Senbi, 20 Tamyz 2022
Ruhany janghyru 5062 2 pikir 9 Qazan, 2017 saghat 13:08

Qoldy bolghan qújattar

 

Tarihsyz memleket joq ekendigi de aqiqat, onyng bar beti qújattyq jadynyng alyp qazynasy bolyp tabylady. Qazaqstan Respublikasynyng «Últtyq múraghat qory men múraghattar turaly» Zanynda «Últtyq múraghat qory Qazaqstan halqynyng tarihy – mәdeny múrasynyng ajyramas bóligi» dep kórsetilgen. Memlekettik múraghattar zannamalyq túrghydan belgili bir mindetti atqaratyn arnayy mekeme bolyp tabylady. Memlekettik múraghattardaghy jýrgiziletin júmystardyng basty maqsaty – múraghat qorlaryn saqtau, ýnemi tolyqtyryp otyru, halyq iygiligine paydalanu.

Múraghat –  ótken ómirding eskertkishi. Qoghamnyng bay tarihy tәjiriybesin jan-jaqty, auqymdy beyneleytin múraghat jәne ondaghy saqtalghan qújattardyng qúndylyghy men manyzdylyghy erekshe.

Elimizding asa bay ruhany qazynasy bolyp tabylatyn múraghat isi HVIII ghasyrdan bastau alady. Qazaqstan Respublikasy Ministrler Kabiynetining 1995 jylghy 17 tamyzdaghy «Qazaqstandaghy múraghat isine – 200 jyl» atty qaulysynda Qazaqstan tarihynda múraghat isining payda boluyn bylaysha atap kórsetedi «Alghashqy múraghat Batys Qazaqstan aimaghyndaghy Ishki Ordada» qalyptasyp, Bókey handyghynyng múraghaty atauymen belgili boldy» delingen.

Múraghattarda jinaqtalghan qorlarda tól tarihymyzgha  qatysty bagha jetpes mol múralar saqtalghan. Sondyqtan da, el aumaghyndaghy memlekettik múraghat qorlarynda zor jauapkershilikpen qarau – býgingi kýnning talaby. Kenes ýkimetining alghashqy jyldarynda múraghat isterine baylanysty qiynshylyqtar boldy. Múraghat qorlaryndaghy saqtalghan tarihy qújattardyng manyzy erekshe edi. Birinshiden, múraghat qorynda saqtalghan qújattar boyynsha elding ótken tarihy jazylsa, ekinshiden, elding ekonomikasyna qatysty jer-su, jer bederi, qazba baylyqtar turaly kartalar, syzbalar, jazbalar arqyly eleuli yqpal etti. 1946 jyly múraghat qyzmetkerleri F.N. Kiyreev jәne N.P. Zininning qúrastyruymen jaryqqa shyqqan «Sentralinyy gosudarstvennyy istoricheskiy arhiv Kazahskoy SSR» atty jónsilterde Omby oblystyq memlekettik múraghaty qorynan 43 000 birlik isting jetkizilgeni jóninde mәlimet bar. Qúrastyrushylar «1940 jyly negizinen Qazaqstan múraghaty jan-jaqtaghy múraghat qújattary men shoghyrlanyp boldy» dep tújyrym jasaydy.

Qazaqstanda múraghat qorynyng qúryluy 1921-1922 jyldary bastaldy. Ortalyq ólkelik múraghat qorynyng bastauynda Orynbor múraghaty túrghany belgili. Onda saqtalghan múraghat qorynyng kóptegen bóligi joyylyp, talan-tarajgha týsui revolusiyagha deyin oryn alghan. Qazan tónkerisine deyingi patshalyq Resey múraghattarynda qújattar úqypsyz saqtaldy. Birynghay әkimshilik-sayasy ortalyqtardyng bolmauy saldarynan halqymyzdyng basynan ótken tarihynyng әr kezenderin qamtityn tarihy qúndy qújattar Peterburg, Moskva, Qazan, Ufa, Astrahan, Omby, Orynbor, Saratov, Tomsk, Tashkent qalalaryndaghy salalyq múraghattarda shashylyp, shashyrap qaldy. Mysaly, Resey imperiyasynyng Arheologiyalyq instituty 1881 jyldyng qyrkýiek aiynda Orynbor múraghatyndaghy saqtalghan qorlardyng jaghdayymen tanysyp qaytu maqsatynda instituttyng ghylymy qyzmetkerleri Gavrilov jәne tyndaushy Livovty is-sapargha arnayy jibergen. Olardyng 1882 jyldyng 10 tamyzynda jazghan raporttarynda múraghattaghy 100 mynnan astam isting óte ayanyshty jaghdayda jatqanyn, búl qorlardyng alghashqy qalyptasqan kezeninen-aq eshuaqytta tәrtipke keltirilmegenin ókinishpen bayandaydy.

Kezinde Orynbor múraghat burosy 1913-1917 jyldardaghy qazaq tarihyna qatysty 251 pút 20 qadaq qújattar men 2006 kitapty 1923 jyly makulaturagha satqan. Sonda «ol qanday qújattar?» desek, Orynbor general –gubernatorynyng 1888, 1890, 1893, 1894, 1889-1915 jylgha deyingi 20 jyldyq esepteri, ataqty ghalym A.E.Alektorovtyng 1794-1894 jyldary qazaq arasynan jinalghan shejiresi, «Qazaqtardyng 1865,1869 jyldary qonystarynan jer auuy», «Torghay oblysy boyynsha 1871 jylghy el sany», «1912-1915 jyldardaghy Torghay oblysy boyynsha sholular» t.b. qúndy derekter. Búlardyng bәri joyyldy.

1926 jyldyng 1 tamyzynda arhivarius N.G.Novinskaya men Ortalyq ólkelik múraghat mengerushisi E.A.Choglokovamen jasaghan aktide kórsetilgendey, Qyzylordagha jiberiletin múraghat qorynda barlyghy 184 týk jinaqtalyp týiilgenimen, 1927 jylgha deyin jiberilmey múraghat qoymasynda jatty. Osy jiberiluge tiyisti qorlardyng ishinde keybir isterdi jibermeu ýshin astyna qyzyl qaryndashpen belgi soghylghandyghyn múraghat derekteri aighaqtaydy.

Qazaqstan múraghat qorynyng jinaqtaluy óte qiyn da, qarama-qayshylyqty jaghdaylarda jýrgizildi. Kóptegen qorlardy Orynbor guberniyasynyng orys shovinizmimen auyratyn múraghatshylary elimizding tarihyna qatysty qor qújattaryn Qazaqstangha jibermeu maqsatynda kóptegen isterding múqabasyndaghy taqyryptardyng attaryn qasaqana ózgertip nemese ol isterdi әdeyi sógip, janadan basqa ister dayyndaghan. Sóitip, Qazaqstannan barghan múraghatshylardyng kózin boyap, izden adastyryp, keybir qúndy qújattardy tiziminen shygharyp tastaghan.

Qazaqstan men Orynbor múraghattary  arasyndaghy jinaqtalghan múraghat qoryn bólu kýn tәrtibine jiyi-jii qoyylyp otyrghan. 1927 jyldyng 27 mausymynda osy mәsele boyynsha Orynbor guberniyalyq múraghat burosynyng mengerushisi Orynbor guberniyasy atqaru komiytetining Prezidiumynda bayandama jasaghan. Múraghat qoryn bólude qatelikter ketkendigin habarlay otyryp, 24 sәuirde Borisoglebskiy RKSFR Ortalyq múraghaty basqarmasynda bayandama jasaghandyghyn, onda jiberilgen qatelikterdi jóndeuge ong sheshim qabyldauyn súrghandyghy da aityldy. 1927 jylghy 19 mamyrdaghy Ortalyqtyng qaulysymen qorlardy bólude  jiberilgen qatelikting jartysy týzeldi dey kele, Shekara komissiyasy isi qory týktelip, Qyzylordagha jiberuge dayyndalyp otyrghanyn, qor materialdaryn Qazaqstangha beruge qarsylyqtaryn ashyq bildirdi.

Búnyng bәri, sayyp kelgende, jinaqtalyp jiberuge  dayyndalghan qorlardyng Orynbordan Qyzylordagha jiberu ýshin poezgha tieu kezinde Orynbor múraghatynyng qyzmetkerleri kóptegen qújattardy úrlap aluyna әkelip soqtyrdy. 1927 jyldyng 22 mausymynda Orynbor guberniyalyq múraghat mengerushisi Vasiliev jәne is jýrgizushi Fomina Orynbor Shekara komissiyasynyng jәne bóten dindegiler ekspedisiyasy qory materialdary, barlyghy 11 týkte 1925 jyly-aq jinaqtalghanymen, әli de Orynborda ekendigin habarlay otyryp, «búl jinaqtalghan týkten 7 týk materialy tikeley Orynborgha qatysty» dey kelip, qalghan 4 týkti komissiya arqyly tizimdimelerdi qayta qaraugha úsynys etedi. Qordy jinaqtau kezinde isterding mazmúny qate bolghandyghyn jәne qate jinaqtalghanyn jazady.

Orynbor guberniyalyq múraghatynyng ghylymy qyzmetkeri A.F.Ryazanov ózining qosymsha bayandamasynda jogharyda atalghan qorlardyng Qazaqstangha beriluine mýldem qarsy bolyp, isterding aralasyp ketkendigin, Orynbor Shekaralyq komissiyasy, Torghay, Oral oblystyq basqarmasy qorlarynyng Qazaqstangha ótip ketkendigine renishin bildirdi. Búl jaghdaylar bizding jogharydaghy pikirimizdi naqtylay týsedi.

Qazaqstan múraghatshylary Ortalyqtyng Orynbor general-gubernetory qorynyng barlyq bólimderimen Orynborda qaldyryluyna  qarsy pikirlerin bildirip hat jazghan bolatyn. Osyghan oray 1928 jyldyng 6 qantarynda Vasiliev, múraghatshy Choglokova, hatshy Bilyarskayalardyng atynan RKSFR Ortalyq múraghatyna №366 bayandau haty jiberilip, kóshirmesi Orynbor guberniyalyq atqaru komiytetining nazaryna beriledi. Bayandau hattyng negizgi mazmúny Qazaqstanmen aradaghy múraghat qorynyng bólu turaly boldy. Orynbor general-gubernatory qorynyng týgelimen Qazaqstangha ketuine qarsy bolghan búl qordy bóluge qarsylyqtaryn múraghat qorlaryn bóluge bolmaytyn prinsiypine sýiene otyryp bildirgen. Búl qorlargha tizimdeme jasalyp jatqandyghyn, eger qordyng shekaralyq bóliminde Isatay Taymanovtyng jeke múraghaty tabylghan jaghdayda Qazaq ólkelik múraghatyna beruge qarsylyqtarynyng joqtyghyn bildiredi.

1927 jyly Ordadan (Han stavkasy) Ortalyq ólkelik múraghatqa 20 mynnan astam is aldyryldy. Sol jyldan bastap Qazaqstan tarihyna qatysty materialdar Astrahan, Omby, Orynbor, Leningrad, Tashkent qalalaryndaghy múraghattardan jinaqtala bastady. Qazaqstan múraghatshylaryna tek Orynbor ghana emes, Omby, Tashkent jәne Astrahan múraghatshylarymen múraghat qoryn bólisude qyzu pikirtalasqa týsuine tura keldi.

1927 jyldyng qantarynda Sibir ólkelik múraghatynyn   mengerushisi V.D.Vegman Aqmola guberniyasynyng ortalyghy Petropavl qalasyndaghy Júmysshy – sharua inspeksiyasyna joldaghan hatynda Aqmola guberniyasy múraghat burosynyng mengerushisi E.A.Krasnopersevting ótinishi boyynsha 1926 jyldyng 29 qyrkýieginde múraghat Qazaqstangha qatysty 196 múraghat isi materialyn alghanyn, keyin uaqytynda tapsyrylghanyn qaterge bere otyryp, materialdardy qaytarugha kómektesudi súraydy.

E.A.Krasnopersev RKSFR Ortalyq múraghaty basqarmasynan barlyq Qazaqstangha qatysty materialdardy berudi ótinish etedi. Onyng búl ótinishin Qazaq ólkelik múraghaty basqarmasy tolyghymen quattaydy. Sondyqtan da, Aqmola guberniyalyq múraghat burosyna materialdardy bólu ýshin komissiya qúrugha kýsh saludy jәne mýshelikke Aqmola múraghat burosynan nemese atqaru komiytetinen múraghat isin biletin belsendi de, jigerli qyzmetkerdi bóludi qarastyrudy tapsyrady.

Sibir  ólkelik múraghatynyng mengerushisi V.D.Vegman RKSFR Ortalyq múraghat mengerushisining orynbasary V.V.Maksakovtan Qazaq ólkelik múraghatynan Kenesary Qasymovqa qatysty isterdi qaytarugha yqpal etudi súrady jәne ólke múraghatshylaryn «qasang da, tayaz patriotizmmen ainalysty» dep aiyptaldy. Sonymen qatar, Qazaqstan tarapy Sibir ólkelik múraghatynyng súranysyn qanaghattandyrmaghan jaghdayda kelisim komissiyasyna qatyspaytyndyghyn jәne Qazaqstangha birde-bir múraghat qaghazynyng berilmeytindigin astamshyldyqpen bildirdi.

Búl jaghdaydan shovinistik kózqaras múraghat isinde de algha shyqqandyghyn baghamdaugha bolady. Kenesray Qasymov kóterilisi turaly 1835-1845 jyldar aralyghyn qamtityn tizimdeme Resey Federasiyasy memlekettik múraghatynda saqtalghan. Ortalyq múraghat basqarmasy kollegiyasy Qazaq ólkelik múraghatynyng Sibir ólkelik múraghaty arasyndaghy isterge baylanysty ústanghan baghytyn qoldamay, dóreki, jónsiz jolsyzdyq qatynas jasauda dep aiyptady. Ortalyq, sonymen qatar, Omby múraghatshylaryna múraghat qoryndaghy Alash Orda ýkimetine qatysty baghaly qordyng qayda saqtaluyn sheshudi jәne Qazaq AKSR tarapynan búl materialdardy keninen paydalanudy, Qazaq AKSR Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti Prezidiumynyng 1927 jylghy 14 sәuirdegi №5 hattamasynda kórsetilgendey Omby, Astrahan, Tashkent t.b. qalalardaghy múraghattarda Qazaqstangha qatysty materialdar bolsa, Qazaqstan tarapynan túraqty paydalanugha berude asa saq boludy eskertedi.

Osyghan oray, Qazaq ólkelik múraghaty basqarmasy RKSFR Ortalyq múraghat alqasynyng 1927 jylghy 24 nauryzdaghy qaulysyna baylanysty 6 sәuirde sayasy seksiyasynyng mengerushisi N.Ya.Bolotnikovty kollegiya mәjilisine shaqyruyn kýtpegenin jәne onyng múraghatta qysqa merizimdi uaqytta júmys jasap, múraghat isimen tolyq tanysyp bolmaghandyghyn týsinik bere almaytyndyghyn, kerisinshe múraghatta úzaq júmys jasaghan D.V.Gusevti shaqyrmaghanyn, kollegiyagha telefon arqyly 1-2 saghat uaqyt qalghanda shaqyruy jәne Qazaq ólkelik múraghatynyng júmysyn kollegiyanyng kýn tәrtibine shygharyluy týsiniksiz jaghday ekendigin atap ótedi. Al, Tashkenttegi kóptegen múraghat materialdary Qazaqstangha tikeley qatysty bolghanymen, ózbek jaghy búl materialdardy professorlar men studentter paydalanuda degen siyaqty әrtýrli syltau sebepter aityp bermedi. Qazaq AKSR-i men Ózbek KSR arasyndaghy dauly mәselelerdi sheshu odaqtas respublikalar arasynda múraghat qory jәne múraghat qújattaryn bólu turaly negizgi erejening bekitilmeuine oray RKFSR Ortalyq múraghaty tarapynan búl mәsele ereje bekitilgen kezde KSRO Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti Prezidiumynyng qarauyna beretindigin RKFSR Ortalyq múraghaty mengerushisining orynbasary V.V.Adoratskiy da óz kezeginde nazargha berdi.

Taghy bir toqtala ketetin jaghday – 1929 jyly Almatygha kóshirilgen uaqytta múraghat qory poyyzben Shu beketine deyin jetkizilip, odan  әri at arbamen tasylghan. Osy saparda Qorday asuynda on jәshik is-qújattar úrlanyp, qoldy bolghany turaly da derek saqtalghan. Sondyqtan da, elimizding tarihyna qatysty múraghat qorlarynyng múraghat isi qalyptasu jyldarynda jinaqtalmauynyng nәtiyjesinde tól tarihymyzgha qatysty «aqtandaq better» qalyptasty. Ekaterinburg, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Samara, Qazan, Moskva, Sankt -Peterburg, Ufa, Tashkent t.b. múraghattarynda Qazaqstannyng halyq sharushylyghy tarihyna qatysty kóptegen materialdar bar jәne kýni býginge deyin óz manyzyn joyghan joq.

TMD elderi men shetel múraghattaryndaghy elimizding tarihyna qatysty qújattardy, qoljazbalardy, siyrek kezdesetin kitaptardy aldyrudy úiymdastyru, kóshirmesin jasatudy qarastyru búrynghy olqylyqtardyng ornyn toltyryp, tarihy jadymyzdy qalyptastyrugha iygi yqpalyn tiygizeri sózsiz.

Aqqaly Ahmet,

 tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory,

professor

Abai.kz

 

2 pikir

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