Beysenbi, 23 Mamyr 2024
Alashorda 1455 3 pikir 26 Aqpan, 2024 saghat 13:37

«Qazaq jәne Dumadaghy sayasy ahual»

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Mening taldaghaly otyrghan maqalam, «Qazaq» gazetining 54 nómirli baspasynda, 1915 jyly jaryq kórgen. Búl gazet, Ahmet Baytúrsynúly men Mirjaqyp Dulatúlynyng redaktorlyghymen, Álihan Bókeyhanúlynyng basshylyghymen baspa betterine shyqqan edi.

Maqalanyng taqyryby: «Qazaq jәne Duma», 4 sәuirde jariyalandy. Maqalanyng negizgi maqsaty: Sol kezdegi Duma deputtataryna qúlaqqaghys retinde, qazaq últy jәne alash azamattary tarapynan syniy-pikirdi jetkizu maqsatynda jazylghan. Bizding jobalauymyzsha, maqala avtory - Mirjaqyp Dulatúly. Óitkeni, osyghan deyin, osynau «Qazaq» gazetinde Duma jayly, Dumadaghy kóterilgen mәseleler men jaghdaylar turaly Mirjaqyp Dulatúly sóz qozghap, maqalalar jariyalaghan edi. Osynau maqala – sol maqalalardyng jalghasy ispettes bolyp otyr.

54 nómirli baspadaghy jariyalanymda Qazaq jәne Duma taqyrybynda sóz qozghalghan edi. Kópsandy qazaq azamattary «Duma» sózin bilse de, onyng ishki jayy men mәn-maghynasyn jaqsy úghyna bermeytin. Sol sebepten de, olardyng oiynsha, eger olardyng tilekteri men súranystary Dumagha jetse, onda tilekteri men súranystary birden oryndala qalady dep payymdady. Al, shyntuaytyna kelgende, Dumanyng jaghdayy onday emes bolyp shyghady. Búl jaghdaydyng eki sebebi bar: Birinshiden, Duma haqynda jazylghan zannamanyng quaty, Dumagha saylanghan deputattardyng róline tikeley qatysty edi. Sebebi, Dumanyng zannamasynda jazylghan núsqaulyqtar boyynsha Dumanyng әreketteri rettelse, Dumagha saylanghan deputattar Dumagha kelgen tilekter men ótinimderdi qarastyrady. Qarapayym halyqtyng oiy boyynsha, 17-shi qazandaghy maniyfeske sәikes, Duma qabyldaghan zang tútastay zang emes, jәne onyng dengeyi bolmaydy dep kórsetilgen edi. Óitkeni, zang shygharatyn tek Duma emes edi. Búl turaly Resey (sol kezdegi Rusiya) patshalyghynyng negizgi zanynyng 86-shy statyasynda eshbir zannamanyng Duma jәne Souetting únatpayynsha jәne patshanyng bekitpeyinshe iske aspaytyndyghy aitylghan edi. Búdan shyghatyn qorytyndy: zang shygharatyn tek Duma ghana emes. Yaghni, kez-kelgen zannyng shyghuyn ýshjaqty sheshim arqyly Duma, Souet jәne patsha retteytinine kózimiz jetti. Osynau prosedurany ýtir-nýktesine deyin naqtylap qarastyrar bolsaq, bar zannamany ózgertu, joq zannamany engizu, qajetsiz nemese eskirgen ózandardy alyp tastau jónindegi is-әreketter aldymen Dumanyng qarastyruyna keledi. Sodan-son, búl zannama Souetke kelip týsedi. Souet qarastyryp, ony maqúldaghan song ghana, búl zannama patshagha jiberiledi. Eng songhy nýkte patshanyng qoly arqyly qoyylady.

Sonymen qatar, «Duma» termiyni әrtýrli elderdegi zang shygharushy organdargha qatysty keninen qoldanylady. Ártýrli tarihy jәne mәdeny kontekstterde, sonday-aq týrli memleketterde termin әrtýrli maghynagha ie boluy mýmkin. Eng tanymal «Duma» Reseymen baylanysty:

Resey Federasiyasynyng Memlekettik Dumasy: búl Resey parlamentining tómengi palatasy. Ol zang shygharugha qatysady, budjetti jәne basqa da manyzdy mәselelerdi qarastyrady. «Duma» termiyni kóbinese qazirgi kontekste osy organmen baylanysty.

Resey imperiyasynyng Memlekettik Dumasy: búl 1917 jylghy revolusiyagha deyin bolghan Resey imperiyasynyng Memlekettik jinalysynyng tómengi palatasy boldy.

KSRO-daghy Duma: Kenes Odaghynda resmy týrde «Duma» bolghan joq, biraq jogharghy zang shygharushy organ Jogharghy Kenes retinde belgili boldy.

Duma basqa elderde: Polisha nemese Qyrghyzstan siyaqty birqatar elderde «Duma» termiyni әrtýrli zang shygharushy organdargha qatysty qoldanyluy mýmkin.

Al, sol kezdegi zang bekitushi organdar Duma, Souet jәne Patsha bolsa, qazirgi Qazaqstannyng zany — Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Ata búl Zany arqyly retteledi. Aghymdaghy Konstitusiya 1995 jyly 30 tamyz kýni jalpyhalyqtyq Referendum negizinde qabyldanghan edi. Sonday-aq, osynau zannama 5 qyrkýiek kýni óz kýshine endi. Konstitusiya 9 taraudan, 98 baptan túrady. Sonymen qatar, qazirgi Qazaqstannyng eki palataly parlamenttik zang shygharushy organy bar, ol mynaday bólimderden túrady: Qazaqstan Respublikasy Parlamentining Mәjilisi: búl Parlamentting tómengi palatasy. Mәjilis mýshelerin halyq bes jyldyq merzimge saylaydy. Deputattardyng sanyn halyq jәne geografiyalyq bólu anyqtaydy.

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Parlamentining Senaty: búl Parlamentting jogharghy palatasy. Senatorlar әrtýrli oblystardyng atynan ókildik etedi jәne olardy Qazaqstan Preziydenti taghayyndaydy, sonday-aq qoghamdyq birlestikterding ókilderi saylaydy. Senatorlar Senatta bes jyl otyrady.

Eki organ da zandardy qabyldaugha, budjetti әzirleuge jәne basqa da manyzdy memlekettik manyzy bar mәselelerge qatysady. Qazaqstanda parlamenttik jýie shenberinde naqty mәselelermen ainalysatyn týrli komiytetter de bar.

Qorytyndylay kelsek, qazir «Duma» sózi eldegi zang shygharushy organgha silteme jasau ýshin qoldanylmaydy. Qazaqstanda zang shygharushy organ Mәjilis dep atalady.

Alayda, Qazaqstan men Resey jaqyn diplomatiyalyq jәne ekonomikalyq qatynastardy qoldaydy, al qazaq halqynyng ókilderi eki el arasyndaghy qatynastargha yqpal etu mýmkindigine iye. Mysaly, Resey Dumasynda qazaq halqynyng mýddelerin bildiretin nemese Qazaqstan men Resey arasyndaghy ózara is-qimylgha qatysty mәselelerdi talqylaytyn deputattar boluy mýmkin. Alayda, naqty qatynastar uaqyt óte kele sayasi, әleumettik jәne ekonomikalyq jaghdaylargha baylanysty ózgerui mýmkin ekenin este ústaghan jón. Toqsan auyz sózding tobyqtay týiini - HH ghasyrda Reseydegi qazaq ziyalylarynyng Dumagha degen kózqarasy tarihy oqighalargha, sayasy ózgerister men qoghamdyq tendensiyalargha baylanysty syny pikirde bolghan edi. Qazaq ziyalylary, basqa últ ziyalylary siyaqty, әrtýrli kózqarastar men ústanymdargha ie bola otyryp, qazaqtyng qamyn oilap, bolashaghyna shyryldaghan edi.

Arujan Daulenhan,

Ál-Faraby atyndaghy Qazaq últtyq uniyversiyteti Jurnalisika fakulitetining 1-kurs studenti

Jetekshisi: fiyl.gh.k., dosent R.S Jaqsylyqbaeva

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