Beysenbi, 29 Aqpan 2024
Janalyqtar 4322 0 pikir 31 Nauryz, 2011 saghat 07:29

Ilesbek Bayjanov. Qazaq qaghylghan qayran baylyq qayda ketip jatyr?

Shymkent, Pavlodar, Atyrau múnay óndeu zauyttary 1992 jyldyng nauryz aiyna deyin jylyna 19 million tonnadan astam múnay shiykizatyn óndegen. Osynyng arqasynda respublikanyng halyq sharuashylyghy men jeke sektorlaryn túraqty týrde múnay ónimderimen (benziyn, diyzeli otyny, aviakerosiyn, mazut, súiytylghan gaz) qamtamasyz etip qana qoymay, alys-jaqyn shetelderge de eksportqa shygharyp otyrdy.

Ol kezde bayaghy Gosplan men Múnay jәne gaz ministrligi respublikanyng ishki qajettiligine qansha jәne qanday múnay ónimderi kerek ekenin әrbir tonnasyna deyin josparlap, ýsh zauyttyng shygharugha tiyis ónimderine kvota bólip beretin. Zauyttardan shyqqan ónimdi aimaqtargha taratuda «Goskom­nefteprodukty» mekemesi de asa manyzdy ról atqardy. Qajettilik tua qalghan jaghdayda, búl mekeme Odaqtyng basqa aimaqtarynan da múnay ónimderin Qazaqstangha tez arada jetkizip otyrdy.

Shymkent, Pavlodar, Atyrau múnay óndeu zauyttary 1992 jyldyng nauryz aiyna deyin jylyna 19 million tonnadan astam múnay shiykizatyn óndegen. Osynyng arqasynda respublikanyng halyq sharuashylyghy men jeke sektorlaryn túraqty týrde múnay ónimderimen (benziyn, diyzeli otyny, aviakerosiyn, mazut, súiytylghan gaz) qamtamasyz etip qana qoymay, alys-jaqyn shetelderge de eksportqa shygharyp otyrdy.

Ol kezde bayaghy Gosplan men Múnay jәne gaz ministrligi respublikanyng ishki qajettiligine qansha jәne qanday múnay ónimderi kerek ekenin әrbir tonnasyna deyin josparlap, ýsh zauyttyng shygharugha tiyis ónimderine kvota bólip beretin. Zauyttardan shyqqan ónimdi aimaqtargha taratuda «Goskom­nefteprodukty» mekemesi de asa manyzdy ról atqardy. Qajettilik tua qalghan jaghdayda, búl mekeme Odaqtyng basqa aimaqtarynan da múnay ónimderin Qazaqstangha tez arada jetkizip otyrdy.

Ayta ketu kerek, jedel sheshiluge tiyis búl is-sharalardy oryndauda temirdey tәrtipke baghynghan Qazaqstan temirjolynyng da orny erekshe edi. Jәne jogharydaghy memlekettik qúrylymdar bir jerden basqaryldy. Josparly ekonomikagha negizdelgen әkimshilik jýie kezinde jobalanghan búl zauyttar Qazaqstannyng ýsh aimaghyndaghy tútynushylardan artylghan múnay ónimderin kórshiles odaqtas respublikalargha da shygharyp otyrdy. 1985 jyly iske qosylyp, «Shymkent múnay óndeu zauyty» dep atalghan iri óndiris oshaghy 2-3 jyldyng ishinde KSRO-daghy aldynghy qatarly kәsiporyndardyng birine ainalghandy. Kәsiporyn 1988-1991 jyldary oblystyq budjetting 40 payyzyn toltyryp, eng iri salyq tóleushi mekeme atanghan bolatyn.

  • Mine, osy kezenderde Shymkent múnay óndeu zauyty ontýstik oblystarmen qatar, Qyrghyzstan, Tәjikstan, Aughanstan, Ózbekstan elderin de múnay ónimderimen qamtamasyz etuge tiyis edi. Alghashqy kezde solay boldy da. Tipten búl zauyttyng artylghan ónimderi: mazut pen diyzeli otyny Orta Aziya respublikalarymen qatar, alys shetelder: Shveysariya, Shvesiya, Italiya, Ger­maniya, Polisha, Vengriya, Bolgariya, Chehoslovakiya memleketterine de eksporttalyp jatty.

Búghan qosa Pavlodar men Shymkent múnay óndeu zauyttary Reseyding Tumeni, Nijnevartovsk, Kogalym, Surgut (Batys Sibir) aimaqtarynan múnay qúbyrlarymen irkilissiz kelip jatqan, qúramynda kómirsutegi az múnay shiykizatynyng arqasynda tolyq quatymen júmys istep (8,0 + 6,0 mln. tonna), jylyna 14 million tonnadan astam múnay óndegen. Al qalghan 5,0 million tonnalyq jergilikti múnay shiykizatyn AQSh-tyng jәrdemimen salynyp, 1944 jyly iske qosylghan Atyrau múnay óndeu zauyty óndep, batys aimaqty múnay ónimderimen qamtamasyz etip keldi. 1978 jyly iske qosylghan Pavlodar múnay óndeu zauyty da Sovetter Odaghyndaghy jana zauyttardyng biri bolatyn. Elimizding tәuelsizdik alghan alghashqy jyldary búl zauyt shiykizattan tapshylyq kórip, jiyi-jii toqtap, irkilispen júmys istedi. Zauytqa múnay shiykizaty elding batysyndaghy Atyrau men Aqtóbe oblystaryndaghy múnay kenishterinen vagonosisternalarmen tasyldy. Resey men Qazaqstan ýkimetteri arasyndaghy aiyrbas sharty negizinde múnay qúbyrlary arqyly almasular da boldy.

Toqsanynshy jyldardyng sonynda bastalghan «Jappay jekelendiru» nauqanynda Pavlodar zauyty qoldan-qolgha ótti. Ony әrkim, tipti sheteldik firmalar da basqardy. Toqtap túrghan kýnderi de este. Tek songhy eki-ýsh jyldyng ishinde zauyt memleketke jartylay nemese tolyghymen ótken song ghana júmys yrghaghy bir qalypqa týse bastady. Ótken 2010 jyly PMHZ - 4,8 million tonna múnay shiykizatyn óndeuge qol jetkizip, 2009 jylmen salystyrghanda, shiykizat óndeudi 676 myng tonnagha arttyrdy. Jәne oblys budjetine 7,93 milliard tenge, al elding ortaq qazynasyna 2,49 milliard tenge týsirdi.

Múnday qiyndyqtan Shymkent zauyty da shet qalghan joq. 1991-1992 jyldary sharuashylyq baylanystardyng ýziluine baylanysty búl zauyt ta shiykizattan tapshylyq kórip, sol jyldary ashylghan «iyjneftegazdyn» (Qúmkól múnay kenishteri) parafindi múnayy men vagonosisternalarmen keletin «Aqtóbemúnaygaz» jәne «Qarajanbasmúnaygazdyn» kýkirt sutekti auyr múnaylaryn óndey bastady. Batys Sibirding kýkirtti suteksiz jenil múnayyn óndeuge layyqtalyp jobalanghan zauytqa alghashqyda aitarlyqtay qiynshylyqtar tuyndaghanymen, zauyttyng bilikti injener-tehnolog mamandarynyng arqasynda búl tyghyryqtan shyghatyn joldar da tabyldy. Ózbekstannyng «Shortandy» jәne «Mubarak» múnayly kenishterinen múnay kondensatyn importtap, óndeu bastaldy.

Alayda zauyt 1997 jyly ýkimet qaulysymen jekelendirilip, bar bolghany 60 million AQSh dollaryna satyldy. Alghashqyda Gibraltarda tirkelgen aghylshyndyq «VITOL» degen eshkimge belgisiz kompaniya egelik etti. Odan song Qazaqstannyng «Kazkommersbanki»» qojayyn bolyp, zauyt «ShNOS» dep ataldy. 2000 jyly «Qúmkól» (búrynghy «yjneftegaz» AQ-y ýkimet qaulysymen 1998 jyly 120 million dollargha jekelengen bolatyn) múnay kenishine egelik etip otyrghan kanadalyq «Harriykeyn Haydrokarbonz» kompaniyasy zauyttyng negizgi aksiyasyn satyp alyp, endi búl óndiris oshaghy «HOP» degen qysqasha atty iyelendi.

  • 2005 jyly Qytaydyng memlekettik CNPC kompaniyasy kanadalyqtardan múnay kenishterimen qosa zauytty da 4 milliard 180 million dollargha satyp aldy. Múnay kenishi men zauytty 8 jyl boyy paydalanghan kanadalyqtar ghalamdyq naryqta múnaydyng qymbattap túrghan kezinde ýlken payda kórse, búl týzilgen kelisim-sharttan taghy da 4 milliard AQSh dollary kólemindegi tabysty elderine arqalap ketti.

2008 jyldan zauyttyng 50 payyzdyq aksiyasy otandyq «Qaz­múnaygaz» kompaniyasyna ótti. Býgin qytaylyq әriptesterimen birge búl kompaniya «PetroKazahstan-oylprodaktsty» (PKOP) basqaryp keledi.

 

Degenmen býgingi kýnderi Shymkenttegi «PKOP» zauyty búrynghyday múnayshylardyng shiykizatyn óndep, óndelgen ónimdi tútynushylargha vagonosisternalargha tiyep beruden asa almay otyr. Investorlarmen Qazaqstan ýkimeti arasyndaghy týzilgen shart boyynsha, zauyt múnay shiykizatyn satyp alyp óndep, shygharylghan múnay ónimderin sata almaydy eken. Múnday sharanyn,  óz kezeginde, el tútynushylaryn arzan múnay ónimderimen qamtamasyz etuge kesirin tiygizip otyrghany anyq.

Al Pavlodar múnay-himiya zauyty әli de tolyghymen Resey múnay shiykizatyn óndeude. Al elge qajet valuta syrtqa qaray aghylyp, Resey mýddesine qyzmet etude. «Qazmúnaygaz» kompaniyasynyng jauapty qyzmetkeri tipten: «Reseymen Kedendik odaqqa biriktik. Endi PMHZ-gha múnay shiykizatyn әkelu qiyn bolady. Sondyqtan da búl zauytty 2014 jyldan bastap toqtatu kerek!» - dep aidy aspangha bir-aq shyghardy. Jәne búl sheneuniktik pikir eshbir logikagha syimaytyn uәj boldy.

  • Qazaqstan 2010 jyly 80 million tonnadan astam múnay shiykizatyn óndirip, onyng 73 million tonnasyn eksportqa shyghardy. Jalpy, óndirilgen múnay shiykizatynyng 7 million tonnasy ghana Qazaqstan zauyttaryna baghyttalypty. Qazir elimizde múnay qúbyry transporty da damydy. Omsk- Pavlodar - Shymkent - Ata­su - Alashanikou múnay qúbyryna Atyrau - Kenqiyaq - Qúmkól tarmaghy qosyldy. Pavlodar men Shymkent zauyttarynyng arasy da múnayly batys aimaqtarmen jalghanyp, múnay óndeu zauyttaryn jergilikti shiykizatpen qamtamasyz etuge mýmkinshilik tudy. Soghan qaramastan, biliksiz sheneunikterding arqasynda Qazaqstan әli de Reseyding múnay shiykizaty men múnay ónimderine tәueldi bolyp otyr.

Reseyding múnay shiykizatyna endirilgen kedendik salyghy 2011 jyldyng nauryz aiynda 1 tonnasyna - 365 AQSh dollaryn qúrasa, endi múnayshylar osy jyldyng 1 sәuirinen bastap 425 AQSh dollary dengeyinde kedendik salyq tóleytin boldy. Reseyding múnay kәsiporyndary men zauyttarynyng (tolyghymen memlekettik kәsiporyndar) eksportqa shygharylghan múnay shiykizaty men múnay ónimderine salynghan kedendik salyqtarynyng arqasynda búl el búrynghy KSRO-nyng ghana emes, patshalyq Resey imperiyasynyng da ghalam elderi aldyndaghy qaryzdarynan 2006 jyly-aq qútylyp qoy­dy...

Arab elderi bolsa jalghyz baylyghy - múnay shiykizatyna ghana qarap otyr. Qúm ýstindegi arabtardyng qúmy týkke jaramsyz. Qúrylys pen su sýzuge qajet qúmdy olar sonau soltýstiktegi Finlyandiyadan valuta tólep importtaydy. Tasty da tasyp әkeledi. Al sudy alystaghy Antarktidada qalqyp jýrgen aisbergterdi kesip alyp, eritip, tankerlermen tasyp ishedi. Olarda qara jәne týsti metall da, altyn da, aghash ta joq. Biraq imandylyq pen nysap, bereke bar. Halqy men memleketi bay.

Sebebi, arabtar sheteldikter iyeligindegi múnay kenishteri men zauyttaryn 20-30 jyl búryn óz qoldaryna alghan. Múnyng bәrin olar últtyng baylyghy dep biledi. Arab elderindegi múnay kәsiporyndary men múnay-himiya zauyttary, múnay tasymaldaytyn transkontiynentaldyq tankerler memleketting menshiginde. Yaghny búl nysandar sheteldikter men bayshykeshterge emes, óz halqyna qyzmet etedi.

 

Al bizde she? Elimizde belsendi týrde júmys jasap jatqan múnay kәsipshilikterining bireuin ghana alyp kóreyik: NCOC (North Caspian Operating Company B.V.) kompaniyasy - Soltýstik Kaspiy jobasyndaghy jalghyz operator. Al búl kom­paniyanyng aksionerleri: Agip Caspian Sea B.V. (16,81%), KMG Kashagan B.V. (16,81%), Conocophillips North Caspian Ltd. (8,40%), ExxonMobil Kazakhstan Inc. (16,81%), Inpex North Caspian Sea Ltd. (7,56%), Shell Kazakhstan Development B.V. (16,81%) jәne Total E&P Kazakhstan (16,81%) siyaqty әr jerde tirkelip, qúrylghan firmalar eken. Búlargha shynynda kim egelik etedi? Ol jaghy belgisiz.

  • Qazir Qazaqstanda 2011 jyldyng 1 qantarynan bastap syrtqa shyghatyn 1 tonna múnaygha kedendik salyq bar bolghany - 40 AQSh dollaryna teng mólsherde ghana ústalatyn boldy. Ýkimet búl 40 dollardy da sheteldikter aldynda qinalyp, zorgha kirgizdi. Jәne onyng ózin otandyq múnay óndirushiler ghana tólemek. Al sheteldik alpauyt kompaniyalargha, yaghny salghan investisiyasyn әldeqashan 100 ese qaytaryp qoyghan dókeylerge búl talap jýrmeytin bop túr. Bar baylyghymyzgha egelik etken jatjerlikterding aldynda býgingi biylik qauqarsyz, yaghny adam ayarlyq, beyshara kýide.

Endi Qazaqstangha qaytkende de kedendik salyqty Resey dengeyinde bolmasa da, múnay­qúbyr jýiesi men teniz porttaryna jәne temirjol transportymen tasymaldau baghasyna keter shyghyndardy eskere kele, eng bolmasa - 250 dollargha deyin kóteru qajet! Búl shara otandyq, biraq sheteldikter egelik etip otyrghan kenishterden múnay shiykizatynyng zauyt­targha qaray aghyluyna da septigin tiygizedi. Múnayshylargha da arzan shiykizat múnay satqansha, dayyn, әri qymbat múnay ónimderin satqan tiyimdi bolary anyq. Ári el qazynasy da búl qomaqty salyqtardan toly­ghady. Sonday-aq memle­ket­ting investorlarmen arada týzilgen kelisim-sharttaryn qayta qarau da kezek kýttirmeytin mәselege ainalyp otyr.

 

Ilesbek

BAYJANOV,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister

odaghynyng mýshesi

«Obshestvennaya pozisiya»

(proekt «DAT» № 11 (94) 30 nauryz 2011 jyl

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Ádebiyet

Qauyrsyn

Álimjan Áshimúly 1634
Álipby

Latyn jayy

Bijomart Qapalbek 1707
Deputattyq saual

Shoshqagha bólingen qarjy jylqydan 40 ese kóp

Abai.kz 1416