataqta jatyp, jan syryn, arman – mýddesin bólisken, eldikting jolyn birigip, izdegen qúrbysy Qazy arandatudyng kesirinen oqqa úshty. “Abay” jurnalynda búl turaly ýlken qazaly sóz aitylyp, onyng janazasyn Shәkerim shyghardy. Alash úlandarynyng qabyrghasyn sókken búl qaza olardyng keyin kóretin qúqaylarynyng basy edi. Sol atylghan oq keyin Jýsipbektin, Halelding mandayyna qadaldy. Qazy Alash әskerin jauyngerlik tәrtipke ýiretip jatqan kezinde soldattar atqan. El arasyndaghy sóz boyynsha. Búlar aqtar emes, solardyng kiyimin kiygen qyzyldar edi, arandatu ýshin qasaqana istegen degen joramal bar. Kim bilsin, qaysysy dúrys ekenin, әiteuir búl eki әsker de dәl sol uaqytta qazaqtyng mýddesin kózdemegeni anyq. Olardyng óz әuresi ózinde edi.

“Ólip tausylu qaupi” atty maqalasynda qazaq halnyng basyna tóngen qara búltty, otarshyldyqtyng ayarlyghyn barynsha әshkerelep, aidahardyng auzynan qalay qútyludyng jolyn qarastyrady. “Soghys degen nәrse – adam balasynyng jyrtqyshtyq qúlqyna aighaq bolghan bir is. Soghysyp jenip alghan júrtyna jengen juan el ne istemeydi? Búghan eskiden kele jatqan danghyl jol, jenilgen eldi óz betindegi júrttyq qalpynan aiyryp, ón boyyna sinirip bóten niyet oilatpay, bóten tileu tiletpeydi. Aldymen toryghan elding dinin qaqpaygha alady, búdan song ghúryp-әdetin aralastyrady, artynan alamyshtap jýrip tilin joghaltyp, elding belgisin kýngirttendirip aqyrynda bir últty jútyp kete barady. Áriyne, búghan búl aitylghanday bolyp jútylyp ketetin qanday el – mәdeniyeti tómen bolghan el ghana...”

Ar jaghyn taldamasanda bolady. Kimdi, qay halyqty, nege aityp otyr? Sol kezde Múhtar aitqan “ólip tausylu qaupin” qazaq halqy býgingi “sosialistik qoghamnyng arqasynda” basynan keship, soghan rahmetin aityp ta, sol aitqanynan qaytyp ta ýlgerdi. “Sibirding birneshe oblysynda shet jaghasy bilingen oba auruy da qazaqqa ózgeshe qauipti. Búl auru qazirgi suyqpen joghalghan siyaqtanyp otyr, biraq oba auruynda kóp bolghan dәrigerlerding tәjiriybesine qaraghanda, búl biyl úryghyn ghana kómdi, jemisi endigi jyly, odan arghy jyldary qyzsa kerek. Búl qonaqtyng qazaqtan alatyn búiymtayy qandaylyq bolady, ony uaqyt kórseter”-degen qaupi de dәl keldi. Oba men sýzek qazaq dalasynan myndaghan adamdardyng janymen qosa, Abaydyng әieli – Áygerimning jәne Múhtardyng atasy Áuezding de “ómirin búiymtaygha” alyp ketti. Búl jyldar turaly Múhtar:

“Arasynda auyryp, oqudy birli-jarymdy toqtatyp, dogharyp qoyyp jýrip, seminariyany 1919 jyly shalasharpy bitirdim. Búl kezderde fevrali tónkerisi bolghan. 19-jyldyng ayaghynda kenes ózgerisi boldy, әleumet qyzmetine aralasyp kettik. Sodan keyingi baspa sózine tolyghyraq aralasqanym 1918 jyly “Abay” jurnalynyng shyghuymen baylanysty. Ondaghy sózder syrly әdebiyet emes, jalpy maqalalar, balalyqtyn, jastyqtyng әr saygha basyn soqqan sandalysy, dalbasalyghy siyaqty”,- dep jazdy.

Áriyne, “Qily zaman” siyaqty shygharmany jazghan song jogharydaghy maqalalalrdyng ózine ermek siyaqty kórinui mýmkin. Biraq “Abay” jurnaly ol ýshin shyndalu mektebi boldy. Jana basylymnyng negizgi maqsaty el tarihy, әdebiyet-mәdeniyeti, óner-bilimi turaly maghlúmat berip, ózge júrttyng ýlgili isterin, jetistikterin tanystyru. Jurnaldyng 13 sany jaryq kórdi. “Abaydyn” alghashqy sany aqpanda 900 oqyrmannyng qolyna tiydi. Onda ózge aghymdyq maqalalarmen Lev Tolstoydyng “Budda”atty әngimesi basyldy. Tәrjimalaghan – Múhtar Áuezov. Búl – kezdeysoq kórinis emes. Jurnal baghyty ghalam ghylymyn qalyng qauymgha neghúrlym keng týsindiru bolghandyqtanda, tanymdyq taghylymy bar dýniyelerdi iriktep basqan. Filosofiyadaghy ýlken aghymnyng biri – buddizmning shyghu tegin bayandaytyn Tolstoydyng dәl osy shygharmasyn audaruy da sondyqtan. Kelesi jariyalanghan sanynda, Múhtardyng “Filosofiya jayynan” atty ghylymy maqalasy aldynghy taqyryptyng zandy jalghasy. Múnda filosofiyanyng mәn-maghynasy, damu tarihy, filosofiya men dinning ara qatynasy, tanym men bolmys, odan ózektese taraytyn “psihologiya” , “logika”, “gnesologiya”, “metafizika”, “antologiya”, “rasionalinaya teologiya”, “rasionalinaya kosmologiya”,“rasionalinaya psihologiya”, “jaratylys ghylymy” haqynda týsinikter berilip, Aristoteliden bastap әr dәuirde filosofiyalyq aghymdargha múryndyq bolghan Fales, Dekart, Bekon, Kant teoriyalary taldandy. Múhtardyng pikirlerining qysqasha týiinderi mynalar:

Filosofiya – keng aqyl, tereng qiyal shygharghan adamnyng janyn tәrbiyeleytin ghylym... Filosofiyanyng qúraly – tolghauly tereng oi. Izdeytini – býtkil dýniyening eng әuelgi syry, negizgi haqiqaty... Filosofiyanyng kirisetin jeri – qolgha ústatyp, kózge kórseterlik dәlәlder tabylmaytyn, taza aqyl sheshetin saualdar. Filosofiya adamnyng basynan shyqqan bar ghylymnyng tamyryn bir arnagha jiyp, sol shygharghan qorytyndysyn adamnyng aqylyna, janyna azyq qylyp beredi... Adamnyng ómirin kókiregindegi aqyldyng iydeyasy biyleydi.

Aqyldyng joly biyleytin bolsa, ol iydeyany filosofiya biyleydi. Osymen adam balasynyng aqyl jolyndaghy tarihiyatyn filosofiya biyleydi... Filosofiya shynnan shyndy tughyzyp, haman izdenisting jolynda әuelgi ashpaq syry – dýniyening eng jogharghy negizin tappaq, qaydan jaralghanyn sheshpek, adamnyng dýniyege kelgen maqsatyn teksermek... Filosofiyanyng tarihyn tekserushiler búl uaqytty ýlken adym isteuining aldyndaghy mezgili dep esepteydi. Múnyng anyghyn keleshek zaman kórseter...

Filosofiya – adamgershilik jolyndaghy qaranghy qaltarystarda qolgha ústaytyn shamshyraq. Adam balasy jan jemisin tatpay ómirding tereng maghyna, shyn maqsatyna jete almaydy... Adamnyng jýregine baqyt, mahabbat úryghyn ornata alatyn da kókirekke singen sol túlghaly oi...”

Búl joldardyng avtory osydan jarty jyl búryn “el aghalarynan” jýreksinip, iymenip sóileytin úyalshaq shәkirt emes, kәdimgi kesek pikirli, “dýnieauy ghylymynyn” tamyryn basyp, erkin tújyrym jasaytyn oy iyesi. Filosofiyanyng arghy-bergi tarihyn qamtyp, tegin tektep, ertenin boljaytyn, ózgelermen terezesi teng parasatty ghalym. Sóz qoldanysy da shiraq, oiyn anyq әri qanyq jetkizedi. “Qaysysyn qoldanamyz” atty alghashqy maqalalarynyng birinde oqulyqtardyng baghdarlamasyn qay ýlgide paydalanamyz, әiteuir, bir jaghyna shyqqan jón dep, qorghanashaqtay aitsa, jurnaldyng № 7 sanyndaghy “Ghylym tili” degen enbeginde, sol mәselege qayta oralyp, búl joly tórelik berip, pikirin sheshushi tújyrym retinde úsynady. Búltartpay dәleldeydi. Eng dilgir mәselening shúghyl sheshiluin talap etedi.

“Eger de býgingi jol, býgingi enbek mәngilik deytin bolsaq, ghylym tili, asa qaraudy kótermeytin mәsele... Qazaq mәdeniyetin týrik ýlgisine qaray tarta beretin múghalimderding tútynatyn negizgi joldary – “panturkizm”, “panislamizm”... Osy kýnde kózin júmyp, auzyn ashyp, tәtti qiyaldy qorek qylghan adam bolmasa, shiraq aqylmen qaraghan kisige búdan keyingi “pan”– “sayasat haosy ekeni mәlim bolghan... Eger de arab mәdeniyeti bolghan bir zaman bar. Biraq, oilap qarasanyzdar, biz osy kýnde oqysaq, sol XIII, XIV, XV ghasyrlardyng ghylymyn oqimyz dep otyramyz ba? Mәdeniyet “pan-turkist” bolyp, sol arabta bolghan qalpyn әli kýnge saqtap túr ma?... Medisinany,... Mehanikany... Himiyany... Politika – ekonomikany... Kim shyghardy? Evropa shyghardy!

...Týrikting uniyversiytetterindegi til, onan song jayshylyqtaghy ghylym tilderi kimdiki? Týrikting birinshi uniyversiytetterindegi basty tilder Angliya, Fransiya, Germaniyanyki. Búghan biz ne aita alamyz?... Búl kýnge sheyin týrikten bilgish shyghyp, onyng tapqan nәrsesin týrik tilimen qoldanyp jýrgen Evropa joq... Qazaqtyng oquyn Evropa jolyna salghanmen – qazaq týrikten alystap ketip; oqu ýlgisin týrikten alumen – týrikpen tuysyp kete qongyna kimning kózi jetedi?... Búl mәsele turasynda qarsy pikirde bolghan kisiler bolsa dәlelderin bayandaghan jón...”

Ár sózi shegelenip, naq aitylghan. Óz túspalynyng dúrystyghyna sengen, kózi әbden jetken adamnyng tújyrymy. Ondaghan jyldar boyy dauryqpagha úshyraghan mәdeniy-ruhany ómirge kóp kesirin tiygizgen mәselening songhy nýktesin qoyghan. Tarih ta jiyrma bir jasar jigitting dúrystyghyn dәleldep shyqty. “Abay” jurnaly “Alashorda” kenesining últtyq derbestik turaly qúlshynysyn jaqtap, olardyng әrbir isin halyqqa neghúrlym jyldam jetkizuge tyrysqan. 1918 jyly 2 kókek kýni “Alashtyn” tóraghasy Álihan Bókeyhanov pen “Alashtyn” Semeydegi tórghasy Halel Ghabbasov jәne Álimhan Ermekov ýsheui Semeyden tikeley baylanys jelisi arqyly Mәskeuge shyghyp, V.I. Leninmen, sodan keyin últ isteri halyq komissary I. Stalinmen sóilesedi. Qazaq avtonomiyasy turaly mәseleni súraydy. Leninning “Ómirnamasynda”: “Kókek aiynyng 2. Lenin men Stalin ekeui olardy tikeley jeli arqyly baylanysqa shaqyrghan “Alash-orda” ýkimetining ókilderimen, Á.Bókeyhanovpen, H. Ghabbasovpen, Á. Ermekovpen sóilesti”, -dep jazylghan. Bayqap qarasanyz, “Alash-ordany” (“Alash” partiyasymen shatystyrmau kerek. T. J.) Mәskeu ýkimet retinde moyyndaghan. Tarihshylar bolsa múny joqqa shygharyp, “Alash” partiyasynyng ayasynda týsindiruge tyrysady. Ýkimet pen partiyanyng aiyrmasyn týsinetin jәne týsindiretin kez jetken siyaqty. Búl habardy alghash estip jәne ony asygha kýtkenderding biri – Jýsipbek Aymauytov pen Múhtar Áuezov edi. Olar ile “Abay” jurnaly arqyly iysi Alashtan sýiinshi súrap múqabagha alaqaylap habar jazdy.

“Quanysh kútty bolsyn! Jurnalymyz basylyp qoyghannan keyin mynaday quanysh habar alyp, tendikke, biylikke susaghan Alashtyng auylyn quantqaly jurnaldyng tysyna osy habardy asyghyp otyrmyz. 20 mart kýni (eskishe) Mәskeudegi Sovet ókimetining basshysy Lenin men narodnyy komissar Stalinnen Bókeyhanov, Ghabbasov atyna telegramma keldi. Múndaghy Halel, Álimhan pryamoy provodpen auyzba-auyz Lenin men Stalinge telegrammamen sóileskendegi alghan jauaby mynau:

“Ár halyqtyng óz biyligin ózine beremiz dep shashqan zakon-jarlyghymyz әli so qalpynda, aitqanymyz – aitqan. Sizderding ókilderiniz bizge әkelip tapsyrghan jalpy qazaq sezining qaulysyn týgelimen qabyl alamyz, jalghyz-aq sovet ókimetin tanysanyzdar. Endi bizding biylik beremiz degen sózimizdi iske asyru kerek. Ol jerdegi túrghan әkimshilikpen birigip sezd shaqyryp, avtonomiyany jariya qylu jolynda bolatyn komissiya jasanyzdar. Qazaq siyaqty týri, isi, ghúrpy, eli, jeri basqa júrttyng óz biyligin ózi alugha erikti. Qazaqtyng qamqorlary tezinen komissiyasyn jasap, avtonomiyasyn jariya qylugha asyghar dep bilemiz. Endigi bir niyet, bir tilektegi adamdarmen aqyldasyp, baylaghan sózderinizdi bildiriniz”-dep Leniyn, Stalin qol qoyghan.

Al, Alash! Qabyghyng qatyp, kóniling jabyghyp túr edin, ilgeri basqan ayaghyng keyin ketuge tayanyp edi. Bodandyq kóline týsip joghala jazdap edin... Qúday berdi, jarylqady. Aq týiening qarny jaryldy! Ómiri, qazaq-qazaq bolghaly kórmegen quanysh basyna keldi – kórdin. Keudesinde jany bar, denesinde qazaqtyng qany bar, jýreginde Alashtyng namysy bar, ary bar, Alashtyng balasy! Kóter basyndy! Quanyshyng qútty bolsyn! Toyyng toygha úlassyn! Tiril, Alash! Silkin, Alash! Quan, Alash! Jasa, Alash! 21 martta Bókeyhanov, Ghabbasov, Ermekov atyna Mәskeuden taghy telegramma aldyq: “Halyq komissarlarymen sóilep jatyrmyz. Alashtyng avtonomiyasyna qarsylyghy joq. Býgin, erteng “Alashordamen” Stalin ózi sóilesedi“,- depti Jahansha, Halel Dosmúhamedovter. Jogharydaghy ókilder sabazdar eken.

Basqarma”.

Alasapyran zaual shaqta, soltýstikten Kolchak pen Annenkovtyng istikti myltyghy tónip túrghanda Kenes ýkimetin dәl osynday quanyp qarsy alghan partiya men ýkimet ol kezde joq shyghar, sirә! Oqyghan qazaq ziyalylaryn syrttay oq úshyna baylaghan “pikarilardyn” janyghuy tegin emes edi. Onyng qatyrynda qazaqtardyng derbestigine qarsy bolghan Kamenskiy, Krestinskiy, Bruhanov, Lejava siyaqty (Á. Ermekovtyng esteligi boyynsha) bolishevikter de boldy. D. Furmanovtyng “Býlinshilik” romanyndaghy qyzyl әskerlerding kóteriliske shyghuynyng ózi de sol derbestik pen qazaqtan әsker qúrugha qarsylyqtan tughanyn jәne keyinirek bayandalatyn “Otarshyl kommunisterdin” ústanghan baghytyn aitsaq ta jetkilikti. Mine, Múhtar el taghdyry sheshilgen osynday irgeli isting basy-qasynda jýrdi. Kýidi, jandy, quandy, ókindi. Ókinishke oray, keyin Stalin osy uәdesin úmytyp, izin jasyru ýshin “Alashordanyn” barlyq kósemderining kózin joydy. Yaghni, Leninning uәdesine qiyanat jasap, qazaq halqynyng mýddesin satyp ketti. Múnyng aty – ekijýzdilik edi. Alayda Stalin ony sonday bir әdemi syltaumen býrkemelep, syrt kózge sezdirmey mysyqtyng eptiligimen jýzege asyrdy.

“Alashorda” ýkimeti aldandy, biraq aldansa da bir kýnde bolsa múratyna jetti. Olardyng jappay bolishevikter partiyasyna kirip, oghan belsene enbek etuining mәni de osynda edi.

Búl rettegi Múhtar Áuezovting azamattyq, jazushylyq pozisiyasyn, pikirlerining manyzdylyghyn dәlәldep jatudyng qajetti shamaly. Tek eskerte ketetin bir jay; jas jazushynyng qalyptasuyna sheshushi yqpal etip, ómir mektebindey kóringen “Abay” jurnaly qazan aiynda qarjynyng joqtyghynan shyqpay qaldy. Býkil Qazaqstandaghy jalghyz jurnaldyng toqtaluy barsha júrtty alandatty. Shygharushylardyng atynan “Saryarqa” gazetining 1919 jyly 20 aqpandaghy sanynda berilgen: “Abaydy” toghyz jýzdey alushy bar. “Abay” bir jola jabylghan joq. Esebi bitkenshe, jalpy jiylysy bolghansha, taghy sol siyaqty sebeptermen uaqytsha toqtap túr. Bastyrushy uaq qaryz qoghamy, “Abaydy” toqtatpas, shygharar. Shygharmaghan kýnde de “Abay” jabylmas. Jalghyz jurnalyn jauyp qoyyp, tynysh otyrugha jastardyn, talapty azamattardyng namasy, újdany jibermes, qaytse de shygharar degen ýmitimiz kýshti”- dep jauapty shygharushy Jýsipbek Aymauytovtyng atynan habar berilgenine qaramastan qazaqtyng túnghysh ghylymiy-kópshilik jurnaly qaytip qolgha tiymedi.

Elding ruhany ómirindegi eleuli oqigha retinde baghalanghan “Abay” jurnalynyng jәne Múhtar shygharmashylyghynyng ashyluyna jasaghan mýmkindigin, sonday-aq, talant otynyng tútanu kezindegi maqalalarynyng kópshilik arasynday qanday qoghamdyq oy salyp, pikir qalyptastyrghanyn sol dәuirding bilimge susaghan jas talapkerlerining tómengi estelikterinen anyq angharamyz.

Álkey Marghúlan – ol uaqytta gimnaziya oqushysy: “Múhtardyng atyn kópshilikke әigili etken eng aldymen “Abay” jurnaly edi. Búl jurnaldy Múhannyng eng alghashqy bet ashary deuge bolady. Óitkeni, ony birinshi ret úiymdastyryp, onyng negizgi maqalalaryn jazghan kóbinese Jýsipbek pen Múhtardyng ózi bolatyn. Búl alghashqy órleuinde Múhang kóbinese jurnalist, publisist, oishyl, synshyl, filosof retinde kórindi. Ony “Ghylym”, “Mәdeniyetke qay kәsip juyq”, “Qazaq ishindegi partiya neden?”, “Filosofiya jayynan” degen maqalalary ashyq sipattaydy. Múhannyng alghashqy oy tolghauyna kóbirek oiysuy onyng bir ghana óz basynyng ereksheligi deuge bolmaydy. Múhang ony ózining tuyp-ósken jerinen, Abay múrasynan dәstýr etip shyqqan. Men eng alghash Shynghystaugha barghanda (1924 j.) Ol jerding adamdarynyng jaykýii maghan ózge ónirden býtindey basqasha kórindi. Olardyng ýlkeni de, kishisi de oigha batqan túnghiyq, asa kishipeyil, lepirip-laghudy bilmeydi. Sózdi әdeppen tosyp sóileydi. Tyndaytyn adamdary kezdeskende danyshpan qariyalar shalqyghan oilaryn tebirente, salmaqpen qúiyltyp oy qozghaytyn tolghaularmen, týiindi termelermen adamdy eriksiz ózine tartyp, keyde sóz arasynda ataqty oishyldardan mysal keltirip otyratyn. Shynghystaudaghy ataqty seri, jas kýnin bir ghana Abaydyng mәjilisinde ótkizgen, keyin Múhtardyng auylyndaghy dosy bolghan Ótekeldi (kәri – Qara) bir kýni әngimelesip otyrghanda:

– Abaydan búryn biz orys halqynyng danyshpan adamdaryn tipti bilmeppiz ghoy. Bizding kóretinimiz kóbinese qatal, alayaq qu, raqymsyz adamdar bolghan son, bәri de solay ma de týsinushi edik. Tolstoy men Saltykovtyn, Dobrolubovtyn, Lermontovtardyng jazghandaryn tyndap otyrsan, әuliyening sózimen birdey, olardyng oilauy da barlyq adam balasyna qarlyghashtay dostyq isteu eken, -dedi.

Shynghystaudyng әnshilerining ózi key jerdegidey eser әnshi kórinbeydi, adamnyng jan kýiinen shyghatyn súlu ýndi oigha bólep, tamyljyghan әdemi qonyr dauyspen dombyragha qosylyp әn men filosofiyalyq oilardy aityp jetkizgendey bolatyn. Olardyng ýninen keyde Evropalyq muzykanyng sәuletti yrghaqtary shyghatyn. Eng aqyry nausha jasóspirim balalardyng ózi Bayron, Gete, Lermontovsyz sóilemeydi, oinap jýrip olardyng qazaqsha audarmasyn ólenmen jyrlaydy. Mine, Múhtardyng nausha kýninde tәrbie alyp, týlep úshqan ortasy osy edi. Búl ortanyng kópshiligi, әriyne, Abay úrpaqtary, keyin Múhannyng auyldaghy ayauly dostary. Olardyng sypayy minezdilgin, ashyq oishyldyghyn, súlu dýniyege qúmar boluyn, barlyq ruhany azyghy men Abaydan qalghan múra dep týsindim. Ózgeshe anyqtau mýmkin emes. Búl ruhany azyqty jasaugha, әriyne, Haliolla, Maghauiya, Aqylbay, Kәkitay da qatysty. Biraq ol kezdege qaranghylyq búghauynda shyrmalghan halyq búqarasynyng sezimin birinshi ret oyatyp, olargha tereng filosofiyalyq oy aitqan, olardy topastyqtan shygharyp, nәzik sezimge shaqyrghan, olardyng jýregine súlulyq dýniyesining sәulesin ashqan Abay ekeni anyq. Eng alghash dәuirlep shyqqanynda Múhang Abaydyng búl jarqyn oilaryn esh uaqytta esinen shygharghan emes, ony tipti ómirining songhy kezenine deyin ýlgili týrde ústady”.

Músatay Aqynjanov – oqyghan auyl jasy: “Mening Múhtarmen jaqynyraq tanysuym, onyng 1919 jyly qyrgha demalysqa qaytqan kezinde osy auylda boldy. Múhtar ol kezde jiyrmadan asqan baysaldy, orta boyly, qara tory, qoy qara shashty, tolyqshalu kelgen symbatty jas jigit edi.

– Qabdesh aghanyng ýiine seni Jekebay apamnyng bauyry Múhtar shaqyrady, - dep at ýstinen habar aitqan Qabdeshting nemere inisi – jas gimnazist Shahan Ásirjanovpen ilesip, Shalqardyng syrtynda otyrghan Ásirjan auylyna qaray jýrip kelemiz. Shahan, jol qysqarsyn dedi me, әlde oqyghandardy maqtau Shynghys elining salty ma, auylgha jetkenshe Múhtar jóninde, Múhtar auylymen ózderining aralas, jaqyndaghy jayynda әngimeleumen boldy.

Múhtardyng danqy ótken jyly, aqpannan bastap Semey qalasynda shygha bastaghan jurnal arqyly taraldy.

Jurnalda Abay sózi, Abay úrpaqtarynyng sózi kóp basyldy. Sonyng ishinde auylgha jana lep ala kelgen, ghylym-bilim arnasynan sóz qozghaytyn Múhtar maqalalary erekshe bolatyn. Jurnaldyng birinshi sanynda jariyalanghan Múhtardyng “Ghylym” degen maqalasy Abay elinde auyzdan-auyzgha tarady”.

“Abay” jurnalynyng jabyluymen Múhtar Áuezovting alghashqy shygharmashylyq enbegining bir belese de ayaqtaldy. Tek, 1918 jyly qazanda Petropavlovskide shyghatyn “Jas azamat” gazetinde “Eskeru kerek” degen atpen kólemdi maqalasy jariyalandy. Osynda tura bir jyl búrynghy “Oqudaghy qúrbylaryna” arnaghan lebizining iydeyasyn odan әri damytyp: “Endigi halyq boluymyzgha úitqy bolatyn nәrse – qúrysh qúrsauly әdil, qatal biylik. Endigi hakimning aldyna nashar da, juan da tenshilikte bolyp, belgili negizge qúrylghan zakon bolmasa, juan atanyng erki el ishinde jýrmeu kerek. Áli de juan ata biylep-tóstep, qadirli bolatyn bolsa – avtonomiya degen, bólektik degenning bәri de syrty býtin, ishi týtinning isi bolady. Biraq múnday kýidi búrynghy uaqyt kóterse de qazirgi uaqyt kótermeydi... Biz әli shiyki júrtpyz, talay ózgeriske moyyn úsynamyz. Zaman eriksiz moyyn úsyndyrady... Búl haldi harkim eskeru kerek”-dep qorytyndylaydy.

(jalghasy bar)

Abai.kz

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Erevanda ereuil

Abai.kz 1056