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Qogham 3337 2 pikir 10 Qazan, 2019 saghat 11:16

Terminologiya mәselesinen konsensus izdeu kerek

Memlekettik tilding ghylymnyng kez kelgen salasynda óz dengeyinde sapaly qyzmet etuinde terminderding manyzy asa zor ekendigi tilshi ghalymdargha emes, sala mamandaryna, býkil qogham mýshelerine mәlim. Búl sózimizdi Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Túnghysh Preziydenti N. Nazarbaevtyng 2013 jylghy 6 nauryzdaghy «Qazaqstan-2050» Strategiyasy qalyptasqan memleketting jana sayasy baghyty» atty Qazaqstan halqyna Joldauyndaghy myna sózimen túzdyqtaghymyz keledi: «Biz qazaq tilin janghyrtudy jýrgizuge tiyispiz.

Tildi zamangha say ýilestirip, terminologiya mәselesinen konsensus izdeu kerek. Sonymen qatar, әbden ornyqqan halyqaralyq jәne shet tilinen engen sózderdi qazaq tiline audaru mәselesin birjola sheshu qajet.  Búl mәsele oqshaulanghan qayratkerlerding ortasynda sheshilmeuge tiyis. Ýkimet múny rettegeni jón.

Býkil әlemde birdey qabyldanghan terminder bar. Olar kez kelgen tildi bayytady. Biz ómirdi ózimiz kýrdelendire týsemiz, týsinbestikke boy aldyryp, aqyl-oydy sapyrylystyramyz, kónergen sózderding shyrmauynan shyqpaymyz» [1].

Sonday-aq Elbasy 2017 jylghy 31 qantardaghy «Qazaqstannyng ýshinshi janghyruy: jahandyq bәsekege qabilettilik» atty Qazaqstan halqyna Joldauynda [2] atap kórsetken – aghylshyn tilinde oqytu mәselesi de, kәsiptik bilim beru mәselesi de terminologiya salasynyng obektisinen alshaq jatqan joq. Óitkeni oqytu, әdisteme – pedagogika ghylymdarynyng nәtiyjesi bolsa, kәsiptik bilim beru isi de kez kelgen salanyng terminderinsiz sapaly oryndaluy mýmkin emes.

Sonymen qatar Elbasy N. Nazarbaev 2018 jylghy 10 qantardaghy «Tórtinshi ónerkәsiptik revolusiya jaghdayyndaghy damudyng jana mýmkindikteri» atty Qazaqstan halqyna Joldauynda «terminderding audarudy negizdeu tәsilderin qayta qarastyryp, terminologiya túrghysynan qazaq tilin halyqaralyq dengeyge jaqyndatu kerek», [3] – dep naqty tapsyrmalar berdi.

Qazirgi kezde qazaq terminologiyasynyng ghylymiy-teoriyalyq mәseleleri birshama zerttelip, aitarlyqtay nәtiyjelerge qol jetkizildi. Alayda termin mәselesi tek qana ghylymy zertteumen shektelmey, praktikalyq-qoldanbaly túrghydan qoghamnyng әrtýrli salalaryna, óndiriske engizudi qajet etedi. Osy túrghydan alghanda, әrtýrli ghylym salalarynyng terminologiyalyq jýiesin birizdendiru, terminologiya túrghysynan qazaq tilin halyqaralyq dengeyge jaqyndatu, terminderdi latyn grafikasynda tanbalau,  tilimizge kýn sanap enip jatqan terminderding qazaq tilindegi balamalaryn bekitu, bekitilgen terminderding qoldanysyn júrtshylyqqa nasihattau manyzdy mәseleler bolyp tabylady.

Osy orayda «Qazaq tili әlipbiyin kirillisadan latyn grafikasyna kóshiru turaly» Qazaqstan Respublikasy Preziydentining 2017 jylghy 26 qazandaghy №569 Jarlyghymen [4] qúrylghan Qazaq tili әlipbiyin latyn grafikasyna kóshiru jónindegi últtyq komissiya  janynan Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligining 2018 jyldyng 14 aqpanynda №50 búiryghymen qúrylghan Terminologiyalyq júmys toby  (qúramy – 1 tóragha, 2 orynbasar, 1 hatshy, 13 mýshe) atalghan mәseleler boyynsha is-sharalar atqaruda.

2018 jyly Terminologiyalyq júmys toby ótkizgen 5 otyrysta A. Baytúrsynúly әzirlegen terminjasam qaghidattary qazirgi qazaq terminologiyasynda bazalyq qaghidattar retinde negizge alu kerek degen tújyrym jasaldy. Sonymen qazaq til biliminde qalyptasqan terminjasam qaghidattaryn tolyqtyratyn mynaday kriyteriyler úsynyldy: a)  jalpyqoldanystaghy jәne keng taraghan terminderdi qazaq tilining fonomorfologiyalyq erekshelikterine sәikestendiru; ә) jalpygha týsinikti, barlyq til tútynushylaryna qoljetimdi jalpy qoldanystaghy terminderdi tolyqtay ana tilining negizinde jasalyp, mindetti týrde qoldanu; b) jalpyghylymi, әmbebap, barlyq til tútynushylaryna týsinikti salaaralyq terminderdi tilding ishki mýmkindikterine qaray ishinara qoldanu; v) biregey, konseptualdy-avtorlyq, funksionaldyq túrghydan aitarlyqtay oqshaulanghan, negizinen mamandargha ghana týsinikti naqty tar salalardyng terminderin terminderge qoyylatyn barlyq talaptargha sәikes keletin bolghan jaghdayda qoldanu.

Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng otyrystarynda songhy 40 jyldaghy terminderdi audaru mәseleleri jәne terminjasam qaghidattary boyynsha halyqaralyq tәjiriybege (Týrkiya, Resey jәne basqa da elder) taldau jasalyp, qazaq tiline songhy 40 jylda beyimdelgen nemese audarylghan jii qoldanylatyn 1000-nan astam tizbesining aghylshyn, orys tilindegi paralleli audarmasy talqylandy.

Sonymen qatar aghylshyn, orys jәne týrik tilderde birdey qoldanylatyn, qazaq tiline audarylghan halyqaralyq terminder, sonday-aq orys tili arqyly enip, qazaq tiline audarylghan jәne bastapqy tildegi formalarymen paralleli qoldanylatyn shettildik terminder tizbesi jәne  qazaq tiline orys tili arqyly enip, audarylmay qoldanylatyn halyqaralyq terminderding qazaq tilindegi modelideri qarastyryldy.

Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng hattamalyq sheshimderine sәikes, QR BGhM GhK A. Baytúrsynúly atyndaghy Til bilimi institutynyng https://www.tbi.kz saytynda «Terminologiyalyq jәne terminografiyalyq júmystar» atty jeke aidar ashylyp, onyng «Maqalalar» bóligine 50-ge juyq ghylymy maqala, «Terminologiyalyq sózdikter» bóligine 3 sózdik jәne 4 týrli taqyryptyq terminder tizbesi ornalastyryldy jәne talqylau maqsatynda 1000-nan asa әrtýrli salalyq terminder úsynyldy.

Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng 2018 jylghy 15 mamyrdaghy otyrysynda tóragha orynbasary, Institut diyrektory E. Qajybek Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalar qúru jóninde bayandama jasady.

Osyghan baylanysty Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng júmys josparyna sәikes Ghylym komiytetining 2018 jylghy 10 tamyzdaghy №113-nj búiryghymen Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng qúramy jәne 2018 jylgha arnalghan júmys jospary bekitildi.

Tórt seksiyany qamtityn Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng qúramy 36 toptan,  379 ghalymnan túrdy:

1) qoghamdyq-gumanitarlyq ghylymdar seksiyasy (11 top, 108 ghalym): lingvistika toby (10),  әdebiyet toby (7), filosofiya jәne sayasattanu toby (9), ekonomika jәne qarjy toby (9), tarih jәne etnologiya toby (9), pedagogika jәne psihologiya toby (6), óner toby (12), mәdeniyet toby (9), is jýrgizu jәne múraghat toby (13), zantanu toby (7), dene tәrbiyesi jәne sport toby (9);

2) tehnikalyq ghylymdar seksiyasy (12 top, 125 ghalym), fizika jәne astronomiya toby (17), matematika toby  (18), mehanika jәne mashinatanu toby (8), informatika jәne esepteuish tehnika toby (8), energetika toby (11), tehnika jәne tehnologiya toby (9), elektronika jәne radiotehnika toby (7), kólik jәne qatynas joldary toby (7), himiya toby (11), himiyalyq jәne biologiyalyq tehnologiya toby (11), jenil jәne toqyma ónerkәsibi toby (7), múnay-gaz toby (11);

3) jaratylystanu seksiyasy (13 top, 118 ghalym), biologiya jәne molekulalyq biologiya toby (12), zoologiya toby (11), medisina toby (9), auyl sharuashylyghy toby (10), mal sharuashylyghy toby (11),  veterinariya toby (10), genetika jәne sitologiya toby (8), su sharuashylyghy toby (8), ekologiya toby (8), geologiya jәne geodeziya toby (8), geografiya toby (10), gidrogeologiya jәne geoekologiya toby (6), tamaq ónerkәsibi jәne túrmystyq qyzmet toby (7);

4) onomastika seksiyasy (28 ghalym).

Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng 2018 jylgha arnalghan josparynda negizinen sala mamandary men tilshi-terminolog ghalymdarynyng birigip sózdik jasau tәjiriybesin jetildiruge, tildik reformagha baylanysty janartylghan ústanymdardy mengeruge arnalghan ghylymiy-әdisnamalyq is-sharalar (seminarlar) úiymdastyru; terminologiyalyq, terminografiyalyq ghylymiy-teoriyalyq zertteulerding teoriyalyq mәselelerin, әdisnamasy men әdistemesin (avtorlyq izdenister, salalyq baghdar, tildik baghdar, uaqyttyq baghdar, qyzmettik baghdar, oqyrman baghdary, kólemdik baghdar jәne t.b.) ghylymy túrghydan zerdeleu mәseleleri kózdeldi.

Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng júmys josparyna sәikes, Institut 2018 jylghy 5 qyrkýiekte Qazaqstan halqynyng tilderi kýnine jәne A.Baytúrsynúlynyng tughan kýnine oray «Qazaq últtyq jazuy: emle, termintanu jәne onomastika» atty respublikalyq ghylymiy-praktikalyq konferensiya; 2018 jylghy 21 qyrkýiekte «Últtyq terminjasam ústanymdary:   teoriya  jәne  tәjiriybe»  atty  seminar-kenes;  2018 jylghy 24 qazanda «Qazaq sózjasamy: tarihy, býgini, keleshegi» atty halyqaralyq ghylymiy-tәjiriybelik konferensiya; 2018 jylghy 9 qarashada «Latyn әlipbiyi: tәjiriybe, pikir» atty halyqaralyq ghylymiy-praktikalyq konferensiya;  2018 jylghy 23 qarashada «Latyn әlipbiyine kóshiru» atty halyqaralyq onlayn konferensiya ótkizdi.

Ministrlikting 2019 jylghy 25 qantardaghy № 40 búiryghymen Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng qúramy (1 jetekshi, 2 orynbasar, 16 mýshe) jәne jospary qayta bekitildi.

Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng 2019 jylghy 15 mamyrdaghy otyrysynda salalyq terminologiyany qalyptastyrugha jәne damytugha arnalghan baghdarlamalyq-nysanaly qarjylandyru boyynsha 2020-2022 jyldargha arnalghan ghylymy baghdarlamanyng (týsindirme hat, kýntizbelik jospar, budjettik ótinim) jobasyn pysyqtau; salalyq terminderding qalyptasuynyng negizgi mehanizmderin aiqyndau, talqylau; shettildik terminderdi qazaq tilining jana әlipbii negizinde transkripsiyalau men transliyterasiyalau boyynsha zertteuler jýrgizu turaly mәseleler qarastyryldy.

Sonymen qatar Ministrlikting Ghylym komiytetining 2019 jylghy 4 aqpandaghy №18-nj búiryghymen Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng qúramy jәne jospary qayta bekitildi.

Tórt seksiyany qamtityn Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng qúramy 50 toptan,  467 ghalymnan túrdy:

1) qoghamdyq-gumanitarlyq ghylymdar seksiyasy (20 top, 174 ghalym): lingvistika toby (10),  әdebiyet toby (7), filosofiya jәne әleumettanu toby (9), ekonomika jәne qarjy toby (9), tarih jәne etnologiya toby (9), pedagogika toby (7), óner toby (11), mәdeniyet toby (9), arhiv isi toby (15), zantanu toby (7), dene tәrbiyesi jәne sport toby (9), әskery is jәne qorghanys toby (7), arheologiya jәne ónirtanu toby (6), jurnalistika toby (10), kitaphana isi toby (8), psihologiya toby (8), is jýrgizu toby (8), dintanu toby (8), keden isi toby (6), sayasattanu jәne diplomatiya toby (11);

2) tehnikalyq ghylymdar seksiyasy (13 top, 126 ghalym): fizika toby (7), matematika toby  (18), mehanika jәne mashinatanu toby (8), informatika jәne esepteuish tehnika toby (8), energetika toby (11), tehnika jәne tehnologiya toby (9), elektronika jәne radiotehnika toby (7), kólik jәne qatynas joldary toby (10), himiya toby (11), himiyalyq jәne biologiyalyq tehnologiya toby (9), jenil jәne toqyma ónerkәsibi toby (8), múnay-gaz toby (11), sәulet jәne qúrylys (9);

3) jaratylystanu seksiyasy (15 top, 141 ghalym): biologiya toby (12), zoologiya toby (12), medisina toby (9), egin sharuashylyghy toby (10), mal sharuashylyghy toby (11),  veterinariya toby (10), genetika jәne sitologiya toby (8), su sharuashylyghy toby (8), ekologiya toby (8), geologiya jәne geodeziya toby (10), geografiya toby (10), gidrogeologiya jәne geoekologiya toby (6), tamaq ónerkәsibi toby 10), astronomiya jәne gharyshtanu toby (11), ken isi toby (8);

4) onomastika seksiyasy (2 top, 26 ghalym): toponimiya toby (11), urbanonimiya toby (15).

Osy orayda Últtyq komissiyanyng 2018 jylghy 6 jeltoqsandaghy otyrysynyng hattamasymen «Últtyq terminologiyalyq qordy qalyptastyru jәne terminderdi latyn grafikasyna kezen-kezenimen kóshiru jónindegi is-sharalar josparyn salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalarda talqylau» jóninde sheshim qabyldandy.

Osy hattamagha, Terminologiyalyq júmys tobynyng jәne Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng júmys josparyna sәikes, Instituttyng úiymdastyruymen 2019 jylghy 8 aqpanda «Últtyq termiynqordy qalyptastyru jәne terminderdi latyn grafikasyna kezen-kezenimen kóshiru mәseleleri» atty respublikalyq seminar-kenes ótkizildi.

Atalghan seminar-kenes otyrysynda Últtyq termiynqordy qalyptastyru jәne terminderdi latyn grafikasyna kezen-kezenimen kóshiruding 2020-2025 jyldargha arnalghan is-sharalar jospary jan-jaqty talqylandy.

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Parlamenti Mәjilisi Áleumettik-mәdeny damu komiytetining úiymdastyruymen 2019 jylghy 11 sәuirde ótken «Ruhany janghyru: qazirgi qazaq terminologiyasy» atty ghylymiy-praktikalyq konferensiyada Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ýkimetine «bekituge úsynylghan terminderding sapasyna jauapkershilikti arttyru arqyly salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng júmystaryn jandandyru» [5, 65-b.], Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligine «2020-2022 jyldar aralyghynda 1-4, 5-9, 10-11 klastargha arnalghan latyn grafikasyna negizdelgen bazalyq terminderding birizdendirilgen sózdikterin әzirleu», «2023-2025 jyldar aralyghynda qoghamdyq-әleumettik, tehnikalyq, ghylymiy-jaratylystanu salalary boyynsha latyn әlipbii negizinde kóptomdyq salalyq terminologiyalyq sózdikter әzirleu jәne shygharu» jóninde qarar qabyldandy [5, 66-b.].

Últtyq terminologiyalyq qordy qalyptastyru jәne terminderdi latyn grafikasyna kezen-kezenimen kóshiru jónindegi is-sharalar josparynda bazalyq, bastauysh jәne negizgi bilim beruge (orta jәne kәsiptik) arnalghan birizdendirilgen terminologiyalyq sózdikter әzirleu boyynsha baghdarlamalyq-nysanaly qarjylandyrugha arnalghan konkursqa úsynu ýshin 2020-2022 jyldargha arnalghan jәne qoghamdyq, tehnikalyq jәne jaratylystanu ghylymdary salalary boyynsha latyn әlipbii negizinde salalyq terminologiyalyq sózdikter әzirleu boyynsha baghdarlamalyq-nysanaly qarjylandyrugha arnalghan konkursqa úsynu ýshin 2023-2025 jyldargha arnalghan ghylymy baghdarlama әzirleu kózdeldi.

Búl is-sharalar josparyn oryndau barysynda: a) bazalyq, bastauysh bilim beru terminderining latyn grafikasyna negizdelgen qoldanys ayasyn zertteu; ә) negizgi bilim beru termiynqorynyng latyn әlipbii negizindegi bazasyn jasau, olardy salalyq toptargha jikteu jәne jazyluyn naqtylau; b) orta bilim berude qoldanylatyn terminderding salalyq qoldanys órisin anyqtaugha arnalghan әdistemelik úsynystar әzirleu; v) salalyq terminderding qalyptasuynyng negizgi mehanizmderin aiqyndau, talqylau; g) shettildik terminderdi qazaq tilining jana әlipbii negizinde transkripsiyalau men transliyterasiyalau boyynsha zertteuler jýrgizu; gh) kirme terminderdi iygeru erejelerining jobasyn әzirlep, salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalarda talqylau; d) tәjiriybe almasu maqsatynda halyqaralyq terminologiyalyq ghylymiy-praktikalyq konferensiya, seminar ótkizu qolgha alu qarastyrylady.

Atalghan is-sharalar josparyn oryndaudan mynaday nәtiyjeler kýtilude: a) latyn әlipbii negizinde dayyndalatyn jalpy barlyq bastauysh synyptaryna arnalghan oqulyqtarda basshylyqqa alynatyn birizdendirilgen  terminologiyalyq sózdik әzirleu (1-4 synyptar); ә) negizgi synyptargha arnalghan oqulyqtarda basshylyqqa alynatyn birizdendirilgen  terminologiyalyq sózdik әzirleu (5-9 synyptar); b) orta jәne kәsiptik bilim berude qoldanylatyn terminderding birizdendirilgen sózdigin dayyndau (10-11 synyptar); v) qoghamdyq jәne әleumettik (20 tom), tehnika (20) jәne jaratylystanu (15) ghylymdarynyng salalary boyynsha latyn әlipbii negizinde salalyq terminologiyalyq sózdikter әzirleu.

Jogharyda aitylghandardy qorytyndylay kelsek, mynaday tújyrym jasaugha bolady:

- Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng júmysyn ýilestiru – asa qajet әri kýrdeli júmys;

- Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardyng jospary auqymdy әri kýtiletin nәtiyjelerding ghylymiy-praktikalyq jәne qoldanbaly tiyimdiligi joghary.

Atalghan Seksiyalardyng qúramyna ghylymy zertteu instituttarynyng ghalymdarymen, respublikamyzdaghy jetekshi joghary oqu oryndarynyng professor-oqytushylarymen qatar memlekettik organdardyn, memlekettik emes mekemelerding qyzmetkerleri engizildi. Osyghan oray Seksiyalardyng júmysyn úiymdastyru jәne jýrgizu is-sharalary Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligining qúzyretinen auqymdy bolghandyqtan, Ghylym komiytetining 2019 jylghy 26 qyrkýiektegi №162-nj búiryghymen 2019 jylghy 4 aqpandaghy №18-nj búiryghynyng kýshi joyyldy.

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ýkimetining 2014 jylghy 23 qyrkýiektegi № 1003 Qaulysyna sәikes tilderdi damytu salasyndaghy basshylyqty, salaaralyq ýilestirudi jәne memlekettik retteudi jýzege asyru Qazaqstan Respublikasy Mәdeniyet jәne sport ministrligining (búdan әri – QR MSM) qúzyretine jatatyndyqtan,  Memleket basshysy Q.K. Toqaevtyng «Syndarly qoghamdyq dialog – Qazaqstannyng túraqtylyghy men órkendeuining negizi» atty Qazaqstan halqyna Joldauynda basa nazar audarghan «qazaq tilin últaralyq qatynas tiline ainaldyru» maqsatynda Salalyq terminologiyalyq seksiyalardy QR MSM janynan qúryp, olardyng qúramyn jәne júmys josparyn Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ýkimetining qaulysymen bekitu, sonymen qatar últtyq termiynqordy qalyptastyru men damytu maqsatynda birynghay memlekettik baghdarlama әzirleu jәne ony mýddeli memlekettik organdarmen kelise otyryp bekitu maqsatqa say dep sanaymyz.

Qúlmanov S. Q.

A.Baytúrsynúly atyndaghy Til bilimi instituty

diyrektory orynbasarynyng mindetin atqarushy,

filologiya ghylymdarynyng kandidaty, dosent.

Abai.kz

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