Beysenbi, 29 Aqpan 2024
Tarih 5869 6 pikir 4 Tamyz, 2023 saghat 13:46

Abylay hannyng ishki jәne syrtqy sayasaty

Abylay han – Qazaqstannyng territoriyalyq tútastyghyn qalpyna keltirgen kórnekti memleket qayratkeri. Óz biyligi kezinde ol memlekette eleuli ózgerister jasady. Abylay han (1771-1781) – býkil qazaq jerinde biyligi dausyz bolghan qazaq hany. Orta jýz súltanynyng úly Kórkem-Uәly Abylay (Ábilmansúr) 1711 jyly tughan. Ol Orta jýzding Shynghys әuletterinen shyqqan. Abylay hannyng ata-babalary qazaq handyghynyng negizin qalaushy әigili әz-Jәnibekten shyqqan. Ol Shynghys hannyng úly Joshy hannyng úrpaghy. Besinshi úrpaqta onyng atasy – Esim han. Esim han qazaq handyghyna tolyqtay ortalyqtandyrylghan memlekettik qúrylym berdi («Esimhannyng eski joly», yaghni, «Esim hannyng ejelgi joly»), tórtinshisinde – Jәngir han. Onyng atasy Abylay da Týrkistan qalasynyng biyleushisi bolghan. Ózining әskery erligimen әigili bolyp, «Qanisher» degen laqap atqa ie boldy. 13 jasynda Abylay jetim qalady.

Abylay shyqqan tegin jasyryp, biraz uaqyt qarapayym qoyshy bolghany, Jaqsylyq ruynan shyqqan bay qazaqtyng qyzmetine kirgeni belgili. Jas Abylay erekshe aqylgha iye, keyinnen ony qazaq handyghynyng eng tanymal túlghalarynyng qataryna kótergen barlyq qasiyetterdi kórsete bildi. «Sabalaq» atanghan Abylay 15 jasynan bastap qazaq halqynyng sheteldik basqynshylargha qarsy kýresine belsendi qatysyp, aldymen qarapayym jauynger bolyp, keyin tez kóterilip, eng yqpaldy batyrlardyng birine ainaldy. Jas kezinen Ábilmansúr jauynger, Otan qorghaushysy siyaqty eng jaqsy qasiyetterin kórsetti. Ol ýnemi әrtýrli shayqastargha qatysyp jýrdi, әsirese, jekpe-jekterde batyldyq tanytty. Has batyrgha erekshe danq syilaghan oqigha, alghashqy ýlken jenisterding biri – qazaq әskerlerining Ábilmәmbet hannyng basqaruymen jongharlargha qarsy shayqasuy edi. Búl shayqasta belgisiz jiyrma jasar Ábilmansúr qalmaqtyng basty kósemi – qontayshy Galdan-Serenning jaqyn tuysy, әigili Sharysh batyrdy óltiredi.

Ýsh Abyzdy jongharlargha qarsy biriktirgen Ábilmәmbet han (sonymen birge, Esim han men Jәngir hannyng úrpaghy) úiymdastyrghan jasaqtar qosylyp, «Abylay» úranmen jonghar batyryn jalghyz úrysta jendi. Jeniske jetkennen keyin Ábilmәmbet han Ábilmansúrdy: «Sen kimsin, Abylaydyng úrany qanday?» dep shaqyrady. Sol kezde Ábilmansúr: «Men Abylaydyng nemeresimin, men onyng ruhyna qúrmet etemin». Sodan keyin Ábilmәmbet han ony qúshaqtap, halyqqa jýgindi: «Birde men Baqy Uәliyding jalghyz úly qaldy dep estidim, ol mine bizding aldymyzda, eger ony maqúldasanyzdar, onda ol úly han boluy kerek». Ýsh jýzding 90 ýzdik ókili maqúldaghannan keyin Ábilmansúr úly han bolyp saylandy. Biraq Ábilmәmbet han handyqty Abylaydyng qolyna jeke óz qolymen bergenimen, ol tek 25 jasynda taqqa otyrady. Búqar jyrau búl jaghdaydy bylaysha surettedi: «Jiyrma jasynyzda siz batyl súnqar bolyp kettiniz, júldyzynyz biyik kóterilip, maqtanyshpen ótti, sәttilik sizding isterinizben birge boldy. 25-te baqyt qúsy sizdi taqqa otyrghyzyp, basynyzgha otyrdy». Ábilmansúr úrysta әigili bolghan batyr atasy Abylay hannyng esimin alady. Býkil halyq siyaqty jas súltannyng basty maqsaty – jaugha qarsy kýres – Jonghar handyghyna qarsy kýres.

Ol halyq arasynda abyroyly bedelge ie boldy jәne Ábilmәmbet hannyng qasyndaghylar boldy. Syrtqy qauippen kýresumen qatar Abylay Súltan qazaq jerlerin biriktiruge ýlken kýsh júmsady. 1740 jyly Tashkentte Jolbarys han óltirilip, úly jýzding kóptegen úrpaghy Tóle biyding qoldauymen Qazaq handyghynyng resmy basshysy Ábilmәmbet hangha ant berdi. Ábilqayyr hannyng Resey azamattyghyn alghannan keyin Kishi jýzding Batyr han basqarghan kóptegen ru-taypalary da Ábilmәmbet pen Abylay hangha baghynyshty boldy. Kelesi Oirat shapqynshylyghynan keyingi Orta jýzdegi qiyn jaghday Ábilmәmbet han men Abylay súltandy Resey imperiyasyna adal bolugha ant berip, azamattyghyn alugha shaqyrdy. Alayda, onyng zandy formasyna qaramastan, Orta jýzding kóp bóligi is jýzinde Reseyden bólek bolyp qala berdi. Búl, әriyne, Orynbor әkimshiligi men Peterburg sotyna únamady. Sondyqtan, jana әkimshining basty maqsaty – Orynbor (jәne oghan deyin – Qyrghyz-Qaysaq) komissiyasynyng bastyghy, knyazi V.Urusov Kishi jәne Orta jýzding týiisken jerinde orys quatyn әli moyyndamaghan keng audandardy anneksiyalaudy tezdetu boldy.

1740 jyldyng tamyz aiynyng sonynda Ábilmәmbet han, yqpaldy súltan Abylay jәne olarmen birge jýretin aqsýiekter Orsk qalasynda Reseyge adal bolugha ant berdi. Kelissózder barysynda eki tarap ta qazaq-orys saudasyn keneytu, bashqúrt kóterilisin úiymdastyrushylardy ekstradisiyalau, qazaq kóshpendileri arqyly Reseyden Orta Aziyagha ótken saudager keruenderding qauipsizdigin qamtamasyz etu mәselelerin talqylady. Osy faktilerding bәri jas Abylaydyng bedelining jogharylauynyng dәleli, onyng diplomatiyalyq qabiletining dәleli. 1740 j. Resey azamattyghyn qabyldaghan Abylay súltan songhysyna qatysty mindettemelerin oryndaugha kóp alandamady. Orynbor әkimshiligining oghan qatysty әreketteri sәtsiz ayaqtaldy. Jonghariyany Qytay jaulap alghannan keyin jәne onymen sózsiz jaqyndasqannan keyin Abylay súltan patsha әkimshiligine qatty narazy boldy. Búl Qazaq handyghynda Sini yqpalyn shekteuge baghyttalghan birqatar qújattardyng payda boluyna sebep boldy. 1758 jyly Reseyding Syrtqy ister kollegiyasy Qytaymen baylanystyng qauiptiligin týsindiretin qauly shyghardy. Súltan Abylaydyng soghys qimyldaryna belsendi qatysuy Orynbor әkimshiligimen baylanys ornatugha mýmkindik berdi. Shayqastardyng birinde Abylaydy oirat basyp aldy (1741) jәne patsha ókimetining qatang aralasuynyng arqasynda 1743 jyly ghana bosatyldy. Ózining serikteri, halyq batyrlary – Qarakerey Qabanbay batyr, Nauryzbay batyr, Qanjyghaly Bógenbay batyr, Bayghazy batyr, Jәnibek batyr, Bay batyr jәne taghy basqalarmen birigip Abylay Jonghariyanyng әskery kýshin birshama әlsiretti.

Aqyldy sayasatker retinde Ortalyq Aziya handyqtarynyng jauyzdyq әreketterin beytaraptandyra bildi. Qazaqtardy Jonghar handyghynyng naqty qauip-qaterimen kýresuge jinady. Abylay qazaq memleketining kóregen sayasatkeri bola otyryp, kórshi handyqtaghy oqighalardy múqiyat qadaghalap otyrdy. Ol uaqytsha әskery artyqshylyqtyng arqasynda oirattyqtar talqandaghan týpnúsqa qazaq jerlerin qaytarugha bolatyndyghyn týsindi. 1755 jyldan keyin Qytay Jonghariyany joyyp, Qazaqstan shekaralaryna jetkende Abylay bastaghan qazaq biyleushileri jongharlardy qoldaugha tyrysty. Olar qalmaqtardyng songhy hany Ámirsanagha opasyzdyq jasamady, tipti qytay әskerlerine qarsy soghysqa barugha mәjbýr boldy. 1756 jyldyng kókteminde qytay әskerleri qazaq jerlerine basyp kirdi. Jonghar agressiyasy kezindegidey Abylay súltan jaugha qarsy túrudy úiymdastyrushylardyng biri bolady. Memleketting egemendigine tóngen qater sonshalyqty shynayy boldy, tipti alystaghy Kishi jýzden bastap Súltan Eraly bastaghan otryady boldy. Artilleriyamen jabdyqtalghan Sin әskerlerining ýlken shayqastardy ótkizudegi tәjiriybesi mol, birikken qazaq jauyngerlerine qarsy túru qiyngha soqty. 1757 jyly mausymda Fu De, Chjao Hoyding qolbasshylyghymen Qytay әskeri taghy da Qazaqstangha shabuyl jasady. Patshalyq Reseyding kenshilerine, Ertiske jәne basqa da bekinisterge qauip tóndi, óitkeni, olardyng garnizondary Aspan asty imperiyasynyng kenetten jasaghan әskery shabuyldaryn kýtpedi.

Shekara aimaghyndaghy shiyelenisti jaghday han Ábilmәmbet, onyng úly Ábilfәiiz jәne Abylay súltandy kelissózderdi bastaugha iytermeledi. Olar alghashqy qaqtyghystardyng qandy shayqastargha ainaluyna jol bermeuge jәne diplomatiyalyq jolmen búryn jonghar handyghy basyp alghan qazaq jerlerin qaytarugha tyrysty. Sin jaghy Qazaqstandaghy soghys qimyldarynyng jalghasuyna mýddeli bolmady, búghan sebep Soltýstik Mongholiyada jәne basqa da kórshiles aimaqtarda әskery qimyldardyng keneni. Sonymen qatar, Orta jýzdegi soghys dala aimaghynyng biregeyligine baylanysty tez jeniske jetuge uәde bermedi. Qazaq batyrlarynyng jeke jasaqtary tughan jerlerining erekshelikterin bile otyryp, kýtpegen shabuyldar taktikasyn qoldana otyryp, ýlken qaqtyghystardyng aldyn aldy. Sóitip, qazaq jauyngerleri týpkilikti jenip almay, Sin әskerleri iyelikterine qaytugha mәjbýr boldy. Jonghar jәne Sin jaulap alushylaryna qarsy kýreste qazaq qoghamynyng týrli kýshterin shoghyrlandyruda Abylaydyng sinirgen enbegi zor. Separatistik kýshterding qarsylyghyn búzyp, Abylay keng qazaq jerining territoriyalyq birligin qalpyna keltirip, memleketti basqaruda týbegeyli ózgerister engizdi. Resey men Sin imperiyalary arasynda túrghan Qazaqstannyng ústanymy óte qiyn boldy.

Abylay súltannyng basty maqsaty – Qazaq handyghynyng tәuelsizdigin qamtamasyz etu. Diplomatiyalyq qúraldardy sheber qoldana otyryp, Abylay Jonghariyanyng әskery jәne sayasy biyligi kezinde uaqytsha jaulap alghan qazaq jerlerin (Tarbaghatay men Altay taularynda, Zaysan kólining shyghysynda) qaytarugha kóp kýsh saldy. Jonghariya tәuelsiz memleket retinde joyylghannan keyin de, Manijur-Sini biyligi búl strategiyalyq manyzdy jerge degen talaptaryn jariyalaudy toqtatqan joq. Mәsele sonymen birge 1720 jyldary múnda payda bolghan shahtalar men tau-ken kәsiporyndaryn qorghaugha dayyn ekendikterin bildiretin Reseyding memlekettik mýddelerine әser etti. Shekaralas aimaqtaghy qazaqtardyng dәstýrli jayylymdaryn iyemdengisi kelui Pekin sotynyng jaghymsyz reaksiyasyn tudyrdy. 1760 jyly Manijur-Sini biyligi qazaqtardan Tarbaghatay taularynyng aimaghyn tastap ketudi talap etti. Sini biyligi qazaqtardyng tarihy iyelikterine ilgerileuin tolyghymen toqtata almady. Osy aimaqtardy qamtamasyz etuge qauqarsyz bolghandyqtan, olar óz әskerlerin óz jerlerine jiberdi.

Súltan, keyinirek Orta jýzding hany Abylay jaghdaydyng kýrdeliligin bilip, dauly mәselelerdi beybit jolmen sheshuge tyrysty, shiyelenisting tuyndauyna jol bermey, sayasy talantyn qoldana otyryp, sol kezdegi jazbasha derekkózderde, atap aitqanda A.IY.Tevkelevting estelikterinde: «….Tretie obiyavlyal on, han, chto-de pry vsem tom za nujnoe priznal, on, han, y sie zdesi obiyaviti, chto nyne na Srednuu ordu napadaet kitayskoe voysko y neodnokratnye uje srajeniya s Ablay-saltanom byli, pry chem trebuyt vydachy kalmyskogo vladelisa Amursananya, kuda-de proshloy oseny y brat evo Eraliy-saltan s voyskom svoim ezdil dlya pomoshy Sredney orde, pochemu-de onyh kitaysov pry srajeniy j otbily y nemaluy ot niyh, kitaysov, dobychi poluchili. A kak-de emu, hanu, bylo izvestno, to on, Amursanyani, u nego, Ablay-saltana, byl, a nyne-de onogo uje v ih Kirgiyz-kaysaskoy orde ne iymeetsya, y kuda uehal, y jiv ly ily gde propal, o tom-de u nih ne izvestno. Odnako jde neotstupno evo trebuit, y kak-de uverili, chto evo, Amursananya, u nih v orde net, to-de ot niyh, kitaysov, obiyavleno bylo emu, Ablay-saltanu, chtob iym, ne iymeya uje bolishe mejdu soboiy voyny, jiti v miru spokoyno y torg v kakih mestah oni, kirgissy, pohotyat, tut oni, kitaysy, uchrediti iymeiyt. Na chto-de Ablay-saltan im obiyaviyl, chto kak tam s voyskom nahoditsya, to pomiritsya y nazad vozvratitsya, dogovor uchiniti v sostoyanii, a chtob-de vsei ordoi tot s nimy dogovor uchiniti, y gde torg uchrediti, togo on s soboi uchiniti ne smeet, poneje-de u nih v Kirgiyz-kaysaskoy orde iymeetsya bolishey han, uchrejdennoy ot E. I. V. Samoderjisy vserossiyskoy, Abulhaiyr-hana syn Nuraliy-han, y mojet liy-de on na takie dogovory s nimy postupiti ily net, to-de v ego vole sostoiyt. Y s tem-de prislal k nemu, hanu, on, Ablay-saltan, narochnogo s takim trebovaniyem, chto esliy-de oni, kitaysy, ne budut uveryatsa, chto u nih onogo Amursaniya net, y budut za to chiniti voennoi rukoi napadeniye, ily hotya y uveryatsa, da stanut takogo dogovoru na predpisannyh kondisiyah trebovati, to v takom sluchae otpor ly s nimi, kitaysami, chiniti ily dogovarivatisya y v kakih mestah torgy uchrediti, chtob o tom emu, Ablay-saltanu, prislati nastavlenie y svoe poveleniye; a ejeliy-de evo, Ablay-saltana, dopustit vremya svobodnoe ot kitaysov, to-de on y sam k nemu, hanu, dlya prinyatiya togo nastavleniya priyehati nameren, pochemu-de bratiya evo Eraly y Aychuvak saltany, sobrav vsyak iz svoego vladeniya voyska po nemalomu chislu, hotely bylo dlya vospomoshestvovaniya v tu Srednuu ordu ehati y s niym, Ablay-saltanom, soedinitisya. Y uje sovsem byly gotovy, toliko-de on, han, polucha vyshepisannoe ot nego, Ablay-saltana, izvestiye, v blizosty nahodyashegosya Aychuvak-saltana so vsem tem sobrannym voyskom ostanoviyl, a k Eraliy-saltanu narochnogo s vedomostiu poslal, daby y on ot togo pohodu uderjalsya, ibo on, han, kak poddannyy E. I. V., ne posovetovav zdesi s gospodinom deystviytelinym taynym sovetnikom y kavalerom Nepluevym y s niym, general-mayorom, sam soboy v takie vajnye dogovory vstupati ne hochet, pochemu y treboval sovetu, ejeliy-de onye kitaysy ot toy Sredney ordy ne otstupyat y budut togo dogovora ot Ablay-saltana damagatsya, to na kakih kondisiyah onoy uchiniti, a estliy-de oni, kitaysy, trebovati budut rechennogo Amursananya, y ne verya, chto evo u nih v orde ne iymeetsya, stanut voennoiy rukoiy napadati, to on-de, han, dlya vspomojeniya rechennomu Ablay-saltanu s dovolinym y ot sebya voyskom pomyanutyh bratiev svoih Eraly y Aychuvak saltanov poshlet, toliko b-de v sluchay nujdy iym, yako poddannym E. I. V., nadlejashee po sposobnosty ot rossiyskih komand vspomojenie bylo chiyneno, prichem on, han, y sie obiyaviyl, ejeliy-de nyne u E. I. V. S temy kitaysamy voyna esti, to y sam on, han, po ukazu E. I. V. S dovolinym voyskom y s bratiyamy svoimy v slujbu na niyh, kitaysov, tuda itty ne ostaviyt, a kogda-de on, han, poydet, to ne menee tridsaty tysyachi voyska pry nem, hane, byti mojet, a inogda y gorazdo bolee» (2). 

Abylaydyng Resey jәne Qytaymen ghana emes, ontýstikte Búhara, Hiua jәne Qoqan handyqtarymen de mәseleleri boldy. Olar Orta jәne Úly jýzderding aumaghynda joyqyn joryqtar jasady. Búl jýzderding keybir qazaqtary tipti jogharyda atalghan handyqtardyng baghynyshtylary bolyp sanaldy. Negizinen, basty qauip Qoqan handyghy bolghan, sondyqtan, Abylay bar kýshin soghan júmyldyrdy. Ol kezde Irdana-bek – Qoqan biyleushisi, qatygez jәne qandyqol kisi bolghan. Onyng qolynda bolghan qazaqtar onyng ezgisine tótep bere almady, kóptegen kóterilister boldy, biraq ol olardy qatal qatygezdikpen basyp tastady. Búl Abylaygha Qoqangha soghys jariyalaugha syltau boldy – Úly jәne Kishi jýz qazaqtaryn Irdana-bek qamqorlyghynan bosatty. Biraq, mening oiymsha, Abylay Qoqan arqyly ótetin sauda joldaryna kóbirek qyzyghushylyq tanytty.

Abylay soghys bastaydy, ol ýshin ol Orynborgha hat jiberedi, onda әsker súraydy, biraq oghan tyiym salynady. Sodan keyin Abylay óz erkimen soghys bastaydy. Ol birinen song bir jeniliske úshyrap, auyr jaralanghanda әskery qimyldardy toqtatady. Ári qaray ol taktikany ózgertu turaly sheshim qabyldaydy – qatygez kýsh kómektespeytinin kórip, aila-amalgha sýienedi. Abylay Qoqan aqsýiekterimen kelisim jasaydy, ol ortalyq biylikti, yaghny Irdana-bekti nyghaytudy mýldem únatpaydy. Onyng kómegimen Abylay Irdana-bekting shenberinen shyqqan bedeldi túlghalardy jenip alady, aldymen olargha alym-salyq salyp, keyin olardy tonaydy. Osyghan baylanysty ol Irdana-bekke beybitshilik turaly úsynyspen elshiler jiberip, biraq odan bas tartty. Sodan keyin Abylay jana jasaq jinap, býlikshi biyleushige qarsy joryqqa attanady. Qoqan handyghyna birneshe qalalar tәueldi boldy. Olar negizinen qabyrghalary men jýzdegen auyldyq jasaqtarynan basqa qorghanyssyz  túrghyndary bar shaghyn auyldar edi. Jeniske degen ýmitin joghaltqan Irdana bitimge kelisedi. Qol jetpeytin maqsattargha qaramastan, Týrkistan, Shymkent, Sozaq jәne Tashkentke uaqytsha tәueldi bolghan basqa da qalalar Abylaydyng qolyna ótti. Nәtiyjesinde Qazaq handyghynyng halyqaralyq ústanymdary edәuir nyghaydy. 1771 jyly Edil qalmaqtaryn jenedi. Abylay hannyng túsynda elding shekaralary naqty shekaralardan әldeqayda keng boldy. Sonymen birge, halyqtyng ruhany jaghdayyn atap ótu kerek – onyng moralidyq-psihologiyalyq kelbeti progressivti jәne patriottyq sipatta boldy. 1759 jyldan bastap patsha әkimshiligi Abylay súltangha Ábilmәmbet handy ornynan alyp, onyng ornyna qoldau kórsetuge uәde beredi, biraq yqpaldy súltan búdan bas tartty. Han qaytys bolghannan keyin ghana, Týrkistanda, Qoja Ahmet Yassauy meshitinde Abylay aq kiyizge kóterilip, barlyq ýsh jýzding jana hany dep jariyalanady.

1771 jyly Orta jýz hany Ábilmәmbet qaytys boldy. Ataqty biyler, ataqty súltandar, iri qolbasshylar Abylaydy qoldady jәne ol býkil qazaq taghyna ie bolady. Ol han taghyna jalghyz naqty ýmitker retinde tanyldy. Dala aqsýiekterimen birge taqqa otyru dәstýrine sәikes, han taghyna qaytys bolghan hannyng ýlken balasy, jonghar shapqynshylyghyna qarsy kýresting belgili qatysushysy – Ábilfәiiz múrager bolu kerek edi. Abylay hannyng saylanuy onyng qazaq jerlerin shoghyrlandyrudaghy erekshe qyzmetterin moyyndau boldy. Búl onyng basqa rulardyng arasyndaghy bedelin nyghaytyp, Reseyde de, Qytayda da tanymal boldy. Abylay Qazaq handyghyn basqaruda birqatar janalyqtar jasady. 10 jyldyq taqqa otyrghan kezdegi basqaru formasy is jýzinde avtokratiya boldy. Qazaq jerining jogharghy biyleushisi retinde, ol ózining tilenghúttary (han kýzetshileri) arqyly eng jaqsy jayylym jerlerdi, әsirese soltýstik-shyghys aimaqtardy paydalanudy baqylaugha alady. Abylay yqpaldy biylerge – Qazybek bi, Tóle by jәne Áyteke biyge sýiene otyryp, jeke kýshin nyghaytady. Ol «Jeti jarghy» qabyldanghangha deyin kýshinde bolghan Qasym men Esim handardyng zandaryn jetildirdi jәne qoldanystaghy zannamagha kóptegen ózgerister engizdi. Birinshiden, búl Abylaydyng olardaghy han biyligining shekteulerin qabyldamaghandyghy boldy. Jogharyda aitylghanday, ol óte qiyn jaghdayda ómir sýrdi, bala kezinen ómirding barlyq qayghylaryn biluge ​​mәjbýr boldy. Biraq bolashaq han «meni óltirmeytin nәrse meni myqty etedi» degen qaghida boyynsha ómir sýrdi, oghan temirdey tәrtip tótenshe jaghdayda ómir sýru qabileti men bilimin damytugha kómektesti. Barlyq Shynghyshandyqtar ózderinen basqalargha erekshe qatygezdigimen erekshelenedi, Abylay hannyng boyynda búl qasiyetter on ese ósti, adamdar onyng esiminen beker qoryqqan joq. Aqyr sonynda, onyng túsynda aitarlyqtay kóterilister oryn alghan joq.

Abylay jan-jaqty damyghan túlgha retinde halyq aqyndaryn, jyraulardy, dombyrashylardy qoldaghan. Keybireuler tipti ózi birneshe kýiler shygharghan dep aitady. Biraq, ókinishke qaray, bizge úly hannyng kýileri jetpedi. Sonymen Qazaq handyghynyng tarihynda erekshe qúrmetke ie handardyng qatarynda Abylay han da boldy. Diplomatiyanyng kýrdeli óneri men ekijaqty boluy ghana handyqty orys nemese qytay imperiyalarynyng siniruinen saqtay aldy. «Arystan men aidahar arasyndaghy» sayasaty ong nәtiyjesin berdi.

1991 jyly Qazaqstan tәuelsizdik alghannan keyin, Almatynyng basty danghyldarynyng biri (búrynghy Kommunist danghyly) Abylay han danghyly dep ataldy jәne «Almaty-2» beketining alanynda at ýstindegi han eskertkishi ornatyldy. Onyng portreti Qazaqstannyng alghashqy últtyq valutasy – 100 tengelik banknotta beynelendi (1993 j.) jәne 2001 jyly tәuelsiz Qazaqstannyng Abylay hangha arnalghan pochta markasy shyqty. Abylay hannyng ómirbayany negizinde 2005 jyly alghashqy qazaqstandyq «Kóshpendiler» tarihy filimi týsirildi. Jezqazghan qalasy әkimdigining aldyndaghy alanda Abylay hangha eskertkish ornatyldy. 2008 jyldyng tamyzynda Petropavlda QR Túnghysh Preziydenti Nazarbaev Abylay han reziydensiyasynyng múrajay kesheninde eskertkishin ashty. Abylay hannyng esimi Qazaq halyqaralyq qatynastar jәne әlem tilderi uniyversiytetine berildi.

Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter:

1.Abylay han. Ishki jәne syrtqy sayasat. R. B. Sýleymenov, V. A. Moiyseev. – Almaty, «Jazushy», 2001. 55 b.

2.HVI-HH ghasyrlardaghy orys dereknamalaryndaghy Qazaqstan tarihy, on tomdyq. T. 3 Diplomat A. I. Tevkelevting Qazaqstan tarihy men etnografiyasy turaly jurnaldary men estelikteri (1731-1759). – Almaty, «Dayk-press». 2005. 46 b.

Kerimsal Júbatqanov,
Qazaq-Orys Halyqaralyq uniyversiytetining dosenti, tarih ghylymdarynyng kandidaty

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