Júma, 1 Nauryz 2024
Myng bir mysal 9239 42 pikir 11 Nauryz, 2019 saghat 10:23

Siriyagha ketken qazaqtardy adastyruda Qúsayynovtardyng da ýlesi bar...

(Suret Azattyq radiosynyng saytynan alyndy)

nemese qazaq ruhaniyatynyng ózegi Qoja Ahmet Yasauy men Yasauy jolyna kimder qarsy?

Songhy kezderi qazaq ruhaniyatynyng ózegi bolghan Qoja Ahmet Yasauy syndy úly túlghagha qarsy maqalalar qaytadan kóptep jariyalana bastady. Qazaqty qaytadan ózine-ózin aidap salu sayasaty bastaldy. Maqsattary – ózining kim ekendigin qayta sezine bastaghan qazaqty qayta adastyryp, syrttan kelip jatqan diniy-ruhany ekspasniyanyng qúrbanyna ainaldyru. Olardyng búl baghyttaghy әreketteri kezinde belgili dәrejede nәtiyje berip, Yasauy jolyn tu etip ústanghan Ismatulla qary men onyng sonyna ergen shәkirtterin týrmege tyghyp, olardyng «adam shoshyrlyq» qylmystaryn әshkerelep, halyqty Yasauy jolynan alshaqtatyp edi.

Ol kezde tek Ismatulla qary men onyng shәkirtteri ghana emes, olarmen birge qazaq ruhaniyaty da týrmege qamalghan bolatyn. Oghan dәlel retinde tintu kezinde Ismatulla qary medresesinen Abay, Shәkәrim, Mәshhýr Jýsip, Manghystau jyraularynyn, Syr sýleylerinin, jalpy qazaq ruhaniyaty ókilderining shygharmalary tәrkilengenin keltiruge bolady. Sol soqqydan qazaq әli esin jiya alghan joq. Odan keyingi kezende qazaq halqynyng ruhany túrghyda azyp-tozghanyn kóremiz. Oghan qazirgi kýni qazaq halqy ózine-ózi qol júmsaudan (suisiyd) әlemdegi alghashqy ýshtikke, ajyrasudan әlemdegi aldynghy  ondyqqa kirgenimiz dәlel bola alady. Al, múnday kórsetkishter, ruhany daghdarysqa týsken, ýmitsizdik sanasyn jaylaghan halyqtargha ghana tәn ekenin aityp jatudyng ózi artyq. Búl problemalyq mәselelerding týp tamyry qayda ekenin, búl qiyndyqtan shyghudyng joly – qazaqtyng ózining ruhany ózegine qayta oralu ekenin halyq sezine bastaghanda Yasauy jolyna shabuyl qayta bastalyp otyr.

Maqsattary – qazaqtyng basyn qostyrmay, toz-toz qylu. Yasauy jolyna qazaq qayta bet búratyn bolsa, syrttan kelip jatqan ruhany ekspansiyagha qarsy immuniytet payda bolatynyn sezingen syrtqy kýshter ózderining ýirenshikti әdetine qayta basty. Ol shabuyldyng negizgi dem berushisi kim ekenin bilmeymin, biraq qazirgi kózge kórinip, Qoja Ahmet Yasauy men onyng jolyn qorghap jýrgenderdi nysanagha alyp, soqqylap jatqan Túrar Qúsayynov, Toqtar Jaqash, Merey Korobov, t.b. azamattar. Búlargha qarsy túryp, olardyng aitqandaryna jauap bermesek, azamattyghymyzgha syn bolghaly túr. Endi osylargha kezegimen jauap berip kórelik.

Áriyne, búl shabuyldyng basynda Túrar Qúsayynov atty azamat túrghanyna eshkim shýbә keltire qoymas. Onyng ótken kýzde elimizge uahhabiylik-salafiylik baghyttyng taraluyna qatysty jazghan shygharmasyn «Jas Alash» gazetine jariyalaghanda quana qarsy aldyq jәne ol aghymdardyng qazaq arasyna taraluyna ózining de qomaqty ýlesi bolghanyn tartynbay jazuyna qarap, «Adasqannyng aldy jón, arty soqpaq» degenge balap, búl jigit óz qatesin moyyndap, qaytadan ýiirine oralypty ghoy dep, ishtey quanyp, maqúldadyq. Alayda, bizding búl ýmitimiz aqtalmapty. Onyng taghy «Jas Alash» gazetinde jariyalaghan jalpy atauy «Shyrmauyq» dep atalatyn maqalalar toptamasynyng mazmúny elimizdegi songhy jiyrma jyl kólemindegi diny ahualdyng damu tarihyna jasaghan saraptamalyq taldau bolghanymen, negizgi nysanasy Qoja Ahmet Yasauy men yasauiya tariqatynyng jәne sol joldy qayta qalpyna keltirmek bolghan Ismatulla qaridyng «qauiptiligin» dәleldeuge arnalypty. Sóz jalang bolmas ýshin endi sol Túrar Qúsayynov myrzanyng ózine sóz bereyik. Ol bylay deydi: «Zertteushilerding pikiri boyynsha, Qoja Ahmet Yasauy (...) óz aldyna tariqat qúrmaghan. Ol – ortalyghy Búhara qalasy bolghan naqshband tariqatynyng ókili. Ol keyin tariqat jazirasynyng (diny iydeolgiyasynyng yqpaly aumaghy) teriskeyine uaghyzshy etip jiberilip, Yasy (Týrkistan) qalasynda ómirden ótedi». Túrar myrzanyng búl jazghany, onyng Islamnyng tarihynan da, islam dinidegi týrli aghymdardyn, sopylyq tariqattardyng shyghu sebepterinen de habarsyz ekenin kórsetedi. Solardyng eshbirinen habary joq bola túra Yasauiyge, Yasauy jolyna qarsy maqala jazyp, kýstanalauyn – qazaq halqynyng ruhany bolmysynyng ózegine qarsy shyghuy dep týsinuimiz kerek. Bir ghana mysal – myna daliyp jatqan Altay men Atyrau arasyn alyp jatqan alyp territoriyanyng arasyndaghy halyqtyng dininin, tilinin, әn-jyrynyn, jyr-dastandarynyng bir boluy, kerek dese tildik dialektining bolmauy – búl aralyqtaghy halyqtyng ruhaniy-mәdeny bolmysynyng ortaqtyghyn kórsetedi. Sol qazaqtyng ruhaniy-mәdeny bolmysynyng ortaqtyghyn qalyptastyrghan Yasauy joly, Yasauy mәdeniyeti bolatyn. Búghan qarsy shyghu – qazaqty qazaq etip biriktirip túrghan ruhany ózekke balta shabu. Múnday adamdy qazaq, qazaqtyng dosy dep qaraudyng ózi qylmys bolar edi.

Endi Túrar myrzanyng «Qoja Ahmet Yasauy óz aldyna tariqat qúrmaghan. Ol ortalyghy Búhara qalasy bolghan naqshband tariqatynyng ókili» degen joldaryna jauap berip kórelik. Búl jerdegi «tariqat» sózining maghynasy qanday? Islam dinin qabyldaghan halyqtardyng ruhaniy-mәdeny bolmysynda qanday ról atqarady? Osy súraqtyng jauabyn bilgen bolsa, Túrar myrza búlay dep kósilmegen bolar edi. Tariqatty, birinshiden, islam tarihynda qalyptastyrghan túlgha Qoja Ahmet Yasaui. Tariqat degenimiz – әr halyqtyng islam dinin qabylday túryp, arab jerinde qalyptasqan sharighat pen arab dәstýrin qabyl etpey, ózining әuel basta qalyptasqan salt-dәstýri men mәdeniyetin saqtap qaluy. Yasauy óz tariqatyn qalyptastyrghanda Islam dinining bes paryzyn alyp, sharighatty tolyghymen týrkining ózining kóneden kele jatqan dәstýrine berdi. Qazaqtyng dәstýrli din men diny tanymy osy negizde qalyptasty. Búl diny tanym jalpy týrkilik mәdeniyetting negizin qalyptastyrdy.

Ortaghasyrlarda búl tariqat Joshy úlysynda memlekettik iydeologiya dengeyine kóterilgende Euraziya kenistigin mekendegen týrkilerding ruhani, mәdeny tútastyghyn qalyptastyrdy. Qazirgi qazaq halqynyng qúramyndaghy rulyq, taypalyq, jýieler men jýzdik qúrylymdar qalyptastyrylyp, memleketti basqarudyng kóne týrkilik formasy qayta qalpyna keltirildi. Osynday kýrdeli diniy-ruhany reformany jasaghan túlghany jay bir «naqshband tariqatynyng ókili» edi deuge keledi me? Joq.

Al, «naqshband tariqaty» qashan payda boldy? Búl tariqattyng negizin salghan Baha ad-din Naqshband XIV ghasyrda ómir sýrdi. 1383 jyly dýniyeden ótti. Qoja Ahmet Yasauy qaytys bolghannan keyin eki jýz jylday uaqyt keyin dýniyege kelgen Naqshbandqa Yasauy qaytip onyng tariqatynyng ókili bolady? Baha ad-din Naqshbandtyng ózi Yasauy joly ókilderine shәkirt bola jýrip, ruh әlemimen baylanys ornatqannan keyin ghana bólinip, hodjaganiya tariqatyna jetekshilik etken bolatyn. 1500 jyldardan bastap naqshbandiya tariqaty dep atala bastady. Demek, Túrar myrza Yasauy joly tarihynan da, naqshbandiya tariqaty tarihynan da mýlde habarsyz. Solay bola túra Yasauiyge qarsy, qazaq ruhaniatynyng ózegine qarsy tas atpaq.

Túrar myrzanyng múnday shatpaghy bir búl emes. Odan ary ol Yasauy jolyna qatysty mynaday «janalyqtardyn» betin ashady. Ol bylay dep kósiledi: «Yasauy tariqatynyng búryn bolmaghanyn, onyng beride, tәuelsiz Qazaqstanda payda bolghanyn dәleldeytin taghy bir oqighalar jelisi bar. Ózderining qazaq qoghamyna әserin kýsheytu ýshin yasauiyshiler qazaq auyz әdebiyetining kórnekti ókilderi men keybir qazaq handarynyng da «yasauy sopylyq jolyn ústanghanyn» aita bastady. Tipti, Qoja Ahmet Yasauy kesenesi ornalasqan Týrkistan qalasynda qazaq handary men batyrlarynyng jerlenui de soghan dәlel retinde qarastyryldy. Islamgha deyingi kulitting júrnaqtary bolyp sanalatyn Shopan ata, Zengi baba siyaqty әuliyeler de ómirde bolghan naqty adamdar retinde qayta qarastyrylyp, olardy Qoja Ahmet Yasauy shәkirtterining qataryna qosty».

Al, endi osy aitqandaryn taldap kóreyik. Sonda Qoja Ahmet Yasauiyding óz qalamynan shyqqan «Diuany Hikmet», «Mirat al-Qúlub», «Paqyr-nama», «Dar adab tariqat» atty shygharmalary әlem ghalymdaryna belgili jәne olardyng barlyghy búl shygharmalardy Yasauiyding shygharmasy retinde moyyndaydy. Olardyng barlyghyn joqqa shygharu Túrar siyaqty delitanttardyng ghana qolynan keledi. Qazaq degen halyqtyng jeke halyq retinde qalyptasuynyng ózi Yasauy jolymen tikeley baylanysty ekenin, Yasauy jolynda qalghan halyq qana qazaq atanyp, naqshbandiya tariqatyn qabyldaghan Múhammed Shaybany sonyna ergen halyqtyng ózbek atanghanyn, Edige by úrpaqtarynyng sonyna ergen halyqtyng noghay atanghanyn ortaghasyrlyq jazba derekter de, qazaqtyn, noghaylardyng jyr-dastandarynda tolyp túr. Solardyng barlyghyn joqqa shygharu tek ne essizdin, ne qazaqtyng qas dúshpanynyng qolynan ghana keledi.

Al, Shopan Ata men Zengi Atanyng Yasauy jolynyng beldi ókilderi bolghanyn joqqa shygharu da mýmkin emes. Óitkeni, osy eki túlghanyng shәkirtterining eren enbekterining arqasynda 1320 jyly Yasauy joly Joshy úlysynyng memlekettik iydeologiyasy bolyp qalyptasty. Býkil Manghystaudy alyp jatqan әuliyeler osy Shopan Atanyng shәkirtteri. Al, Zengi Atanyng ataqty tórt shәkirti Sayyid Ata, Sadr ad-din shayh, Úzyn Hasan Ata, Badr Atalardyng yqpalymen Joshy úlysynyng hany Ózbek han Yasauy jolyn qabyldap, Yasauy jolyn memlekettik iydeologiya dәrejesine kóterdi. Qazirgi kýni qazaq qúramyndaghy rulyq, taypalyq jýieler men jýzdik qúrylymdar sol Ózbek hannyng diniy-sayasy reformasynyng jemisi bolatyn. Osy reforma barysynda Sayyid Ata men jalpy Payghambar әuleti Úly jýz ben handar әuletine pir boldy. Al, Sadr ad-din shayh pen Qarahandyq biyleushiler әuletinen qúralghan Yasauy joly ókilderi Orta jýzge pir boldy. Al, Úzyn Hasan Ata men Oghyzdyq biyleushiler әuleti ókilderi qúraghan Yasauy joly ókilderi Kishi jýzge pir bolghan bolatyn. Mine, sol alghashqy ru, taypalargha jetekshilik etken әuliyeler Manghystau jerinde mәngilik tynys tapty. Mysaly, arghyn taypasynyng Bes meyram dep atalatyn tobynyng arghy atalary sol Manghystau jerinde, Shetpeden 18 shaqyrym jerdegi Alau-Meyram qorymynda jatyr. Sayid Atanyng qabiri qazir Ózbekstan territoriyasynda qaldy. Al, Sadr ad-din shayh – ataqty әulie Baba týkti shashty Aziyz. Al, ataqty Edige bolsa, sol Baba týkti shashty Azizding nemeresi. Búl aitylyp otyrghannyng bәri qazaqtyng tarihy. Búny qalay joq dersin? Osy Sadr ad-din shayh-Baba týkti shashty Aziz (Baba Tuklas) jayly amerikandyq ghalym Devin Devis 90-jyldar ortasynda 660 bettik ghylymy monografiyalyq enbek jazghan bolatyn. Egerde sol tarihy túlghalardyng tarihta róli bolmasa, sheteldik ghalymdar sonshama enbegin saryp etip, zertteu jýrgizer me edi? Joq. Tek, qazaqtaghy qaghynan jerigen teksizderi bolmasa.

Túrar myrzanyng Qoja Ahmet Yasauiyding tarihtaghy rólin joqqa shygharu baghytyndaghy «enbegi» múnymen shekteldmeydi. Sondaghy maqsaty – qalayda ismatullashylardyng Qoja Ahmet Yasauiydi qalayda qoldan jasalghan әuliyesi etip kórsetu. Sóz jalang bolmas ýshin qaytadan Túrar myrzagha sóz bereyik. Ol bylay deydi: «Mysaly, Qazaqstannyng batysyndaghy halyq Beket atagha syiynady, sony pir tútady. Ras, ol – Horezm sopylyq mektebining týlegi. Eger osy tústan taramdasaq, Beket atanyng sopylyqtyng qadariya tariqatyn ústanghany aiqyn.» Dәlel qayda, Túrar myrza? Shyn tarihy bilging kelse, aitugha bolady.

1781 jyly Abylay hannyng qaytys bolyp, Qazaq handyghynyng kýiregeni belgili. Osynday qazaq halqy ýshin qasiretti kezende Manghystau jerinen Beket Ata syndy әuliyening shyghuy Yasauy jolynyng qazaq dalasynyng Batys ónirinde qaytadan yqpaldy ruhany kýshke ainaluyna mýmkindik berdi. Pir Beket Hiuadaghy Paqyrjan-әziz haziretting qolynda tәrbiyelenip, ruhany tolysqan song Manghystaugha oralyp, Yasauy jolynyng ýzilgen ruh әlemimen sabaqtastyghyn qayta qalpyna keltirdi. Búl jerde eskerte ketetin bir mәsele bar. Ol Paqyrjan-әzizding qadariya tariqatynyng da, naqshbandiya tariqatynyng da ókili emes, Yasauy jolynyng ókili ekenine әli zertteushiler mәn bergen joq. Paqyrjan-әzizding Yasauy jolynyng ókili ekenin onyng atyna qosylghan «әziyz» degen anyqtauysh aighaqtap túr. «Áziyz» degen anyqtauysh ilimde Yasauy jolynda, al dәstýrde arab-parsy mәdeniyetin qabyldaghan Yasauy jolynyng ókilderining atyna qosylady. Paqyrjan-әzizding әkesining atyna da, babasynyng atyna da «әziyz» degen anyqtauysh qosylghan. Búl olardyng Yasauy jolynyng sol Horezmdegi ókilderining әuletinen ekenin kórsetedi. Kezinde biyleushiler tarpynan qughyngha týsken Yasauy joly ókilderine Yasauy ilimin qorghap qalu ýshin, týrkilik salt-dәstýrdi qúrban etuge tura kelgen bolatyn.   Paqyrjan-әzizding ilim jaghynan Yasauy jolynyng ókili boluynyng ózi Pir Beketting bilimdi Yasauy joly  boyysha aluyna mýmkindik berdi. Pir Beketting Yasauy jolyn qayta qalpyna keltiruinde osynday syr bar. Egerde pir Beket Yasauy jolyn qayta qalpyna keltirmese, halyq «Mәdina Múhammet, Týrkistanda Qoja Ahmet, Manghystauda Pir Beket» dep aitpaghan bolar edi. Qashaghan syndy jyraular:

"Allalaghan pir ótken,

Tuyna júrtty týnetken.

Taspih zikir jariya,

Meshitting ishin gýl etken",- dep jyrlamaghan bolar edi. Kórip otyrghanymyzday, Pir Beket eshqanday qadariya tariqatynyng ókili emes. Yasauy jolynyng ókili. Manghystaudaghy ruhaniyat Pir Beketten bastalmaytynyn, Pir Beket ózinen búrynghy ótken Shopan Ata bastaghan әuliyelerding jolyn qayta tiriltkenin, sol әuliyelerding jolyn jalghastyrushy ekenin týsinbeu mýmkin be?

Pir Beketting Yasauy jolyn, Yasauy mәdeniyetin qayta tiriltui arqasynda Manghystau jerining qazaqqa qayta qosylghanyn sanasynda sanlauy bar әrbir manghystaulyq azamat biledi. Osy qasiretti tarihty joqqa shygharu mýmkin be? Meninshe joq. Al, qaghynan jerigen teksizder ýshin ol týk te emes. Qasiretti tarih deytinimiz osy kiyeli de, qasiyetti Yasauy jolynan shegingen әrbir qadam  bizding memlekettigimizding kýireuine әkelipti. Ózbek hannyng úly Jәnibek hannyng Yasauy jolynan bas tartyp, shafighy mazhabyn qabyldauy Altyn Orda memleketining kýireuine әkeldi. Jәnibek han ózi qúrghan burokratiyalyq apparattyng qúrbanyna ainaldy. Absoluttik biylikke jetu jolynda naqshbandiya tariqatyn qabyldaghan Ábilhayyr han Ózbek úlysyn ýshke bólip, bir halyqty ýsh halyqqa ainaldyrdy. Absoluttik biylikke jetpek bolghan Esim han men Tәuke handar da naqshbandiya tariqatyn qabyl etip, Yasauy jolyn memlekettik iydeologiya dәrejesinen aiyrdy. Onyng nәtiyjesi belgili – Qazaq handyghy tarihtan ketti. Qazaq qúldyq qamytyn kiydi.

Qazirgi kýni qazaq qaytadan tәuelsizdigin alghanda, taghy da shabuyl qazaq halqynyng ruhany ózegi bolghan Yasauy jolyna qarsy baghyttalyp jatyr. Jәne ol shabuyl kimning tarapynan jýrgizilude? Uahhabiylik-salafiylik baghyttaghy iydeologiyany qazaq arasyna taraluyna belsene at salysqan Túrar Qúsayynov bastaghan toptyng tarapynan jýrgizilude. Qanshama qazaqty ata-baba jolynan adastyryp, qandy qasapqa aidap salghan Abd Haliyl, Tairjan Ibragimov siyaqty uahhabiylik uaghyzshylardy qolynan jetektep jýrip, lauazymdy túlghalardyng aldyna aparghan da, olardyng aldynan danghyl jol ashqan da osy Túrar Qúsayynov bolatyn (Onyng bәrin óz qolymen jazghanynan kópshilik habardar). Osylardyng uaghyzynyng nәtiyjesinde qanshama qazaq balasy joldan adasyp, ajal qúshty. Qanshamasy adasyp, әli kýnge Siriya, Aughanstan siyaqty elderde qan keship jýr. Solardyng barlyghynda osy Túrar Qúsayynovtyng da ýlesi bar. Ol býgin kelip, sol jastardy adastyrghanyn qanaghat tútpay, endi kelip, qazaq ruhaniatynyng ózegi – Qoja Ahmet Yasauiydey Úly túlghagha auyz salyp otyr. Sonda onyng kóksegeni ne?

Onyng jauabyn kelesi maqalalarda jazatyn bolamyn.

Zikiriya Jandarbek

Abai.kz

 

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