Senbi, 31 Shilde 2021
Alashorda 6528 6 pikir 5 Qyrkýiek, 2019 saghat 11:25

Últtyq jazudyng úly zergeri

5 qyrkýiek Ahmet Baytúrsynúly tughan kýni
Qazaqstan Halqy tilderi kýnine oray

Can ghasyrlyq tarihy bar, órkeniyetti әlemge keninen taraghan arab, latyn, kirill, t.b. әlipbiyleri әrqashanda ondaghan tilding jazba týrde qyzmet etuine negiz bolyp, jalpy adamzat mәdeniyetining damuyna, qoghamnyng ilgerileuine erekshe yqpal etti. Olardyng bireui "jaqsy", "keremet", ekinshisi "týkke túrghysyz", "nashar" dep ýzildi-kesildi "ýkim" shygharugha bolmaydy. Múnday ýkim әlipby turaly aitys-talasta búryn da kóp aitylghan, qazirgi kezde de az aitylyp jýrgen joq. Áriyne, belgili bir tilding dybystyq qúrylymyna negizdelgen әlipby jýiesin ekinshi bir tilge mehanikalyq túrghydan kóshire salu ong nәtiyje bermeydi: onday grafikalyq jýieni iygeru ýshin myndaghan adam, meyli arab, meyli latyn, meyli kiril әlipbiyleri bolsyn, artyq uaqyt, artyq kýsh-jiger júmsaydy. Sondyqtan mәsele belgili bir әlipbiydi naqty bir tilding dybystyq jýiesine ontayly etip berude bolyp otyr.

HV-HVII gh.gh. qazaq memlekettigimen baylanysty qazaq tilinde jazylghan әrtýrli jazba mәtin, qújat núsqalar boldy. Demek jazba til bolghany haq. Qazaq han-súltandarynyng búiryq-jarlyqtary, kórshi eldermen jazysqan diplomatiyalyq qatynas qaghazdary, ózara jazysqan hattary t.b. eski qazaq jazba tilining ýlgi-núsqalary bolyp sanalady. Akademikter Á.Marghúlan, R.Syzdyq t.b. ghalymdar Qadyrghaly by Jalayyridyn, Ábilghazy Bahadýrding «Týrik shejiresin» eski bastau kózderine jatqyzady. Prof. Babash Ábilqasymov qazaq jazba tilining «Týrkistan uәlayaty» (1870-1882), «Dala uәlayaty» gazetterin qazaq jazba tilining eski ýlgileri dep tanidy, qazirgi jariyalanyp jatqan Mәshhýr Jýsip múralarynda eski qazaq jazba tilining ýlgileri molynan kezdesedi.

Ras, eski qazaq jazba tilining jazu jýiesi kýrdeli. Óitkeni onyng qúrylymy әrtekti (geterogendi) boldy: 1) qazaq tilining elementteri, 2) eski qypshaq tilining elementteri, 3) qarlúq, oghyz-qypshaq, sonday-aq arab-parsy tilderinen alynghan auys-týiister mol boldy. Osyghan qarap keybir zertteushiler búl tildi shaghatay nemese eski tatar tili dep qate tújyrym jasaydy. Qazaq topyraghynda jasalghandyqtan, qazaq qoghamyna, qazaq memleketine qyzmet etkendikten, qazaqtyng halyq tili elementteri, әuelde azdau bolghanymen, keyinirekte molynan qoldanylatyndyqtan, búl til e s k i q a z a q j a z b a t i l i dep arnayy terminmen atalyp jýr.

Áriyne, eski qazaq jazba tili bastan-ayaq qazaqtyng halyq tili bolmaghanmen, sauatty, hat tanityn adamdardyng qúraly boldy.

Ásirese HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HH ghasyrdyng basynda aghartushylar, belgili týrkitanushy ghalymdar jazu-syzudy reformalau qajettiligine airyqsha nazar audaryp, demokratiyalyq baghytqa qaray betbúrys jasaudy kózdedi. Jazu-syzudy demokratiyalandyrudyng negizgi mәni jazudy barynsha halyq tiline jaqyndatu edi. Jazu jýiesindegi tanbalar auyzsha tilding dybystyq jýiesindegi birlikterdi beyneleuge tiyis boldy. Al búrynghy arab әlipbiyine negizdelgen týrki jazuynyng grafikalyq jýiesinde auyzsha qoldanysta joq arhaikalyq elementter men orfografiyalyq sharttylyqtar, ekiúshty oqugha bolatyn grafemalar jii kezdesip otyrdy. Mine, múnday "olqylyqtar" arab әlipbiyining týrki tilderining dybys jýiesine jaramsyz degen pikirlerding jiyirek aityluyna sebep boldy. Búl jerde arab әlipbiyin "jaramsyz" deuden búryn, aldymen arab әlipbiyine negizdelgen týrki jazuy qaysy tilding dybystyq jýiesining grafikalyq reprezentanty (kórinisi) degen mәselening basy ashylmaghan bolatyn. Shyndyghynda, ol kezdegi týrki jazba tili belgili bir halyqtyq tilding ("tiri" tildin) leksikalyq, grammatikalyq, dybystyq jýiesining dәlme-dәl grafikalyq maniyfestasiyasy emes, halyqtyq tilden edәuir aiyrmasy bar kitaby tilding túrpat mejesin (plan vyrajeniya) belgileytin grafikalyq jýie bolatyn. Sondyqtan ol kezdegi tildik jaghdayatty gomogendi diglossiya dep tanugha bolady. HIH-HH ghgh. gomogendi diglossiya jaghdayaty aghartu isin qalyng búqaragha qaray búru isine qiyndyq keltire bastady. Jazu-syzudy azghana toptyng emes, jalpy júrtshylyqtyng iygiligine ainaldyru maqsaty túrdy. Jalpy júrtshylyqtyng sóileytin tilinen, oqyghan sauatty adamdar qoldanatyn kitaby til jýiesining edәuir aiyrmasy boldy. Osymen baylanysty barlyq aghartushylar aldynda eki týrli baghyt túrdy. Biri búrynghy kitaby tilding jazu jýiesin ózgertpey-aq halyqtyq tilding elementterine keninen jol ashu; ekinshisi - jazu-syzudy auyzsha tilding jýiesine layyqtap jasau, yaghny jazu-syzu jýiesin týbegeyli reformalau edi.

Jazu-syzumen baylanysty búl eki baghyt qazaq qoghamynyng mәdeny ómirinde jarysa jýrdi. "Dala ualayaty", "Ayqap", "Qazaqstan" t.b. merzimdi basylymdar men keybir baspa ónimderi tiline halyqtyq til elementteri dendep ene bastaghanmen, eski jazba tilge tәn keybir normalar saqtalyp otyrdy. Onyng birneshe sebepteri boldy. Solardyng negizgileri, bir jaghynan, dinge, ekinshi jaghynan, jazudaghy ortaq dәstýrli normany saqtau degenge sayady: "[...] ýsh jyz million músylman halyqtyng arasynda biz, qazaq ta, barmyz. Biz de sol jýz million músylmandarsha arab hәrpin qabyldap otyrmyz. Bizding tilimizdegi bar dybystardyng arab hәrpinde joqtary bar, arab hәrpinde bar dybystardyng bizding tilimizde joqtary bar. Sonyng ýshin arab hәrpin tilimizge dóp kelerlik etip beyimdemek, jazudy erkin bet-betimen jaza bermey, belgili bir soqpaqqa salmaq bizge de mindet. Búryn búl mәsele eskerilmese de, endi eskeriletighún kórinedi. Soqpaq salamyz degende eskeriletin jerler:

Biz, qazaq halqy, músylman dinindemiz, músylman bolghanymyz ýshin bizder músylman dinin ýirenuge, sharighat hýkimderin biluge, islam dininshe amal qylugha boryshtymyz. Islam dininshe amal qylu ýshin biz "Qúran" oqugha, ýirenuge mindettimiz. Sonyng ýshin biz ózimizge arnap emle týzgende, sol islam dinin ýirenuden alystarlyq emle qoldanbaumyz kerek. Balalarymyz diny ruhta tәrbie alsyn. Júrttyng bәrining birdey balalaryn zor medreselerge jiberip, islam ghylymyn týgel oqytugha parasatty bola qoymaydy; bir qatarlary balalaryn tezirek hýkimet mektebine beredi; bir qatarlary namazdyghyn tanyp, jazu-syzu biletúghyn bolghan song ýy sharuashylyghyna ainaldyrady; sonyng ýshin de balalarymyzdyng jasynan-aq din ghylymyna týsinip, qúran oqugha ýirenui, arab hәripterine jattyghulary tiyis. Qazaqsha "Álippe" jazushylar osy jaghyn óte eskeru kerek. Osy kýngi qalypta hýkimet mektepterinde oqyp jýrgen qazaq shәkirtterining kóbi-aq búl aitylghan qalypqa kelip jetpeydi. Aralarynda Qúran ayatynan eki jol qosyp oqy almaytyndary da tolyp jatyr, búl - bir.

Ekinshi, hәrip jana "Álippe" júrtty qosugha da, aiyrugha da sebepker bolghandyqtan, bizding tútynghan hәrpimiz basqa týrki balalarynyng hәripterinen úzaqtap bólinip ketpeske tiyis; atalarymyz "sayaq jýrseng tayaq jersin" depti ghoy. [...] biz ne de bolsa bizden kóri mәdeniyet dyniyasyna búryn ayaq basqan, bizden kóri oyauyraq dindes-qandasymyz noghay júrtynan alys jýrmelik. Solarmenen úrandasyp, birimizge birimiz shylbyr berisip, birge qimyldalyq" (M.Seraliyn. Ayqap. №4. 1914.).*

Al ekinshi baghyt eski kitaby tilding grammatikalyq jýiesinen (arab әlipbiyinen) mýlde bas tartyp, orys jazuyna kóshu bolatyn. Búl jóninde keybir qazaq oqyghandarynyng arasynda aitylyp jýrgen pikirlerding synayy mynaday: "Inspektorom inorodcheskih shkol Orenburgskogo uchenogo okruga g.Katarinskiym, pry uchastiy uchiyteley-kirgiyz, sostavlen y chastiu izdan selyy ryad kniyjek dlya chteniya y elementarnyh uchebnikov dlya izucheniya kirgizamy russkoy gramoty y russkogo yazyka...

Vajnoy osobennostiu vseh etih kniyjek yavlyaetsya to, chto kirgizskiy tekst napechatan v nih russkimy bukvami. Etim dostigaetsya ta vygoda, chto dlya uchashegosya kirgiza do neveroyatnosty oblegchaetsya vozmojnosti nauchitisya chitati na rodnom yazyke, esly kirgizskie slova izobrajeny russkimy bukvami. Eto potomu, chto russkaya azbuka gorazdo luchshe y tochnee peredaet zvuky kirgizskogo yazyka, chem arabskaya, pry tom odna y ta je arabskaya bukva iymeet neskoliko nachertaniy, chto predstavlyaet glavnoe neudobstvo arabskogo alfavita. Pry tom je, pry novom sposobe nachertaniya kirgizskogo teksta, po odnoy y toy je knijke mogut s odinakovym uspehom uchitisya kak kirgiz russkomu yazyku, tak y russkiy kirgizskomu. Schastlivaya mysli - zameniti dlya kirgiz arabskiy alfavit russkiym, kak izvestno, vpervye prishla v 70-godah izvestnomu Altynsarinu, priymenivshemu ee na dele, y s teh por sostavlyaet mechtu vseh obrazovannyh kirgiyz, jelaiyshih oblegchiti svoemu narodu puti k prosveshenii. Tem bolee ety knigy dostoyny vnimaniya, chto ony yavlyaytsya pervoy posle Altynsarina, popytkoy osvoboditi kirgizskiy yazyk ot arabshiny y tatarshiny, kotorymy sploshi y ryadom napolneny

obyknovennye kirgizskie knijki" (O.Alijanov. Poleznye knigy dlya kirgizov).

Qazaq tilin "arabshina", "tatarshina"-dan "qútqaru" iydeyasy shyn mәninde prof. N.Iliminskiyding missionerlik sayasatynyng "jemisi" bolatyn. N.Iliminskiy qazaqtardy ashyqtan-ashyq islam mәdeniyetine qarsy qoiy әreketinen nәtiyje shyqpasyn jaqsy bildi. Qazaq qoghamyndaghy islam mәdeniyetining týp tiregi jazuda ekenin, búratana halyqtardy dәstýrli dininen aiyru ýshin eng aldymen olardyng әlipbiyin, jazu-syzuyn alastau ekenin jaqsy týsindi. Qazaq qoghamyndaghy arab jazuly ruhany dýniyening bәrin "tatarsha", "tili shúbarlanghan", "taza emes", arab-parsy sózderimen shúbarlaghan dep qazaqtyng eski jazba tili (kitaby tili) dep atalatyn ruhaniy-mәdeny fenomendi halyq tiline qarsy qoydy. Birin dattap, ekinshisin maqtady.

"Alfavit slujit obyknovenno priznakom y pamyatnikom sootnosheniy religioznyh. Ta pochty istoricheskaya aksioma, chto kogda odin narod prinimal ot drugogo naroda veru, to vmeste s veroy prinimal ot nego y alfaviyt.

...Esly by kakiym-nibudi chudom vse podvlastnye Rossiy plemena, ispoveduishie magometanstvo, vdrug prinyaly pravoslavnuy veru, to y russkiy alfavit voshel by k nim bez vsyakogo zatrudneniya. No poka ony ostaytsya v magometanskoy vere, do teh por russkoy azbuke budet krayne trudno borotisya s alfavitom arabskiym. Esli, v vidu teh ily drugih soobrajeniy neobhodimo vvesty v yazyky magometanskih plemen russkui azbuku, to nujno nayty ily sozdati kakuy-nibudi oporu dlya nee v simpatiy magometan. Za nedostatkom religioznogo sochuvstviya, mojno operetisya, napriymer, na iydeiy zvukovogo preimushestva. Arabskiy alfavit ocheni neudoben dlya yazykov tatarskiyh, beden znakamy dlya glasnyh zvukov, kotorymy naprotiv yazyky tatarskoy gruppy bogaty" .

Osylaysha N.Iliminskiy arab әlipbii týrki tilderinin, onyng ishinde qazaq tilining dybys jýiesin, әsirese dauystylaryn bere almaydy dep, qazaq oqyghandaryn ilandyrugha tyrysady. Qazaqtyng eski kitaby tilining qúrylym jýiesinde kezdesetin a) arhaikalyq belgilerdi, ә) qarlúq, b) oghyz-qypshaq, v) qypshaq elementterin, g) orfografiyalyq sharttylyqtardyng bәrin "tatardiki", "qazaqtiki" emes dep uaghyzdaydy. Sol uaghyzgha ergen keybir qazaq oqyghandary qazaqtyng eski jazba tilin "tatarshina", "arabshina" dep jaghymsyz renmen atady.

N.Iliminskiy alghash ret qazaq tili materialdaryn orys jazuyna týsirip, orys әlipbiyimen beruding ýlgisin jasady. Ondaghy kózdegen maqsaty orys әlipbiyin qazaq oqyghandarynyng sanasyna siniru, sóitip, arab әlipbiyin "jaramsyz" etip, qazaq qoghamyn islam mәdeniyeti men ruhany dýniyelerin shettetu edi. Ony N.Iliminskiyding myna sózinen aiqyn angharugha bolady: "Tak y u nas v Rossiy edinstvo alfavita, daje samoe tochnoe, ne priyvedet k vnutrennemu ediynenii inorodsev s russkimi, poka pervye ne obedinyatsya s namy v vere pravoslavnoy. Ya daje polagay, chto inovernye inorodsy, iymeiyshie svoi religioznui pisimennosti, kak, napriymer, tatary-

magometane, ily lamaysy-buryaty, ne primut russkogo alfavita ny selikom, ny s kakimy ugodno prisposobleniyamy y pribavkami. Vse nashy inorodsy, kak y russkiy seliskiy narod, nahodyatsya v periode religioznogo mirosozersaniya y rukovodstvuytsya religioznymy motivamiy".

N.I.Iliminskiyding qazaq tili dybystaryn orys әlipbiyindegi әriptermen tanbalauy onsha sәtti bola qoyghan joq. Arab әlipbiyindegi әripter dauystylardy tanbalaugha kedey bolsa, orys әlipbii dauyssyzdardy tanbalaugha jetkiliksiz bolyp shyqty. N.I.Iliminskiyden keyin de qazaq mәtinderin orys әlipbiyimen beruding V.V.Radlov, Y.Altynsariyn, V.Katarinskiy t.b. jasaghan ýlgileri boldy. Biraq sol ýlgilerding bәrine ortaq kemshilik - qazaq tili fonologiyalyq jýiesining jygha tanylmauymen baylanysty edi.

Mine, osy qysqasha bayandaudan halyq tilining dybystyq jýiesin belgileytin jana tiptegi әlipby týzude, jazu ýlgisin jasauda edәuir qayshylyqtar men qiyndyqtardyng dini, azamattyq, dәstýrli mәdeniyet pen aghartushylyqtaghy jana baghyt t.b. tәrizdi asa kýshti әleumettik faktorlarmen baylanysty ekenin bayqaugha bolady.

Sonymen, qazaq jazuyna reforma jasaushylardyng aldynda negizinen mynaday basty mindetterdi sheshu kýn tәrtibinde túrdy: qazaq jazu-syzuy qay tilding grafikalyq túrpatynda boluy kerek?

Grafikalyq jýiening mazmún mejesi bayyrghy týrki jazba tiline tәn arhaikalyq elementterdi, qarlúq, oghyz-qypshaq (qypshaq-oghyz), taza qypshaqtyq, qazaqtyq belgilerden túratyn qúrylymdyq jýieni belgileui kerek pe, әlde birynghay taza halyqtyq tilding (sóileu tilin) jýiesin tirek etuge tiyis pe? Jazu jýiesi jalpy halyqtyq tilding qúrylymyn arqau etse, qay әlipbiyge (arab әlipbiyine, әlde orys әlipbiyine) negizdeluge tiyis? Tildegi fonemalardyng inventary dúrys anyqtala ma?

A.Baytúrsynúly jazu-syzudyng arqauy halyqtyq til boluy kerek degen tújyrymdy ústanyp, jazudy az ghana oqyghandardyng emes, kópshilikting bilim, tәrbie qúralyna ainaldyru, yaghny jazu-syzudy demokratiyalandyru qaghidasyn dәiekti týrde jýzege asyrdy.

Solay etkende ghana jazu-syzu at tóbelindey az ghana elitalyq toptyng ghana emes, kýlli halyqtyng iygiligine ainalugha tiyis boldy. Osymen baylanysty aghartushylardyng aldynda eki tandau túrdy. Birinshisi – oqu-aghartu, sauattandyru isining búqaralyq sipat aluy ýshin arab grafikasyna negizdelgen búrynghy әlipbiydi negizge alyp, eski jazba tilding grafika emle dәstýrin saqtay otyryp, qoldanystaghy jazu dәstýrinen qol ýzbey, tek azdy-kópti ontaylandyru boldy.

Ekinshisi – eski jazba tilding grafikalyq jýiesinen mýlde bas tartyp, qara halyqtyng auyzsha tiline negizdelgen әlipby jýiesin jasau edi. A.Baytúrsynúly ekinshi joldy tandady. Múnyng birneshe sebepteri boldy: birinshiden, kýndelikti ómirde qoldanylyp jýrgen tilding dybys jýiesin arqau etken jazu-syzudy halyq tez iygeretinin, ekinshiden, R.Syzdyqtyng aituynsha, HV – HVII gh.gh. qazaq halqynyng mәdeny ómirinde […] qazaq halqyn qúraghan ru-taypalardyng әriden kele jatqan poeziya tilining negizinde auyzsha

damyghan әdeby til qyzmet etti. Osy atalghan auyzsha tilding ýlgileri bolyp sanalatyn sheshendik sózder, etikalyq tuyndylar, aqyn-jyraulardyng asa mol kórkem dýniyeleri, maqal-mәtelder, túrmys-salt jyrlary t.b. týrinde jazba tilding normalaryna tirek bolatynyna, sonday-aq Ahang qazaq tilining biregey, birtútas til ekenine jete mәn berip, terennen týsindi. Búl faktor jazudy halyq tiline negizdeuding tiyimdiligin kórsetti. Al ózbek, úighyr, tatar tilderinde qazaqtargha qaraghanda dialektilik qúbylys basym boldy.

Halyq arasyna asa keng taraghan estetikalyq-tәrbiyelik, tanymdyq mәni, kórikteuish qúraldary, azamattyq-qoghamdyq ýni airyqsha auyzsha әdebiyet ýlgileri bar ekenin, onyng qalyptasqan tildik, stilidik normalary jana sapadaghy jazu-syzu tyzuge myqty tirek bolatyn әleumettik-tildik faktor ekenin A.Baytúrsynúly tereng týsindi.

Jalpy til biliminde túnghysh fonologtar dep әdette әlipby týzushilerdi aitady (olardyng fonologiyalyq zertteu jazuy shart emes). A.Baytúrsynúlynyng qazaq tilining dybystary jónindegi fonologiyalyq kózqarasy aldymen ózi týzgen әlipbiyden kórinedi "Qazaq tilinde 24 týrli dybys bar. Onyng beseui dauysty, on jetisi dauyssyz. Dauysty dybystar: .... /a/, .../o/, .../ú/, ...y//, .../e/. Dauyssyz dybystar mynau: .../b/, .../p/, .../t/, .../j/, .../sh/, .../d/, .../r/, .../z/, .../s/, .../gh/, .../q/, .../k/, .../g/, .../n/, .../l/, .../m/, .../n/. Jarty dauysty dybystar: sholaq .../u/, hәm sholaq .../y/".

Qysqasy, A.Baytúrsynúly "Bes dauysty" jýiemen әlipby týze kelip, olardyng әrqaysysyn bir-bir әrippen belgileydi. Sóite otyryp, әlgi әripter arqyly jazuda әr fonemanyng eki týrli әuezin (juan, jinishkeligin) sol fonemanyng tanbasyna syighyzyp beredi. Sóitip, invarianttardyng varianttary ýshin bas-basyna әrip almay-aq, dәiekshi arqyly juan nemese jinishke (dәiekshi bolmauy - juan oqudy, dәiekshi boluy - jinishke oqudy) әuezde oqylatynday jazu jýiesin jasaydy. A.Baytúrsynúly әlipby jýiesinin, týptep kelgende, qazirgiden ózgesheligi әripterding fonemalyq mәndi bere otyryp, dybystyq mәndi de, sóz әuezinde (juan-jinishke әuezin) bildirip, bite qaynasyp túrghan ishki qúrylymdyq ereksheliginde. "Bite qaynasqan" búl erekshelik qazaq tilining singarmonizm jýiesimen erekshe ýilesim tabady: "Tәndi jan qanday biylese, dauysty dybystar basqa dybystardy solay biyleydi; yaghny dauysty dybystar juan aitylsa, dauyssyz ya jarty dauysty dybystar da juan aitylady. Dauysty dybystar jinishke aitylsa, basqa dybystar da jinishke aitylady. Búlay bolghanda dauysty dybystardyng juan-jinishke aitylmaghyn belgilep aiyrsaq, basqa dybystardyng da juan-jinishke aitylatyndyghy da aiyrylghany" /A.Baytúrsynov, Til taghylymy, 325-b./.

A.Baytúrsynúly týzgen әlipbiydegi jýieni qatang ústana otyryp, tek birer dauyssyzdy yqshamdap alatyn bolsaq /q, k, gh, g-lerding arnyna k, g-ni ghana alyp/, búl әlipbiydegi fonemalar men әripterding sandyq qatynasy 26 /fonema/: 22 /әrip/ bolyp shyghady. Múnday qatynas, "әlipbiydegi әripting sany fonemanyng sanyna az-kem tómen bolugha tiyis" degen jazu teoriyasynyng jalpy shartymen ýilesip jatady.

A.Baytúrsynúly tek әlipby týzip qoyghan joq, fonologiya teoriyasyndaghy aiyrym belgi әdisin qoldanu arqyly qazaq tilining dybys jýiesi men týzilimin 9 dauysty, 19 dauyssyz dep túnghysh ret dәl anyqtady. Dauystylar men dauyssyzdargha bergen sipattamasyna qaraghanda A.Baytúrsynúly dauystylardy funksionaldyq basynqy jýie, al dauyssyzdardy funksionaldyq baghynynqy jýie dep tanidy. Múnday lingvistikalyq tanymnyng mәni airyqsha. Ádette basynqy jýiening (dauystylardyn) baghynynqy jýiege әseri, yqpaly kýshti bolady. Sonyng saldarynan baghynynqy jýiening (dauyssyzdar) jýktemesi de kóbeye týsedi. Mәselen dauystylargha qaraghanda dauyssyzdardyng renkteri (allofondary) әldeqayda kóp bolyp, basynqy jýiening ynghayyna qaray juan, jinishke, erindik, ezulik bolyp týrlenip otyrady. Sóitip, juan nemese jinishkelik belgi býkil sóz boyy tútasa aitylyp, segmenttik bólshektik birlikterge bólinbeydi, yaghny supersegmenttik (әuen-әuez) birlikke ainalady. «Baytúrsyn әlipbiyindegi» (jalpy til bilimindegi atauy, Samoylovichting termiyni) dәiekshi supersegmenttik birlikti kórsetse, jeke әripter segmenttik birlikterdi kórsetedi. Baytúrsyn jazuynyng grafemalyq jýiesi túrpat mejesi túrghysynan segmenttik әri supersegmenttik birlikterdi (juan, jinishkelikti) belgiledi. Sondyqtan da búl jazu jýiesi qazaq tilindegi singarmonizm tabighatymen barynsha ýilesimdi boldy. Baytúrsyn jazu jýiesining búrynghy arab әlipbii negizindegi eski qazaq jazu jýiesinen, orys әlipbiyine negizdelgen jazu jýiesinen prinsipti aiyrmasy osynda edi. A.Baytúrsynúlyna deyin arab әlipbiyine negizdelgen qazaq jazuynyng túrpat mejesi juan nemese jinishkelik belgilerdi segmenttik birlik týrinde, dauyssyzdardyng yrqyna baghyndyryp beyneledi, yaghny dauystylardyng juan, jinishkeligi dauyssyzdardyng juan nemese jinishkelik tanbasyna qaray oqylady. Al búl atalmysh jazudyng mazmún mejesi ortaghasyrlyq jazba tilge tәn arhaikalyq belgilerdi, oghyz qypshaqtyq, qazaqtyq elementterdi tanbalady. Orys әlipbiyine negizdelgen jazu bolsa, birinshiden, sózding juan nemese jinishkeligine tәn supersegmenttik belgilerdi segmenttik birlik týrinde "bólshektep" berdi, ekinshiden, dauyssyzdar jýiesining dauystylar jýiesine baghynynqylyq qatynasy eskerilmedi. Orys әlipbiyine negizdelgen jazudyng mazmún mejesi halyq tilining maghynalyq birlikterin, túrpat mejesi halyqtyq tilding dybystyq jýiesin belgileuge baghyttaldy.

A.Baytúrsynúly týzgen әlipbiydi sol kezendegi fonologiyalyq mektepting agha buyn ókilderi, әlemdik lingvistikanyng kóshbasshylary bolghan E.D. Polivanov* , N.F.Yakovlev* tәrizdi kórnekti fonologtar asa joghary baghalady. Tyrkitanushy K.K. Yudahin men A.M. Suhotiyn* latyn jazuyna kóshkenshe qyrghyz halqynyng Baytúrsyn әlipbiyin sol kýiinde qoldanghanyn atap aitady. Múnyng ózi Baytúrsyn әlipbiyining últaralyq mәrtebesin kórsetedi.

Sonday-aq A.Baytúrsynúly týzgen әlipby jazu tәjiriybesinde júrtshylyqty sauattandyru isinde óte ontayly bolghanyn M.Dulatúlynyng myna pikirinen aiqyn angharugha bolady: "Qazaq tilin qolyna qalam ústaghannan beri shylghy qazaqsha jaza bastaghan Baytúrsynov qazaq emlesi[n]

shyghardy, oqu qúraldary[n] jazdy. Osy eki jyldyng ishinde "Qazaq" gazetasynyng til, emle turaly qylghan qyzmeti kózge kórinerlik boldy. Eki jyldyng ishinde orta eseppen 250 myng dana "Qazaq" nómiri tarady, jana sóilemmen 15-tey kitap shyqty, búlar 45 myng danaday bar. Osynyng bәri qazaq arasyna tarap jatyr. Búl emleni tosyrqap týsinbeymiz, oqy almadyq degen eshkimdi estigenimiz joq. "Qazaq" emlesin músylman medreselerinde, orys shkoldaryndaghy shәkirtter, uchiytelider, múghalimder jabyla qabyl etkendigi byltyrghy "Qazaq" nómirlerining kóbinen kórinedi. Búl eki jyldyq qana qyzmet, inshala, múnan keyin artpasa, kemimes degen ýmit zor".

A.Baytúrsynúly búryn tek bir ghana formada, yaghny auyzsha týrde qyzmet etip kele jatqan auyzsha әdeby tilding grafikalyq, orfografiyalyq jýiesin jasap, onyng jazbasha týrde qyzmet etuining negizin qalady. Tanba teoriyasy túrghysynan alghanda A.Baytúrsynúlynyng jasaghan arab әlipbii negizindegi jazu jýiesi túrpat mejesi túrghysynan (v plane vyrajeniya) jalpyhalyqtyq tilding bir formasy bolyp tabylatyn auyzsha әdeby tilding dybys birlikterin, al mazmún mejesi túrghysynan (v plane soderjaniya) atalmysh tilding maghynalyq birlikterin belgiledi. Qazaq til bilimi tarihynda A.Baytúrcynúly qazaq tilining dybystyq segmenttik birlikteri týzilimin dәlme-dәl anyqtauy arqyly últtyq jazudyng túnghysh fonemografiyalyq jýiesin jasady.

HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghy, HH ghasyrdyng basynda qazaq jazu-syzuy demokratiyalyq baghytqa (halyq tiline) bet týzedi; fonetikalyq jazudan fonemografiyalyq jazugha qadam basty; últtyq jazudyng negizi qalandy. Qazaq jazuynyng ontogenezdik damuyndaghy búl erekshe kezende Ahmet Baytúrsynúly aqyl-parasaty, qajyr-qayraty lingvistikalyq oy terendigi jaghynan dәuirding dara túrghan birtuar úly túlghasy boldy.

Alayda qazirgi qoldanylyp jýrgen orys grafikasyna negizdelgen jazudy, mening oiymsha, últtyq sipattaghy jazu dep tanugha bolmaydy, óitkeni, birinshiden, әlipby qúramynda qazaqtyng dybys jýiesin beynelemeytin әripter bar. Ekinshiden, qazaqtyng tól sózderi qazaq tilining dybys erejesimen, al tolyp jatqan kirme sózder (ekonomika, medisina, seh, futbol t.b.) orys orfografiyasynyng erejesimen jazylyp jýr. Búl – Kenestik kezende Ortalyqtyng núsqauymen jasalghan, totalitarlyq rejimning «qúndylyqtary». Múnday qos tildi orfografiyany ústanghan jazu-syzudy últtyq sipattaghy ruhany dýniyemiz dep tanu ekitalay. Sondyqtan da Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynan taghylym ala otyryp, qazaq jazuyn týbegeyli reformalau arqyly oghan últtyq sipat beru kezek kýttirmes ózekti mәselelerding biri bolyp otyr.

Núrgeldi Uәliyúly

A.Baytúrsynúly atyndaghy Til bilimi
institutynyng bas ghylymy qyzmetkeri,
filologiya ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor

Abai.kz

6 pikir