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Taghy da Shynghyshannyng qazaq ekenine qatysty derekterding búrmalanuy haqynda...

Abai.kz aqparattyq portalynda "Shynghyshannyng qazaq ekenine qatysty derekterdi Qytay men Resey qalay búrmalady?" atty Bekjan Ádenúlynyng maqalasy jariyalanghan edi. Sol materialgha qatysty oqyrman tarapynan týrli pikirler aitylyp jatyr. Biz býgin avtordyng osy jaytqa qatysty ekinshi maqalasyn oqyrman nazaryna úsynyp otyrmyz.

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Shynghyshangha deyingi Qazaqstan men Orta Aziya jәne Mangholiya aimaqtary

Shynghyshannyng kim ekenin, qay aimaqtan shyqqanyn jәne qay halyqtan tughanyn bilu ýshin әueli oghan deyin qazirgi Mangholiyada (ishki Mangholiyada), Qazaqstanda jәne Orta Aziyada qanday halyqtar men memleketter bolghanyn týsinip alghan jón. Óitkeni, Shynghyshan aspannan salbyrap týse salghan joq, ol – óz aimaghyndaghy halyqtyng úrpaghy. Búl turaly shynayy derekter Europa ghalymdary tauyp jaryqqa shygharghan arab jazbalarynda ghana bar. Óitkeni, ol jazbalar Resey imperiyasy men Sovet odaghy nemese Qytay imperiyasy tarapynan ózgeriske úshyramaghan. Resey ghalymdary tapqan parsylyq jәne ortaaziyalyq jazbalardyng eshqaysysyna tolyq senuge bolmaydy, olar arnayy senzuradan ótip, imperiya sayasatyna say búrmalanghany aqiqat. Sovet odaghynyng tarihy katalogtaryna sol arab jazbalarynyng engizilmeui de bir shiykilikting bar ekenin aighaqtaydy. Shamasy, aqiqattyng kópshilik tarihshylargha, әsirese últtyq tarihshylargha kórinip qaluynan qoryqqan.

Áriyne, Resey biyleushilerinde imperiya joyylady degen oy bolghan joq. Sondyqtan ózderi dayyndaghan jalghan tarihtyng әshkere bolmaytynyna senimdi boldy. Degenmen, adamnyng emes, Allanyng degeni bolady. Imperiya joyylyp joghaldy, últtyq ghalymdar kóptegen tarihy qayshylyqtardyng sebebin erkin zertteuge mýmkindik aldy. Imperiya qasaqana úmyttyrghan arab jazbalaryn oqyp biletin, týsinetin ghalymdar kóbeydi. Al bizding qolymyzdan keleri – arab jazbalarynyng az da bolsa, orysshagha audarylghandaryn zerttep, ondaghy manyzdy derekterdi oqyrmangha jetkizu.

Álem ghalymdary moyyndaghan tarihy jazbalardyng biregeyi – HIII ghasyrdaghy arab tarihshysy Ibn әl Asirding «Kitab әl-kamil fiy-t-ta'riyh» atty enbegi. Endi atalghan jazba derekterine zer salsaq: «V etom godu (1018 g) vyshly turky iz Sina v bolishom chisle, svyshe 300 tysyach kibitok iz turkskih rodov, sredy nih hitaiy, kotorye ovladely Maverannahrom, rasskaz potom doydet do niyh, esly hochet Allah vsevyshniy... V etom godu (1043 g) prinyaly islam 10 tysyach kibitok iz nevernyh turkov, kotorye, byvalo, delaly nochnye nabegy na musulimanskie goroda v krayah Balasaguna y Kashgara, grabily ih y uchinyaly besporyadki. Y priynesly v jertvu v deni prazdnika Jertvy 20 tysyach golov oves, y Allah izbavil musuliman ot ih vrajdy. Ony provodily leto v krayah Bulgara, a zimovaly v krayah Balasaguna. Ne prinyavshimy islam sredy turkov ostalisi tatary y hitai, ony v oblastyah Sina... Govoryat, chto strana Turkestan, a eto Kashgar y goroda Balasagun, Hotan, Taraz, a takje drugie sredy teh, kotorye granichat s nimi, v strane Maverannahr, byla v rukah sarey – hanov, turkov. Ih praded, Shabuk Kara-hakan, vo sne svoem prinyal islam y poutru obnarujiyl, chto on musulimaniyn. Y v etom kraY sarskiy san ne prekrashalsya sredy ego potomkov vploti do Arslan-hana... Vladetelem Balasaguna y Strany turkov byl Sharaf ad-Daula (1030-1056 g). On byl religiozen y udovletvorilsya povinoveniyem emu ego bratiev y rodstvennikov y razdelil stranu mejdu nimi. Svoemu bratu Arslan-teginu otdal mnogoe iz Strany turkov, Taraz y Isbidjab otdal svoemu bratu Bogra-hanu, Ferganu vsu selikom otdal dyade po otsu Tuga-hanu, a Buharu y Samarkand y drugie otdal Ibn Aliy-teginu. A sam on udovolistvovalsya Balasagunom y Kashgarom... Arslan vzbuntovalsya protiv Kadiyr-hana v 1101 g, y tot otnyal u nego sarstvo, no Sandjar ubil Kadirhana y vernul sarstvo Arslan- hanu. Sredy ego voyska byl odin vid turkov, kotoryh nazyvaut karluky y turky guziyskiye».

Múnda HI ghasyrdyng basynda qazirgi Mangholiya men ishki Mangholiya aimaghynan 300 myng týrki otbasy (kiyiz ýi) qazirgi Qazaqstan aimaghyna kóship kelgeni aitylghan. Olardy «hitaiy» dep kórsetedi, «hitai» men «hazaq» ataulary arabshada óte úqsas jazylady (حظاقhazaq, حطاىhytaiy). Sondyqtan olardy qazaq degen dúrys (oryssha audarmada әdeyi «hitai» dep jazghan). Osy oqighadan 25 jyldan keyin qazirgi Qazaqstan aimaghyndaghy týrkilerding Islam dinin tolyq qabyldaghanyn aitady. Songhy qabyldaghan týrkilerding jaylaugha qazirgi Volgograd oblysyna (Búlghar eline) deyin baratynyn, qystaugha Talas pen Shu ózenderi boyyna (Balasaghyn-Talasaghyn) keletinin kórsetedi. Týrkilerding Islam dinin qabyldamaghandary qazirgi Mangholiya men ishki Mangholiya aimaghyndaghylar ekenin (Siyn-Shyng aimaghy), olardyng tatar men hazaq (hatai) degen eki últqa bólinetinin bayandaghan.

Qazirgi Ontýstik Qazaqstan, Ózbekstan, Qyrghyzstan, Shynjan aimaqtaryn «Týrkistan memleketi» dep, al Qazaqstannyng qalghan aimaghyn «Týrki eli» dep jazady. Týrki eli HI ghasyrdyng ortasyna taman tolyq Islam qabyldap, Týrkistan memleketi qúramyna engenin aitady. Derekke qaraghanda, ol memleketti músylman dindi týrki handary biylep otyrghan, eng alghash Islam dinin qabyldaghan – arghy atalary Shabuk Qarahakan jәne ol әuletting eng songhy biyleushisi – HII ghasyrdaghy Arslan han. Resey ghalymdary osy Týrkistan memleketin hojalar biylegen Qarahanidy memleketi dep tariyhqa engizdi. Olar «Qarahanidy» atauyn osy «Shabuk Qarahakan» esiminen aldy. Anyqtap zer salsaq, «Qarahakan» men Kazahkan» arabshada óte úqsas jazylady (كزحكنQazahkan, كرحكنQarahakan). Sondyqtan Qarahanidy degen memleketti «Týrkistan memleketi» deuimiz jәne ony biylegen qazaq handary ekenin moyyndauymyz qajet. Derekte olardyng әskerindegi  týrkilerding bir toby qarluq jәne týrki guziy dep eki týrli atalatynyn kórsetken. Yaghni, karluk pen týrki guzy – bir halyq ekenin aitady, ol qazaq ekeni dausyz. Óitkeni, qarluq pen guzy ataulary arabsha jazyluynda qazaq atauymen óte úqsas jazylady (كزاقqazaq, كرلقkarluq, غزقghazaq, غزىghuziy). Sonda qúramyna Qazaqstan jәne Ózbekstan, Qyrghyzstan, Shynjan aimaqtary tolyq kirgen alyp Týrkistan handyghyn biylegen Qazaq handary jәne olardyng әskeri negizinen qazaqtardan jasaqtalghany anyq (reseylik audarmashylar arabsha týpnúsqadaghy «qazaq» atauyn jasyru ýshin, olardy Qarahakan, qarluq, ghuzy dep búrmalap orysshalaghan).

Arap jazbalary qazirgi Qazaqstan, Mangholiya men ishki Mangholiya aimaqtary halyqtaryn ghana týrki dep kórsetedi. Ózbekstan, Qyrghyzstan, Týrkimenstan, Qaraqalpaqstan aimaqtaryn mekendegen halyqtardy týrki demeydi, olardy qalalarynyng atauymen búharalyq, ferghanalyq, hodjenttik dep jazady. Alayda, sol qalalardaghy әskerler dala týrkileri ekenin aitudy úmytpaydy. Týrkilerdi hitay, qarluq, tatar, guzi, qarahakan dep derekteydi, al búlardyng tatardan basqasy, arabsha jazyluynda qazaq atauymen birdey jazylady. Endeshe Shynghyshangha deyin de Qazaqstan aumaghyn qazaq halqy mekendep kelgen. Al Shynghyshannyng ata-júrty qazirgi Mangholiyada tek týrkiler mekendegen jәne olar qazaq pen tatar dep atalatyn eki derbes últtan qúralghan.

Ibn әl Asir deregine ary qaray zer salsaq: «v 1128 g, Krivoy, a eto Kur-han as-Siniy, dostig granis Kashgara s bolishim chislom, kakoe znaet toliko Allah... «Kur» — na hitayskom yazyke — prozviyshe velichayshego iz ih sarey, a «han» — prozviyshe turkskih sarey, tak chto eto znachiyt: «velichayshiy iz sarey». Kogda on vyshel iz Sina v Turkestan, k nemu prisoedinilisi turki- hitaiy. Ony prejde nego vyshly iz Sina y nahodilisi na slujbe hanstva vladeteley Turkestana. Tak u nih dolgo prodoljalosi, i, kogda vyshel Gurhan, ony takje prisoedinilisi k nemu, ih polojenie vozvelichilosi, a polchiyshe udvoilosi. Ony zavladely stranoy Turkestan. Kajdyy iz sarey, kto podchinilsya iym, prikreplyal na svoey grudy podobie serebryanoy doshechki: takov znak togo, kto im podchinyaetsya. Zatem ony otpravilisi k strane Maverannahr. Mahmud ibn Muhammad-han pojalovalsya emu na turkov-karlukov, y Sandjar napal na niyh. Te priybegly pod zashitu Gurhana y teh iz nevernyh, kto s niym. Sandjar ostanovilsya v Samarkande. Gurhan napisal emu pisimo, kotoroe zakluchalo hodataystvo za turkov- karlukov y trebovanie prostiti iyh. Gosudarstvo hitaev y turkov-nevernyh utverdilosi v Maverannahre. Gurhan projil do radjaba 1143 g, v kotorom on umer. Maverannahr ostavalsya v rukah hitaev, poka ne otnyal ego u nih horezmshah Ala ad-Din Muhammad v 1215-1216 g. Kogda horezmshah sdelal s hitayamiy to, o chem my rasskazali, uselevshie iz nih ushly k svoemu saru, kotoryy v voyne ne uchastvoval, y sobralisi u nego. Bolishoe plemya tatar v drevnosty vyshlo iz svoey strany u granis Sina y poselilosi v tylu strany Turkestan. Mejdu nimy y hitayamiy byla vrajda y voyny. Kogda ony uslyhaly o tom, chto sdelal horezmshah s hitayami, ony napaly na nih so svoim sarem Kushlu-hanom. Hitayskiy sari, uviydev eto, poslal k horezmshahu, govorya emu: «Chto kasaetsya togo, chto ty zahvatyval nashu stranu y izbival nashih ludey, to etomu — prosheniye. No k nam priyshel vrag, kotoromu my ne mojem protivostoyati. Vedi esly ony pobedyat nas y zavladeyt nami, nikto ne otrazit ih ot tebya. Polezno, esly ty otpravishisya k nam so svoimy voyskamy y pomojeshi nam voevati s nimi. A my klyanemsya tebe, chto, kogda pobedim iyh, ne stanem osparivati togo, chto ty zahvatil v strane, y udovletvorimsya tem, chto v nashih rukah». Y Kushlu- han, sari tatar, poslal k nemu, govorya: «Te hitay tvoy vragiy, vragy tvoih otsov y nashy vragiy. Pomogy nam protiv niyh, y my klyanemsya, chto, kogda odoleem iyh, ne priblizimsya k tvoey strane y udovletvorimsya temy mestami, v kotoryh selilisi oniy».

Derekte HII ghasyrdyng 30 jyldary qazirgi ishki Mangholiyadan (Siyn-Shyng aimaghynan) shyqqan Kur han As Sin degen biyleushining Týrkistan handyghyn jaulap alghany, olar hitay degen halyq ekeni jәne «Kurhan» hitay tilinde «eng biyik úly han» degen maghyna beretini bayandalghan. Arabshada «kur» men «qúz» sózderi birdey jazylady (قوزqúz, قورqur), qazaq eng biyik shyndy «qúz» dep ataydy. (Sonau Huni imperiyasy zamanynan dala halqyn Asylúya dinastiyasynan shyqqan Shyn patshalar biylegenin, ol dinastiyany qysqasha «As» dep ataghanyn aldynghy maqalalarda aitqanbyz). Sondyqtan oryssha audarmada Kur han As Siyn dep kórsetilgen patshany Qúz han As Shyn dep tanyghan dúrys. Al oryssha audarmadaghy hitaiyqazaq halqy ekenin jogharyda jazdyq. Osylaysha músylman qazaq halqy mekendegen qazirgi Qazaqstandy jәne músylman qazaq handary biylegen Týrkistan handyghyn (Karahanidy-Qazaq handyghy) qazirgi Mangholiya aimaghynan kelgen kәpir qazaqtar jaulap alghan. Olargha Orta Aziya qalalarynda әsker bolghan músylman qazaqtar da (qarluq, dúrysynda – qazaq) qosylyp ketken. Osy derekter oryssha audarmada «karluk» jәne «hitaiy» dep jazylghandardyng anyghynda qazaq halqy ekenin aighaqtaydy.

Shyndyghynda, Manjuriya, ishki Mangholiya men Mangholiya, Soltýstik Qytay, Qazaqstan, Orta Aziya aumaqtaryn biriktirip, alyp imperiya ornatqan – Qúz han As Shyn. Búl – Shynghyshangha deyin 100 jyl búryn ómir sýrgen. Sondyqtan Shynghyshan osy Qúz han As Shyng biyleushining isin jalghap, damytushy desek, qatelespeymiz. Shynghyshan esimi dúrysynda Shyng As han bolady. Búl esim Qúz han As Shyn esimimen maghynalas ekenin aldynghy maqalamyzda aityp óttik. Reseylikter Qúz han As Shyng ornatqan memleketti Szini imperiyasy dep ataydy, ony ornatqan manjur jurjandar (jurjen) dep tanidy. Szini qytaysha búrmalanghan Shyn atauy ekenin, manjur jurjandar ejelgi Jujan qaghanatyn ornatqan dinastiyadan taraytynyn jәne Ibn әl Asir imperiya astanasy qazirgi ishki Mangholiyada ornalasqanyn bayqatatynyn eskersek, barlyghy óz ornyn tabady. Dúrysy, Szini imperiyasy dep atalyp jýrgen memleketti qazaq Qúz han As shyn ornatqan. Onyng qúramyna Orta Aziya men Qazaqstan aumaghyda kirgen. Atalghan imperiya 100 jyldan asa ómir sýrgen, ol Shynghyshan joryghy bastalardan sәl búryn ghana joyylghan. Ol Horezmshah әskeri men Tarbaghatay tauynan shyqqan Tatar hany shabuylynan talqandalghanyn Ibn әl Asir anyq jazady.

Szini-Shyng imperiyasy әskeri men Tatar hany әskeri arasyndaghy soghys shamamen qazirgi ishki Mangholiya aumaghynda bolghanyn, ol soghysqa Horezmshah әskeri de atsalysqanyn Ibn әl Asirding derekteri aighaqtaydy. Osy soghystan keyin Tatar hany qazaq dalasy men Orta Aziya qalalaryn ózara bólisip alu jayly Horezmshahqa úsynys jasaghan. Al Horezmshah oghan kelisim bermegen, sol sebepten Tatar hany әskeri men Horezmshah әskeri arasynda jii qaqtyghystar oryn alghan. Artynsha Tatar hany Kushluk Shynghyshan shabuylyna úshyraghan:

«Potom na Kushlu-hana, [sarya] pervyh tatar, obrushilosi nashestvie drugih tatar, kotorye opustoshily mir y sari kotoryh – Chingishan Temuchiyn. Ony otvlekly Kushlu-hana ot horezmshaha, tot poluchil peredyshku y perepravilsya za reku v Horasan. V etom, 1221 godu v strany islama yavilisi Tatary, bolishoe turkskoe plemya, mesta obitaniya kotorogo gory Tamgadjskiya, okolo Kitaya; mejdu nimy y stranamy musulimanskimy bolee 6 mesyasev (putiy)».

Mine, Shynghyshan men Tatar hannyng qaqtyghysy Horezmshahqa ontayly bolghan eken. Alayda, ol úzaqqa barmaghany mәlim. Shynghyshan qonysy Tamgadjy tauy deydi. Ol arabsha týpnúsqada Altay tauy nemese Tarbaghatay boluy mýmkin. Araqashyqtyghy 6 ailyq jol degeni Shynghyshannyng otany qazirgi Mangholiya ekenin aighaqtaydy. Búl – keyingi kezde «Shynghyshan qazirgi Almaty oblysy aumaghynan shyqqan» dep jýrgenderge naqty jauap. Olar silteme jasaytyn jazbalar senimdilik túrghysynan Ibn әl Asirding jazbasynan kóp әlsiz.

Osylaysha Shynghyshan zamanyna deyingi ghasyrlarda qazirgi Mangholiya men ishki Mangholiyada tek týrkitildi qazaqtar men tatarlar mekendegenine kóz jetkizemiz (yaghni, ol jerlerde eshqanday halha-manghol, syaniby nemese hidandar bolmaghan). Tipti, úighyr men qyrghyz jayly esh derek berilmeydi, esesine tatar últynyng bar ekenin jәne Euraziyanyng keng dalasyn negizinen qazaq dep atalatyn týrkiler mekendegenin kórsetedi. Sonymen qatar Ibn әl Asir Orta Aziya qalalarynda әsker bolghan qazaqtardyng bir bóligin «ushiyk» dep derektegen. Osy atau «uzbek» atauymen arabshada úqsas jazyluy sol zamanda ýzbek (ózbek) halqy da bolghanyn aighaqtaydy.

Ózgelerge óz últtarynyng tarihy kóneden ekenin dәripteuge osynday derekter de jetkilikti edi. Al bizding tarihshylargha ne bolghany týsiniksiz..., keshegi biyleushi el qoldaryna ústatqan jalghan tarihtan esh airylghysy joq. Qazaq tarihyn qayta zerttep jazugha Preziydentimiz Núrsúltan Nazarbaev bir emes, eki ret núsqau berdi. Alghashqysynan Resey biyleushileri qatty shoshyghanyn kózimiz kórdi. Senator Matviyenko bastap: «Qazaq pen orys tarihshylary birge zertteu jasasyn» degen úsynystaryn tyqpalady. Aqyry ýlken isting arty qúrdymgha ketip, «bayaghy jartas sol jartas» kýiinde qaldy. Elbasynyng keshegi ekinshi núsqauyna Resey biyligi beyjaylyq tanytty. Óitkeni, «Qazaq tarihshylary bәribir shyndyqty taba almaydy» degen pikirde nemese bizding tarihshylardy solardyng ókilderi basqaryp otyrghandyqtan, qamsyz...

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