Júma, 7 Qazan 2022
Tarih 6945 20 pikir 29 Qantar, 2018 saghat 13:23

Basqynshylardyn  estelikterindegi sandyraqtar

Jetpis jyl boyy kenes zamanyndaghy jәne patsha zamany kezindegi búrmalanghan tarihymyzdy izdep tauyp, endi ghana az-azdap qalypqa keltirip jatyrmyz. Jazba tarihymyzdyng kópshiligi shetel kózderinde, әjeptәuir kópshiligi Resey múraghattarynda. Orys generaldary men ofiyserleri, zertteushileri men sayahatshylarynyn, bir sózben aitar bolsaq,  orystyng basqynshy ofiyserlerining biz bilmeytin qazaq dalasy jayly enbekterining shetteri endi ghana ashylyp jatyr. Olardyng kópshiligin sol zamandaghy reseylik sayasat, keyin kenes zamanynyn  iydeologtary jaryqqa shygharmay «tek qyzmettik maqsatta paydalanu ýshin» dep ózderi ghana paydalanyp, taghy biraz bóligin «qúpiya» degen grifpen  arnayy sandyqta saqtap tyghyp kelgeni endi ghana olardyng qúpiyalyghy ashylghan song  ayan bolyp otyr.

Endi sheti ashylyp jatqan búl jazbalardyng tabylghanyna shýkir dep bir jaghynan kónilimiz tolsa, ekinshi jaghynan sol jazbalardy oqy otyryp namysymyz ben dәrmensiz renish kónilimizdi jabyrqatatyn, jýregimizdi óksitetin jerleri de az emes eken. Sebebi, orystyng qazaq dalasyn otarlaushy ofiyserlerining estelikteri men jazbalaryn kórip, tarihymyzdyng búrmalanghanyn ghana  emes, sol jazbalardyng bәrindegi qazaq ataulynyn, qazaq degen halyqtyn, onyng tarihy men mәdeniyeti, salt-dәstýrining kemsitilgeni, qorlanghany, mazaq etilgenin aiqyn kóruge bolady. Qazaq dalasyna kelgen, ózderin «joghary mәdeniyettin» ókilderimiz dep sanaushylar qazaqtar jayly oiyna kelgenderin jazghanyna kuә bolyp otyrmyz. Otarshylardyng jazbalarynda qazaqty «qyrghyzdar», «qaysaqtar», «jyrtqyshtar», «jabayylar», «qanisherler» dep teneuden basqa sóz kezdestirmeysin. Qoldarynda naqty derekter bola túra, qazaqtar jayly esh qisyngha kelmeytin jalghan ósekter men anyzgha úqsaghan sandyraqtardy jaza bergen.

«Qazaqtardyng ishinde birde-bir sauatty adamdy taba almaysyn, jappay sauatsyzdyq jaylaghan» degen otarshylardyng sózderine qúlaghymyz da, kózimiz de ýirenip qalghan. Múnday jazbalargha jaraydy, mәn bergimiz joq. «Qazaqtar eshuaqytta juynbaydy» dep jazypty orystyng I. Pashino degen polkovniygi 1866 jyly Qazaly men Týrkistan arasyndaghy jol sapary jayly 1868 jyly Sankt-Peterburgten shyqqan «Týrkistan ólkesi. 1866 jyl. Jol jazbalar» atty kitabynda. Osylay dep bastaghan polkovnikting qazaqtar naghyz moralisyz halyq eken degenin oqyghanda qanyng birden tasyp ketedi. Qazaqtyng túrmysyndaghy er men әielding qatynasynyng arasynda erkindik jaylaghan, esh tyiym joq, qalaghan adamymen bәri ashyq jasalyna beredi dep kósilipti.

«-Ketshi әri, mezi bolmay, taghy da jabysyp qalmadyng ghoy! Mystan qatyn! – dep kazak ony quady. Oghan ne kerek eken degen súraqqa: Joghary mәrtebelim, dәri súraydy, bala tughyzatyn dәri. Júrttyng bәrine jabysyp qalmaydy; Qúday bermese oghan eshbir dәrining kómegi bolmaydy. Bilemin oghan qanday emning qajet ekenin: kóktem, kýieuleri tabynda jylqy baghymynda, ishteri qaynap pysyp jýr. Siz oghan kónil audarmanyz – ol júrttyng bәrine solay... qazaqtarda búl mәsele... op-onay.. – kazak qolyn bir siltedi.

Qazaqtyng qyzdary men әielderi ótken-ketken jýrginshilerge op-onay berile salady, orys soldattary jýrgen jerinde úrpaqtaryn qaldyryp ketti dep kósilgen polkovnik «men múnday moralisyzdyqty esh jerde kezdestirgen emespin» dep te siltep jibergen.

«...eger bizding әskerler ótken aimaqtaghy qazaq әielining qolynda shashy sary bala kórseniz onyng tandanary joq. Men múnday beyjaylyqty, osynday anqau da anghal formadaghy beyjaylyqty, qazaqtardyn  arasyndaghy moralisyzdyqty esh jerde kezdestirgen emespin.

 Bir joly osy taqyryp  tónireginde on alty jastaghy qazaq atqosshymen әngimelestim; ol meni ózining oy talghamdarymen, qisyndy pikirlerimen, tәuir sofizmderimen tang qaldyrdy. Ángimemizding ón boyyn týgel keltirmey-aq qoyayyn, eng sonyndaghy sóz baylasqanymyzdy aitayyn. Sóz sonynda auyldaghy birinshi súlu bolyp sanalatyn apasymen meni tanystyrudy úsyndy. Eger qalasan, eki griyvennik aqsha berseng boldy, stansagha әkep beremin dedi».  (TÝRKISTAN      ÓLKESI, 1866    jyl.  «JOL    JAZBALAR»  P. I. PAShINO  15 bet).  

P. I. Pashinonyng búl sandyraghyn N. I. Dobrosmyslov  ózining 1912 jyly Tashkentte shyqqan «Syrdariya oblysynyng qalalary» degen kitabynda odan da «terendete» týsipti. Onyng aituynsha sifilis jәne basqa jynystyq aurulardyng kózi qazaq dalasynyng әielderi bolghan...

«...№1 forttaghy jartylay gospitalidyng júmys istegen kezinde stasionarlyq aurulardyng sany jylyna 600-ge jetti, olardyng 30 payyzy sifilispen jәne jynystyq aurularmen nauqastar edi. Komendanttyng aituynsha, tómengi shendiler dalalyqqa sharuashylyq júmystarymen jii issaparlargha shyghyp sol aurulardy qazaqtyng әielderinen júqtyryp keledi eken.»

Kelimsek basqynshy ofiyserlerding qaysysy bolmasyn,  qazaqtyng ejelgi tarihy men  mәdeniyeti jayly, salt-dәstýrleri jayly týk bilmese de esh qymsynbay, qinalmay oiyna  kelgen óz pikirin naghyz aqiqattyng shyny dep soghyp jaza bergen.   «... Tek qana ertegilerdi jaqsy kóretindikten, qazaqtar ata-babalaryna sonshalyqty beyjay qaraydy, arghy atalarynyng attaryn dúrys atay alatyndary kóp emes. Búl kemshilik býgingi elining taghdyryna erekshe yqpaly bar familiyanyng iyelerine de qatysty» dep sandyraqtaghan 19 ghasyrdyng 40-shy jyldary qazaq dalasynda bolghan Petr Uslar degen ofiyser «Qazaq dalasyndaghy tórt ai» degen estelik jazbalarynda. Búl jabayy da, sorly qaranghy halyqty qalay kemsitip jazsaq ta bola beredi dep oilaghan bolsa kerek.

«...Biraq, qazaqtardyng әn aituymen esh kelisetin jayym joq. Olar ózderining muzykasyna ýlgi etip, ashulanghan týielerding qúlaq jaryp ókiretin dauysyn alghangha úqsaydy. Elikteushi kóp jaghdayda  týpnúsqadan jaqsy bola  almaydy emes pe, sol siyaqty qazaqtar da muzykalyq jaghynan qos órkeshti maestro ústazdarynan kóp keyin qalyp qoyypty. Ánderining kópshiligi suyryp salyp aitugha sayady, maqamy ózgermeydi, bireu ghana. Jarysqa eki әnshi týsedi. Áueli bireui birneshe ólendi aiqaylap aitady, eng bastysy - úiqasqa manyz beredi, maghynasy – ekinshi, ýshinshi nәrse. Sosyn ekinshisi oghan jauap beredi, dúrystap aitqanda, ol da oghan ólenmen jauap qaytarady. Qaytarghan jauaby neghúrlym kýtpegen túrghyda bolsa, yaghni  neghúrlym dalbasa maghynada jauap berse, soghúrlym tyndaushylar dauystap, kýlip qoldaydy. Osydan- aq, eki-ýsh saghatqa sozylatyn búl dalbasanyng qanday aqymaqsyzdyqqa apararyn  bile berinizder»,- deydi   P. Uslar.

Dәl osyghan úqsas pikirdi orystyng maqtauly akademiygi, orystyng «Tolkovyy slovarinin» avtory Dali de jazypty. Ol 1839 jylghy Perovskiyding qysqy Hiua joryghy kezinde joryqta birge bolyp kýndelik jazyp otyrghan:  «... Búl qaysaqtarda óte siyrek kezdesetin jaghday; olardyng auyz әdebiyetinde anyz estelikter kezdespeydi, jyr aitushylar ózderining tórt shumaq ólenderin qosyp, oilanbay, kópshiligin jatqa soghyp aita beredi».

Syr boyyna aty shuly general V. Perovskiy jayly orys tarihshylary men zertteushileri tek qana sypyra maqtap keremet qolbasshy etu jaghynan ghana jazbalar qaldyrghan tarihta.  Songhy ashylghan estelikter boyynsha general Perovskiyding qazaqtargha ayausyz qatal bolghany jayly derekterdi orys tarihshylary barynsha kórsetpeuge tyrysyp jasyryp kelgeni anyqtalyp otyr. Ataqty orys jazushysy Lev Tolstoy Perovskiy jayly, onyng 1839 jylghy Hiuagha qysqy joryghy jayly roman jazbaqshy bolypty. «Oqigha orny Orynbor ólkesi boluy tiyis» degen jazba qaldyryp ketipti jazushy. I. N. Zahariiyn-Yakunin ózining estelikterinde Lev Nikolaevichpen bolghan mynaday әngimesin eske alady:  «…Meni osy joryq  (1839 jylghy Hiua joryghy – A. P.) óte qyzyqtyrady... ras pa, joq pa bilmeymin, aitshy, Perovskiy osy joryq kezinde jas qazaqtyng jol kórsetushilerin әkelerining kózinshe tiridey jerge kómgeni ras pa?» dep súrapty. Sirә, Lev Nikolaevichti  sheneunikter әskeri  vedomstvonyng múraghattarynyng tabaldyryghyna jaqyndatpaghan bolar dep oilaymyn.

V.Perovskiyding 1839 jylghy Hiuagha joryq kezinde general Balkashinge jazghan hatynda mynaday joldar bar:

– Jaqynda qazaqtar búzyqtyq jasamaq boldy, algha  jýrmeymiz dep batyl bas tartty, osy jerde bәrimiz ólemiz, múnday ayazda basymyzdy Hiuada tastaghansha bәrimiz týgel osy jerde ólemiz dedi; sózben jasaghan ýgit kómektespedi, tek eki adamdy atqannan keyin ghana, basqalaryn da sonday taghdyr kýtip túrghanyn kórip jandaryn saqtaudy jalynyp súray bastady, aitqandarynnyn bәrin isteymiz dedi».  

Estelik jazghan orys basqynshalarynyng barlyghy da qazaqtardyng qonaqjaylylyghyn, qay uaqytta bolsyn kelgen  jýrginshi qonaqtargha ýiining búryshynan oryn tauyp berip, ózi jartylay ash otyrsa da, balalarynan jyryp, tamaqtarymen bólisetinderin jazghan. Biraq olardyng búl tamasha qasiyetine maqtau, rizashylyq aitu orystardyng esh qaperinde bolmaghan. Qazaqtar bizdi solay qabyldaugha tiyis!

... Keybir stansalarda jinalghan kóp atqosshylardan, poshtabaylardan nemese olardyng senimdi ókilderi, prikazshikterinen túratyn  qazaqtardy kezdestiresin, keyde ýlken kópjandy qazaqtyng otbasysyna tap bolasyn. Olar ótkinshi jýrginderding kóptigine esh qysylmaydy, olardy da qysyldyrmaydy, tipti esh nazar audarmaydy, kýndelikti júmystaryn atqara beredi. (TÝRKISTAN      ÓLKESI, 1866    jyl.  «JOL    JAZBALAR»  P. I. PAShINO)

Jogharyda atalghan polkovnik Pashino bir qazaq әielining tarydan qalay botqa dayyndaghanyn tәptishtep jazypty. Balalary ashqúrsaq otyrghanyna qaramastan, әiel polkovnikke jәne onyng qasyndaghy birneshe serikterine de tamaq (botqa) úsynghan. Pashinodan basqalardyng barlyghy botqadan auyz tiygen, polkovniyk  bolsa tamaqty jeuge jiyirkengenin ashyq jazypty. Ash otyrghan qazaqtardyng otbasyna toqtaghan orystyng ofiyserleri men soldattary qazaqtardyng otbasynyng ash jaghdayyna kózderine de ilmeytin bolghan. Jogharyda atalghan polkovnik nansyz otyrghan bir qazaqtyng ýiine kiredi. Beyshara qazaqtar zyr jýgirip shәy qoyyp baryn aldyna qoyypty. Orystar ózderining qazaqtargha nan úsynghanyn keremet jaqsylyq etkendey etip jazypty. Al ýiding әielderi osynday «qayyrymdylyghymyzgha» jamandyqpen jauap berdi, dorbamyzdan nanymyzdy úrlap ketti», «úrlyq jasau qazaqtardyng arasynda jappay oryn alghan jaghday» dep jazypty polkovniyk.

Áriyne, múnday basqynshydan qanday rahym, qanday rizashylyq! Mysaly, general I. Blaramberg esteliginde (búl general 1852 jyly Aqmeshit qamalyna shabuyl jasap ala almaghan) otryadyn Aral manyndaghy qúmdarda susyz shólden qúdyq tauyp ajaldan aman alyp qalghan qazaqtyng jolbasshysy jayly jazypty:  «...Kýn qaynap túr, termometr kólenkede 30 gradusty kórsetedi. Jolbasshylardan jaqyn jerde qúdyq bar ma dep súradym. Osy jerden jarty shaqyrymday jerde bireui bar, ol biraq óte tereng jәne  kómilip qalghan degen jauap aldym. Dereu qasyma kýrek pen shelekteri bar 20 kazakty ertip qúmdy qyrattarmen aitylghan anghargha bastap jýrip kettim.  Jan jaghymyzdy biyik jal qúmdar qorshaghan. Keng alqapty anghardy jel aidap ýiirgen tolqyn  qúm tóbeler basqan. Jan-jaghymyzda qylauday ósimdik joq. Qúdyq ta kórinbeydi. Mine osy jerde qazaq jolbasshylarymnyng jer tanudaghy erekshe qabiletine taghy da kuә boldym. Qazaqtyng bireui oipatpen 40 qadamday jýrdi de jan-jaghyna zer salyp qarap túrdy; sosyn ongha qaray taghy eki qadam jasady, taghy da jan-jaghyna qarady; taghy da birneshe qadam jasap, taghy da jan-jaghyna qarady da jerge qamshysymen kórsetip «myna jer» dedi. Kazaktardy shaqyrdym: «Júmysqa kirisinder, jigitter!». Adamdar tez qaza bastady. Jarty arshyn qazghannan keyin ylghal qúm, sosyn suly qúm, taghy bir arshynnan keyin – qúdyqtyng ózi kórindi. Qúdyqtyng qabyrghasy qúlamasyn dep sekseuilding bútaqtarymen órilgen eken. Áp sәtte oraldyq kazaktarym qúdyqty qúmynan tazartty, taza su qúdyqqa tola bastady. Kolonnagha búrylyp su bar dep belgi berdim, olar «ura!» degen dauyspen jauap berdi.» I. F. Blaramberg, «Estelikter».  Ózin joghary mәdeniyetti sanaytyn general (tegi nemis) osy jerde 700 adamnan túratyn otryadty ajaldan qútqarghan qazaqtyng eng bolmasa atyn da súramaghan, oghan bir auyz da jyly sózin arnamapty.  Qazaqtar orys ofiyserleri  ýshin otryadtaryna jol kórsetu ýshin ghana kerek, jýk kóteretin týielerding tilin biletindigi ýshin ghana qajet. Kýndelikterinde, jazbalarynda general attary men týiesining zoryghyp ólgen sanyn  jazyp otyrghan, ólip jatqan qazaqtar jayly bir auyz da jazbaghan, sebebi  qazaqtyng ólgenine olar esh jany auyrmaghan, kelesi auyldan basqa qazaqty jaldap alady..

Atalghan estelikte  búl general da Kenesary han jayly esh qisyngha soqpaytyn, anyzgha úqsas mynaday sandyraqty soghyp jibergen.

«Bir kýni Kenesary jana liniyadan alys emes jerde balyq aulap jýrgen birneshe kazakty ústap alypty. Olar ózderine  qanday qauip tónip túrghanyn bilmegen: tek bireui ghana qútylypty, qalyng qamystyng arasyna jasyrynyp ýlgergen. Kenesary beysharalardyng terilerin tiridey jonugha búiryq beripti. Qamystyng arasyna tyghylghan, ólerdey qoryqqan   bayghús kazak joldastarynyng jan shoshytar dauysyn estuge mәjbýr bolghan».

Jalpy alghanda, qazaqtardy bir jaghynan qanqúmar әri jauyz, ekinshi jaghynan  sonday beyshara qorqaq etip kórsetu, qazaqtar osy kezge deyin ainalasyndaghylardyng bәrinen zorlyq-zombylyq kórip kelgendikten biz olardy qorghaugha keldik degen jeleu Reseyding jaulap alu sayasatyna sayma-say kelip túrghan bolsa kerek.

Petr Uslar qazaqtyng «qanqúmarlyghyn» mynaday mysalmen «dәleldep» jazypty. «Qalay oilaysyz, Peterburgte oghan (qazaqqa, S.J.) nening únaghanyn bilesiz be? Dúrys, eshuaqytta taba almaysyz. Peterburgte ziyaly dep sanalatyn súltangha – qasaphana únapty! Qasaphananyng sәulettiligin aityp otyrghan joq, bilesiz be! Toqtausyz tәrtippen maldy soyyp jatqan kórinisten lәzzat alypty.... Bәri jaqsy, biraq onyng oiynsha, qasaphanada ol kórgen kóriktilikpen eshteneni salystyrugha bolmaydy.»

P. Pashino da basqa orys avtorlary siyaqty qazaqtardy sujýrek qorqaq dep suretteuge sheberlik tanytqan: «... bir ofiyser konvoysyz kele jatypty; kenetten kýtpegen jerden, qaydan shyqqany belgisiz jiyrma shaqty qazaqtar shygha kelip qiqulap sonynan qua jóneledi. Ofiyserding qolynda dýrbi týtiginen basqa eshtene joq. Ofiyser atyn qamshylap kóredi, biraq odan eshtene shyqpaydy, bolmaghan song ofiyser qazaqtargha dýrbisin baghyttaghan eken, dәiis qazaqtar ony zenbirek eken dep oilap tym-tyraqay jan-jaqqa qashyp tyghylypty; ofiyser eshtene bolmaghanday shauyp kete beripti».

Osy orayda tarihshy Múrat Ábdirovtyng «Zavoevanie Kazahstana Sarskoy Rossiey» atty kitabynda mynaday qújatta saqtalghan derekti keltirgenimiz jón bolar: «Bir kýni orystyng ýsh kazagy bir qazaqqa shabuyldapty. Artynan kele jatqan qughyndy kórgen qazaq toqtap olardy kýtuge dayyndalady. Birinshi kazaktyng qylyshyn qazaq aibaltasymen  shauyp týsiredi, ekinshi kazaktyng da nayzasyn aibaltasymen sabyn shauyp jiberedi, ýshinshisin qylyshpen turap tastay jazdaydy.   Jekpe-jekte qazaqty jene almaghan kazaktar myltyqtarymen atyp qazaqty ishinen jaralaydy. Sosyn ýsheui ýsh jaghynan  biri nayzamen shanshyp, ekinshisi qylyshpen kesip azappen ólsin dep óltirmey dalagha qaldyryp ketedi. Olar keri qaytyp kele jatqanda qazaq әli tiri eken, «meni óltirip ketinder» dep súraydy. Kazaktar onyng etigin, týlki tonyn sypyryp alyp jalanash qargha tastap ketipti».  

Áriyne ótken ghasyrlardaghy orys zertteushilerining arasynda dala qazaqtary jayly saliqaly jaqsy pikir jazghandar da bolghan. Biraq ondaylar óte siyrek.  Sondaylardyng biri - orystyng naturaliysi, orys zoogeografiyasynyng negizin salushy jәne sayahatshy, Orta Aziyany zertteushi N. A. Seversov (1827-1883). Ol - qazaqtyng jeri men tabighaty, adamdary jayly óte jaqsy kózqaraspen jazghan adam. N. Seversovtyng «Qoqan tútqynyndaghy bir ai» atty jazbalary (Oqigha Aqmeshit ónirinde bolghan) osy sózderimizge dәlel bola alady. Syr boyynyng súlu tabighaty jayly kelesi sózderdi jazghan Seversovtyng hikayasyn oqyghan adam avtordyn  búl jerding tabighaty ghana emes,   onyng adamdaryna degen de erekshe iltipatty, mahabbatty óz boyynda jinaghan adam ekenin anghara alady.

«Jalghyz qústar ghana emes! Búl jerding an-januarlarynyng ózderin bizdegilermen salystyrugha bolmaydy.  Súlu da aibatty, qaruly da jyldam, ústatpaytyn shalt qimyldy, shyghystyng batyr jigiti siyaqty. Syrdariyanyng qalyng nu toghaylarynda ebedeysiz  jabayy shoshqany toryp, tal shybyqtay súlu da sýikimdi arab shayyrlary ólenderine qosyp jyrlaghan elikti andyghan jolbarys ómir sýredi».

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