Seysenbi, 9 Nauryz 2021
Biylik 3148 0 pikir 30 Mausym, 2018 saghat 13:49

Qazaqstan konstitusiyasynyng jetistikterin shetelde bolghan kezde bayqaugha bolady

Preziydent N.Á.Nazarbaevtyng «Qazaqstan joly – 2050: Bir maqsat, bir mýdde, bir bolashaq» atty Joldauynda adamdardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghau aiqyn maqsat etip qoyylghan. Qazaqstan Respublikasy Preziydentining ýndeui qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudyng  konstitusiyalyq negizderin odan әri damytu ýshin onyng ózegi bola alatyn baghdarlamalyq qújat bolyp tabylatyndyghy shýbәsiz.

«Eng jaqsysy qay konstitusiya?» dep ejelgi grekting úly zang shygharushysy Solonnan súraghan kezde, ol: «Qanday halyqqa jәne qay dәuir ýshin, eng aldymen sony aitynyz» dep jauap beripti. Ejelgi grek danyshpanynyng búl sózining Qazakstan Respublikasy men TMD-nyng basqa da elderining demokratiyalyq jәne órkeniyetti qoghamdar әlemine ayaq basqan qazirgidey kezeninde de manyzy zor jәne kókeytesti.

Osyghan oray Qazaqstannyng jәne onyng konstitusiyasynyng jetistikterin shetelde bolghan kezde bayqaugha bolady. Áriyne, ol jetistikter jýregimizge maqtanysh sezimin tudyratyny sózsiz.

Mәselen, sheteldik ghalymdarmen pikir alysqan kezde jәne Angliya men Ispaniya uniyversiytetterinde «Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng qúqyqtyq sayasaty» atty taqyrypta bayandama jasaghanda sezindim. Maghan bayandamadan keyin qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtary turaly kóptegen súraqtar qoydy. Sonymen qatar, jogharyda atalghan uniyversiytetterding ghalymdary, oqytushylary, magistrleri, doktoranttary bizding Konstitusiyany óte joghary baghalady. Ásirese adamdardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtary turaly qyzyghushylyq tanytty. Áriyne, búl mәsele qazaqstandyqtar ýshin de óte manyzdy.

Qazaqstannyng Konstitusiyasy – búl elding negizgi sayasiy-qúqyqtyq qújaty jәne joghary yuridikalyq kýshi bar, sonday-aq, bizding respublikamyzdyng barlyq aumaghynda tikeley yqpalgha ie negizgi zan. Konstitusiya – qúndylyqtar, instituttar, konstitusiyalyq qúrylystyng normalary, sapaly qoghamdyq baylanystar men memlekettik biylik qatynastaryn memlekettik-qúqyqtyq retteuding negizderi resmy bekiytin eng jogharghy qúqyqtyq forma.

Ayta ketu kerek, Negizgi Zang azamattardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudyn, qúqyq mәdeniyetining sayasiy-qúqyqtyq negizi retinde algha shyghady.

Sondyqtan da, qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary  men bostandyqtaryn  qorghaudyng qúqyq mәdeniyetining negizi bolyp Konstitusiya sanalyp, qúqyqtyq  gumanistik týjyrymdama, adam abyroyy jәne qoghamnyng damu dengeyine sәikes keletin әdiletti zang bolyp tabylady. Osyghan baylanysty azamattardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qúqyqtyq qorghau – búl Negizgi zang – Konstitusiyanyng negizinde әreket etetin qúqyqtyng kýshtiligi. Negizgi zannyng sapasy qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qúqyqtyq qorghaudyng jay- kýii men dengeyin aldyn-ala anyqtaydy. Ol Konstitusiyanyng demokratiyalylyghy men ony jetildiruge baylanysty. Osy eki eng negizgi iydeya azamattardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qúqyqtyq qorghaudyng negizin anyqtaydy. Azamat pen adamnyng negizgi qúqyqtary men bostandyqtary, qúqyq mәdeniyeti Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda manyzdy oryn alady. Álemdegi eshbir Konstitutsiya azamat pen adamnyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqaryn jәne qúqyq mәdeniyetterin  bizding elimizdegidey sonshalyqty keng týrde jәne tolyq bekite almaydy desek artyq aitqandyq bolmas edi. Adam qúqyqtarynyng jalpygha birdey Deklarasiyasyndaghy jәne basqa da halyqaralyq qúqyqtyq derekter men hartiyalardaghy adam qúqyqtary tolyq kólemde jazylghandyqtan da, Konstitusiya asa manyzdy. Búdan bizding memleketimizding halyqaralyq qúqyqtyng kópshilik tanyghan normalaryna degen qúrmetin ghana emes, sonday-aq, olardyng mindetti týrde saqtaluy men jýzege asuyna degen joghary jauapkershiligin de kóruge bolady. «Bizding Konstitusiyamyzdyn, – dedi N.Á.Nazarbaev – әlemde demokratiyalyq qoghamnyng negizgi mindetterine sәikes keletini tanylyp otyr. Eger atyna syn aitylyp jýrse, onyng erejelerining oryndaluyna ghana qatysty bolyp jýr. Býkil әlemde demokratiya men zandy saqtau ajyraghysyz bolyp tanylady».

Qazaqstan azamattarynyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtary men bostandyqtarynyng jýzege asu problemasy – konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtyn, sonday-aq, jalpy alghandaghy qúqyqtyng da jýzege asuynyng neghúrlym ortaq problemasynyng bir bóligi. Qazaqstan qoghamynda azamattardyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtary, bostandyqtary men mindetteri qalay jýzege asyrylsa, olardyng jalpy qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetining qalyptasuy da eleuli dәrejede soghan baylanysty bolady. Soghan sәikes konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetterding tiyimdi jýzege asuy – qazaqstandyq qoghamdaghy zandylyq pen qúqyqtyq tәrtiptin, onyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyet dengeyining kórsetkishi.

Ayta ketken jón, konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardyng jýzege asyryluy azamattardyng tek naqty subektivti qúqyqtardy ornyqtyruyna әkep saymaydy, sonday-aq, osy qúqyqtyng mazmúnyn qúraytyn iygilikterdi shynayy aludy da bildiredi. Sondyqtan da neghúrlym jalpy týrinde Qazaqstan azamattarynyng konstitusiyalyk qúqyqtarynyng jýzege asyryluy dep, qúqyq normalary baghyndyrylghan jәne әrbir azamatty oghan tiyisti subektivti qúqyqtardyng negizinde jatqan materialdyq jәne ruhany iygiliktermen qamtamasyz etetin, sonymen qatar, osy qúqyqtargha qol súghudan qorghaytyn, iske asyryluynyng mazmúny men formasy boyynsha demokratiyalyq ýderis týsiniledi. Demek, Qazaqstan azamattarynyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtarynyng jýzege asu mehanizmining barysy olardyng qúqyqtary men mindetterinde, naqty minez-kúlqynda, shynayy qoghamdyq qatynastarda bekitilgen qazaqstandyqtardyng әleumettik iygilikteri men mýmkindikterin negizdeuden kórinedi. Konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men bostandyqtyng jýzege asu kepilining әrekettilik jaghdayynyng alghy sharty qyzmetin memlekettik organdar men qoghamdyq úiymdardyn, qazaqstandyq qoghamnyng tirshilik әreketining barlyq salalaryndaghy enbek újymdarynyng úiymdyq qyzmeti, sonyng ishinde túlghanyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn iske asyrudy qamtamasyz etetin olardyng әrekettiligi atqarady.

Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq mәrtebesin qúraytyn qúqyqtar men mindetterding kólemi men sipatyn anyqtaydy. Soghan sәikes, Qazaqstan memleketining azamattardan konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetterde bekitilgen ólshemge sәikes zandy minez-qúlyqty talap etuge qúqyghy bar. Qazaqstan qoghamyndaghy zandy minez-qúlyq – búl konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardy jýzege asyrudyn, azamattardyng mindetterining oryndaluynyng negizgi tәsilderining biri. Memlekettik qúqyqtyq sayasat mәdeniyetining qalyptasuy men damuy kópshilikting zandy minez-qúlqyn, yaghni, Negizgi Zannyng talaptaryna qaray konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtardyn, bostandyqtar men mindetterding jýzege asuyn qamtamasyz etuding qajetti sharty bolyp sanalady.

Konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetterding iske asyryluy barysynda Qazaqstannyng qúqyqtyq normasy qúqyqtar men mindetterding oryndaluy boyynsha әreketting ózine qúqyq normalary jazylyp qoyyluyna sәikes is-qimyl jasaudyng qajettiligin úghynu nemese belgili bir әreketterden tartynu arqyly qúqyqtyq normalar dispozisiyasyndaghy jasalghan syrtqy talaptardan jol tabady. Zandy minez-qúlyqtaghy qúqyqtyq úigharymdardyng negizdelui, konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetterding jýzege asuy qazaqstandyqtardyng sanasynyng qúqyq normasymen ózara әreketi prosesinde iske asyrylady. Shynayy jýris-túrystaghy, zandy minez-qúlyqtaghy konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetter jýzege asuyndaghy qúqyqtyq úigharymdardy negizdeu barysynda aiyryqsha manyzdylyq memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasaty men azamattardyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetine tiyisti – óitkeni olar qúqyqtyq saladaghy minez-qúlyqty retteydi, minez-qúlyqty zandylyqqa baghyttaydy, konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men mindetterding jýzege asuyn qamtamasyz etedi.

Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda azamattardyng memleket pen qoghamdy basqaru isterine qatysu, jalpy memlekettik jәne jergilikti mәndegi sheshimder men zandardy talqylaugha jәne qabyldaugha qatysu qúqyghy berilgen. Odan basqa, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy, qazaqstandyq zandar barlyq azamattargha memlekettik jәne qoghamdyq isterdi basqarugha qatysugha birdey qúqyq beredi.

Qazaqstandyq zandardy jasau men talqylaudaghy, memlekettik ómirding basqa da mәselelerindegi halyqtyng belsendiligi qazaqstandyq demokratiyanyng dәstýrine, sipatty belgisine ainaldy. Tek qana songhy on jyldyng ózinde qazaqstandyqtar azamattardyng qúqyqtaryn, bostandyqtary men mindetterin retteytin, kóptegen manyzdy zang aktilerin talqylaugha belsene qatysty. Áleumettik-qúqyqtyq belsendiliktin, azamattardyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetining qalyptasuynyng jarqyn mysaly 1995 jylghy Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasyn býkilhalyqtyq talqylau men kabyldau, sonday-aq, 2012 jylghy Parlamentke deputattar jәne 2011 jylghy Preziydent saylauy boldy.

Zandy jasaudaghy qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq belsendiligi aitarlyqtay dengeyde memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasatynyng jәne halyqtyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetining dengeyimen anyqtalatynyn atap kórsetu kerek. Qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq shygharmashylyqqa qatysuynyng sipaty, qúqyqtyq aqiqatty tanu men baghalaudyng erekshelikterin, zang salasyndaghy ózgeristerdin, qoghamdyq qatynastardy retteuding qajettiligin úghynuy memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasaty men halyqtyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetining dengeyine tәueldi bolady. Soghan oray, memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasaty men halyqtyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyeti azamattardyng Qazaqstan memleketining qúqyq qoldanu jәne qúqyqty qorghau qyzmetine belsene qatysuynyng qajetti sharty bolyp tabylady. Sonymen birge, eng aldymen, әreket etip týrghan Konstitusiyanyng mýmkindigin barynsha paydalanu qajet.

Osyghan baylanysty aita ketken jón, Qazaqstan memleketi zanda obektivti qalyptasqan qoghamdyq qatynastardy bildiruge, onda búiyru men tyiym saludyng әr týrin bildiretin “sayasy nemese zandyq zorlyq-zombylyqqa” jol bermeuge shaqyrady.

Qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq belsendiligi – búl әleumettik belsendilikting formasy, oghan osy qúbylystyng ózine tәn barlyq belgileri tiyisti. Áleumettik-belsendi túlgha úghymynda onyng dýniyege shygharmashylyq, inisiativalyq әreketshil qatynasy, qoghamdyq mýddelerdi jýzege asyruy, osy qyzmetting tәjiriybelik nәtiyjelerde jýzege asuy boyynsha әleumettik-paydaly әreketterge degen ishki baghyttylyghy atap kórsetiledi.

Qazaqstandyqtardyng әleumettik-qúqyqtyq belsendiligining derbestigi, konstitusiyalyq úigharymdardyng jýzege asuy boyynsha ishtey uәjdalghan qyzmet bolyp sanalatynyn atap kórsetken jón. Osyghan baylanysty–onyng jaghymdy sipaty, qoghamdyq paydalylyqpen, shygharmashylyq ózgeshelikpen, ýdemeli qarqyndylyqpen sipattalatyn onyng sapaly jaghy qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq belsendiligining manyzdy qasiyeti dep oilaymyn. Qúqyqtyq tәrtipti nyghaytu, konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar, bostandyqtar men mindetterdi jýzege asyrudyng әleumettik-qúqyqtyq mehanizmin jetildiru, túlghanyng qúqyqtyq mәrtebesin ósiru qazaqstandyqtardyng әleumettik-qúqyqtyq belsendiligining obektivti alghysharttary bolyp sanalatynyn este ústau kerek.

Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda Qazaqstannyng azamattary әleumettik-ekonomikalyq, sayasy jәne jeke qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardyng barlyghyn tolyq iyelenetindigi kórsetilgen. Elding әleumettik-ekonomikalyq jәne mәdeny damu dengeyine sәikes ómir sýrip túrghan konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardyng jýzege asu kepildigin kýsheytu jәne mazmúnyn keneytu, kólemin arttyru mýmkin bola týsude. Qazaqstanda demokratiyalyq qogham, qúqyqtyq memleket, qúqyqtyq mәdeniyet kúru jәne qoghamnyng materialdyq-tehnikalyq bazasyn nyghaytu Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda: baspanamen qamtamasyz etilu qúqyghy; mәdeniyet jetistikterin paydalanu; kәsipkerlik qyzmet qúqyghy; memlekettik jәne qoghamdyq úiymdargha olardyng kyzmetin jaqsartu jóninde úsynys engizu qúqyghy; lauazymdy adamdardyn, memlekettik jәne memlekettik emes úiymdardyng әreketine shaghymdanu siyaqty azamattardyng janarghan, jana qúqyqtaryn jariyalaudy mýmkin etip berdi. Erkin enbekke, demalysqa, densaulyq saqtaugha, bilimge jәne t.b. degen qúqyqtyng mazmúny men kepildigi aitarlyqtay keneydi.

Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy azamattardyng demokratiyalyq zandylyqty nyghaytu mindetin jariyalady. Árkim Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy men zandaryn saqtaugha, basqalardyng qúqyqtaryn, bostandyqtaryn, abyroyy men ar-namysyn qúrmetteuge mindetti»,-delingen Konstitusiyanyng 34-babynda. Qazaqstandyqtar osy Konstitusiyalyq mindetterdi әr týrli formada oryndaydy.

Qazaqstan qoghamyndaghy memlekettik sayasat pen túlghanyng mәdeniyeti elding qoghamdyq-sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq ómirine azamattardyng nәtiyjeli qatysuyn qamtamasyz etuge qabiletti ekendigin aita ketken jón. Qúqyqtar men mindetterdi memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasatynyng basty elementi retinde tereng týsinu qazaqstandyq ýshin ózining demokratiyalyq qoghamdaghy әleumettik-qúqyqtyq ústanymdaryn (pozisiyalaryn) jete týsinuge, ondaghy bolyp jatqan prosesterge qatynasyn aiqyndaugha, konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtardyng jýzege asuynyng neghúrlym tiyimdi formalaryn anyqtaugha, zandylyqty, memlekettik jәne qoghamdyq ómirding qúqyqtyq negizderin nyghaytugha qatysugha mýmkindik beredi.

Osyghan baylanysty konstitusiyalyq zandylyqtyng nyghangy, onyng demokratiyalyq qoghamdaghy rólining ósui memlekettik sayasattyng damuy men qúqyqqa, zangha degen, qúqyq talaptarynyng әr adamnyng ishki senimine ainaluyna degen qúrmetke negizdelgen qazaqstandyqtardyng joghary kúkyqtyq mәdeniyetining qalyptasuynan ajyraghysyz ekendigin aitqan jón.

Qazaqstan qoghamyndaghy konstitusiyalyq zandylyq azamattardyng jýris-túrysyn, memlekettik organdardyn, qoghamdyq úiymdar men lauazymdy adamdardyng qyzmetin retteushi prinsip retinde de algha shyghady.

Memlekettik organdar men lauazymdy adamdardyng qyzmetindegi konstitusiyalyq memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasatynyng jәne qoghamnyng túraqtylyq dengeyining manyzdy kórsetkishi bolyp tabylady. Olar Qazakstan Respublikasy Konstitusiyasynyng mindetti týrde saqtaluynyng ólshemi boluy tiyis, ony saqtauda, qorghauda, qamqorlyq jasauda tiyimdi sharalar qabyldap, qazaqstandyqtardy elimizding Negizgi Zanyn qadirleuge, oghan senuge jәne ony maqtan tútugha tәrbiyeleui tiyis. Sonymen qatar, konstitusiyalylyq tek qana memleket organdary men ondaghy lauazymdy qyzmet iyelerining qyzmeti prosesinde ghana emes, sonday-aq, olardyng qalyptasuy prosesinde de saqtaluy tiyis.

Qúqyq qoldanushylyq tәjiriybening jay-kýiin taldaudyng ózi qazaqstandyqtardyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtary men bostandyqtarynyng búzyluyna memlekettik biylikting әr týrli dengeylerinde jol berilgendigin, nemqúraylylyq, asyra silteu jәne t.b. faktilerding bolghandyghyn kórsetip otyr. Tek qana songhy ýsh jyldyng ishinde jergilikti atqarushy jәne baqylaushy organdardyng әreketine, al, olardyng basym bóligi – ózderining qúqyqtaryn búzyp, qysym jasaghany ýshin qúqyq qorghau organdarynyng is-әreketine shaghym aityp prokuratura organdaryna jýzdegen myng azamattar ótinish jasaghan.

Zangha baghynatyn azamattardy, olardyng qúqyqtaryn, bostandyqtary men zandy mýddelerin qorghau qúqyq qorghau organdarynyng basymdyq mindeti ekendigin Preziydent N.Á.Nazarbaev talay ret atap kórsetgi. Qúqyqtyq reformalardy odan әri terendetuding mindetteri, barlyq qúqyq qorghau jәne sot organdarynyng júmysyn jaqsartu talqylanghan qúqyq qorghau organdary jetekshilerining әr týrli basqosularynda bizding elimizding Preziydenti azamattardyng zandy qúqyghyna qysym jasau, qyzmet jaghdayyn teris paydalanu, korrupsiyamen baylanysty faktilerding әli de bolsa keninen taralghan qúbylys bolyp otyrghandyghyn atap kórsetti.

Qazaqstandyqtardyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtary men bostandyqtary qatarynyng búzyluy, zandaghy aqtandaqtar, memlekettik organdar qyzmetining kәsibiyligining bolmauy, tәuelsiz sot biyligining joqtyghy, azamattyq koghamnyng әlsizdigi, sayasy jәne qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetting tómendigi songhy on jyldaghy azamattardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtarynyng jýzege asuy salasyndaghy manyzdy problemalar ekenin aitu kerek. Osy kezende tiyisti jaghdaylardyn, eng aldymen, Konstitusiyada resmy mәlimdelgen qúqyqtyq normalarynyng iske asuyna kepildik beretin ekonomikalyq, sayasi, qúqyqtyq jaghdaylardyng joqtyghy – eldegi adam qúqyghy problemasy sheshilmeuining negizgi sebepterining birine ainalghan edi.

Býgingi tanda manyzdy azamattyq jәne sayasy qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardy, sonyng ishinde sóz, birlesu bostandyghyn, memleket basqarugha shynayy qatysudy qamtamasyz etu qajettiligi әbden pisip-jetildi. Sondyqtan, janartushylyk jәne demokratiyalyq prosesterdi shapshandatu, Qazaqstanda sayasy qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardy keneytu, orta tapty qalyptastyru prosesimen qatar jýru negizinde ghana mýmkin bolady. Jariyalanghan konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardy jýzege asyru ýshin qalada da, sonday-aq auylda da menshik iyelerining qatary kóbirek boluy kerek, sonyng negizinde orta tap qalyptasady. Adamnyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtaryn qamtamasyz etu jәne qorghau júmystary qoghamnyng әrbir mýshesining barynsha erkindik aluy baghytynda, biraq, erkindik memleketting naqty jaghdayyna barabar baghytta, túraqty әleumettik-ekonomikalyq jaghdaylarda jýrui tiyis.

Demek, konstitusiyalyqty, azamattardyng qúqyghy men bostandyqtaryn qorghau, memleketting qúqyqtyq sayasatyn damytu, qúqyqtyq mәdeniyet pen qúqyqtyq memleketting qalyptasuy jolyndaghy kedergilerdi qalay jenu kerek degen súraq tuyndaydy? Búl ýshin mening kózqarasym boyynsha, birinshiden, Zannyng ýstemdigin qamtamasyz etu qajet, onsyz ne konstitusiyalyqtyn, ne qúqyqtyn, ne bostandyqtyn, qúqyqtyq memleket pen joghary dengeyli qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetting boluy mýmkin emes; ekinshiden, qúqyqty Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasyna sәikestendiru kerek, ol aqtandaqtar men qighashtyqtardy alyp tastap, jetildiriluimen erekshelenui tiyis; ýshinshiden, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda jariyalanghan adam men azamattyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtarynyng tizimi barabar mazmúngha toly boluy tiyis; tórtinshiden, biylikti bólu prinsiypi úrandardan mindetti týrde shynayylyqqa ótui tiyis; besinshiden, Qazaqstan Respublikasy Konstitusiyasyn búzudyng әrbir faktysyna, sonyng ishinde azamattardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qosa alghanda, әdil qúqyqtyq bagha berilui tiyis; altynshydan, azamattardyng konstitusiyalyq qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn jәne jalpy Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasyn búzghany ýshin, lauazymyna qaramay, shynayy jauapkershilikting naqty týrlerin belgileu kerek.

Ayta ketken jón, alghash ret bizdin konstitusiyalyq tәjiriybemizde Qazaqstan halqynyng tolyq biyliktiligi yqsham formada berilip, halyq biylikti, elimizding Negizgi Zanynda kórsetilgenindey, tikeley respublikalyq referendum jәne erkin saylau arqyly jýzege asyrady, sonday-aq, ózining biyligin jýzege asyru ýshin memlekettik organdargha uәkil jiberedi.

Qazirgi Konstitusiyada bizding memleketimiz әleumettik dep jariyalanghan, onda memleket túlghanyng barlyq әleumettik manyzdy salalardaghy qajettilikterining jan-jaqty qanaghattandyryluy ýshin qajetti jaghdaylar jasau mindetkerligin óz moynyna alady. Sonymen bir mezgilde, búl bap, mening kózqarasym boyynsha, jetildirudi jәne terendetudi qajetsinedi, óitkeni onda qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudyng negizgi iydeyalarynyng biri retinde algha shyghatyn, әleumettik-sayasy jәne moralidyq-qúqyqtyq әdilettilikting әleumettik memleketting negizi bolyp tabylatyndyghy jóninde ashyq ta, aiqyn, naqty aityluy tiyis.

Osyghan baylanysty qúqyqtyq әdilettilik subektining is-әreketi men oghan osy is-әreket ýshin basqa subekti tarapynan berilgen baghalau arasyndaghy, qúqyqtar men bostandyqtar arasyndaghy, qúqyq búzushylyq pen jauapkershilikting jәne t.b. arasyndaghy shamalastyq sәikestigi talaptaryn bildiretinin atap kórsetken jón. Sondyqtan, is-әreket pen bagha beruding arasyndaghy shamalastyq dengeyi qaysybir individtin, toptyng jәne t.b. qazaqstandyq mýddeler pozisiyasymen baghalanatyn kezde búl әdilettilik ózining negizi boyynsha subektivti týsinik bolyp kórinedi. Mýnday bagha beru qazaqstandyq qoghamnyng damuynyng atalmysh kezeni ýshin materialdyq baylanysqan sәikestik dengeyinde, tabighiy-tarihy yqtimalgha negizdelgen bagha berumen sәikes keletin bolsa, onda Qazaqstandaghy qúqyqtyq әdilettilik obektivti, tarihy qajetti sipatta bolady. Qúqyqtyq әdilettilik jónindegi osy tәrizdi týsinikterdi alyp jýrushiler әdettegidey, progressivti kýshter, olardyng partiyalary, Qazaqstannyng jekelegen individteri bolyp esepteledi. Olardyng kózqarasy túrghysynan, eng jalpy alghandaghy josparda qúqyqtyq sayasat qazaqstandyq qoghamnyng materialdyq óndiru jәne basqa da óndiruding ómir sýrip túrghan tәsiline barabardy, is-әreket pen bagha beruding arasyndaghy, qúqyqtar men mindetterding arasyndaghy, qúqyq búzushylyq pen jauapkershilikting arasyndaghy, tarihy mýmkin men qajetti әleumettik-qúqyqtyq talaptanudyng jәne olardyng shynayy qanaghattandyryluynyng jәne t.b. arasyndaghy shamalastyqtyng dengeyin ózinde kórsete alatyn bolsa jәne bildiretin bolsa, onda múnday qúqyqtyq sayasat әdiletti bolady. Búl maghynada Qazaqstan memleketining qúqyqtyq sayasaty tútas alghanda әdiletti bolyp tanyla alady, sebebi, ol qazirgi kezde tarihy dәleldengen jәne progressivti qúbylys bolyp tabylatyn, adamdardyng qúqyqtyghy men әleumettik әriptestigine baghyttalghan qoghamdyq qatynastardyng qúrylymyn bildiredi jәne retteydi. Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynda bekitilgen qúqyqtyq sayasatty jýzege asyru bayypty, kóp josparly jәne úzaqqa sozylatyn júmysty qajet etedi, qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudyng sәikes sayasatynyng jýieli týrde jýrgizilui, zandy bir jýiege keltiru, shoghyrlandyru jәne kodifikasiyalau, sonday-aq, qúqyqtyq aqparat izdeuding avtomattandyrylghan ynghayly jýiesin qúru, halyqtyng zandyq túrghyda jalpygha mindetti oquynyng birynghay jalpy memlekettik jýiesin úiymdastyru, sonday-aq, eng aldymen Negizgi Zannyng rólin eleuli dengeyde kóterudegi qyzmetti de ózine qosyp alady. Osyghan baylanysty Pavlodar oblysynda, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasynyng negizinde, halyqty qúqyqtyq túrghydan jalpygha mindetti oqytudyng Baghdarlamasy jasalynghandyghyn quanyshpen atap kórsetu kerek. Atalmysh baghdarlama ishki ister basqarmasy ardagerlerinin, prokuraturanyn, sottar men yustisiyanyng mektepterinde qúqyqtyq bilim aludy, barlyq departamentterde, komiytetter men basqarmalarda halyqtyng konsulitasiya aluy ýshin telefondar ornatudy, búqaralyq aqparat qúraldaryna әreket etip túrghan Konstitusiyanyn, zannyng erejelerin týsindiretin arnayy bólimder engizudi jәne taghy da basqa sharalardy qamtidy. Bizding kózqarasymyz boyynsha, búl tәjiriybeni býkil respublikagha taratu qajet. Búl halyqtyng qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetin, qazirgi naryq jaghdayynda bizding elimizding azamattarynyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudy arttyrady, Qazaqstanda qúqyqtyq tәrtip pen zandylyqty nyghaytugha mýmkindik beredi, sonday-aq, jalpy Negizgi Zannyng rólin kóteredi.

Qazaqstan Respublikasy Konstitusiyasynyng erejelerine sәikes bizding elimizde qoghamdy odan әri janartu baghyty jýieli týrde iske asyryluda. Ol koghamdy týbirli ekonomikalyq, әleumettik jәne sayasy janartudy, demokratiyalandyrudy, Zang men Qúqyqtyng saltanat qúruyn qúqyqtyq qamtamasyz etudi talap etedi. Qúqyq qorghau organdaryndaghy eski qúqyqtyq jýie, qúrylym jәne ózara qatynas prinsipteri bizdi әli de bolsa keyinge tartady. Naq sondyqtan da qúqyqtyq reformanyng jýrgiziluinde, qúqyq qorghau organdar jýiesi men qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtyq tәrbiyesin qayta úiymdastyruda, qúqyqtyq memleket qúruda, yaghni, qúqyqtyq mәdeniyet problemasynyng sheshilip, onyng jana sapaly jaghdaygha ótuinde katang birizdilik qajet. Búl ýshin qúqyqtyq qyzmet salasynda reforma qajet jәne halyq pen lauazymdy qyzmet iyelerining qúqyqtyq oilauy auqymynda, qúqyqtyq mәtinder salasyn da qayta qúru qajet, tútas alghanda Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy auqymynda qúqyqtar men bostandyqtardyng qorghaluynyn, qúqyqtyq mәdeniyetting subektisining ózin tolyghymen «kayta jasau» kerek. Barlyq qazaqstandyq qúqyqtyq jýieni qayta jasau qajet jәne de barlyq qayta qúrulardyng negizi etip adamdy, onyng ar-namysyn, mýddeleri men qajettilikterin qoya otyryp, belgisiz, dәstýrli emes, qalypty emes tәsilderden qoryqpay, búny janasha jasaghan dúrys.

Naryqtyq qatynastardyng damuy derbes jәne әdiletti qúqyqtyq jýie qalyptaspay ekonomikalyq jәne sayasy reformalardyng mýmkin emestigining aqiqat ekendigin barghan sayyn dәleldey týsude. Tek әdiletti qúqyqtyq jýie ghana qazakstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtarynyng qorghaluyn qamtamasyz etuge qabiletti. «Eger qúqyqtardyng qorghaluyn kamtamasyz etu joq bolsa, – dedi preziydent N.Á.Nazarbaev Qazaqstan Respublikasy sudiyalarynyn  IV sezinde, – onda bostandyq pen demokratiya da joq».

Osyghan baylanysty, qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghau sayasatynyng tiyimdi boluy tiyis ekendigin aitqan jón. Búl sayasattyng tiyimdiligin anyqtau ýshin onyng yqpal etu mehanizmderin aiqyn týsine bilu kerek. Qúqyq adamdardyng sanasyna, sezimine, emosiyasyna tikeley yqpal etedi jәne sanasynyng belgili bir tústarynyng qalyptasuyna mýmkindik jasaydy. Búl sayasattyng nәtiyjeleri, mysaly, naqty is-qimyldarda jәne tirshilik әreketting óndiristik jәne qoghamdyq salalaryndaghy qazaqstandyqtardyng әreketinde bayqalady. Qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghau sayasatynyng tiyimdiligi – búl túlghagha yqpal etuding tiyimdiligi jәne túlghanyng qorshaghan ortagha yqpal etuinin tiyimdiligi. Sondyqtan da qazaqstandyqtar Konstitusiyada kórsetilgey qúqyqtardy anyq qoldanuy qajet. Óitkeni, búl zandardyng býzylmay, aiqyn saqtaluy ýshin qajet.

Sonymen korytyndylay kele, Negizgi zang – Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng Konstitusiyasy qazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtary men bostandyqtaryn qorghaudy, qúqyq mәdeniyetin qalyptastyru men damytudyng negizi bolyp tabylady degen týjyrym jasaugha bolady, sondyqtan da elde qatang konstitusiyalyq baqylau jýrgizudi maqsatqa sәikes engizu kerek dep oilaymyn. Konstitusiyalyq baqylau qoghamdyq tәjiriybege ýlken yqpal jasaytyndyghy shýbәsiz, sóitip, qoghamnyng túraqty jәne shynayy damuyn qamtamasyz etudin, kazaqstandyqtardyng qúqyqtarymen bostandyqtaryn qorghau jәne qúqyq mәdeniyetin damytu mehanizmin jetildirudin  útymdy tetigine ainalady.

Ghalymjan Ábsattarov

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