Senbi, 31 Shilde 2021
Alashorda 6658 3 pikir 23 Mamyr, 2017 saghat 10:04

Atyrau ólkesindegi tәrkileu nauqany

Ótken tariyhqa kóz jibertip qarasaq HH ghasyr qazaq halqynyng basyna qayghy-qasiret әkelgen ghasyr bolyp qalary da sózsiz. Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys, 1916 jylghy últ-azattyq kóterilis, 1917 jylghy aqpan, qazan tónkeristeri, 1918-1920 jyldardaghy azamat soghysy jәne әskery kommunizm sayasaty jyldary, 1921-1922 jyldardaghy eldegi ashtyq,  1928 jylghy konfiskasiya, alghashqy besjyldyqtar, 1931-1933 jyldardaghy ashtyq, 1937-1938 jyldardaghy qughyn-sýrgin, 1941-1945 jyldardaghy Úly Otan soghysy, soghystan keyingi qiraghan halyq sharuashylyghyn qalpyna keltiru, tyng iygeru jyldary,  1960 jyldardaghy reformalar, toqyrau jyldary, qayta qúru jyldary t.b. tarih sahnasynyng enshisine endi.

1932 jylghy ashtyq qazaq halqynyng tarihyndaghy eng bir asqan zúlmat, adam jany týrshigerlik qasiret bolghandyghy býgingi kýnderi aqiqatqa ainaldy. 1931-1933 jyldardaghy zúlmat asharshylyq turaly jazugha, derekter jariyalaugha Kenes ókimeti túsynda qatang tiym salynyp, kóp jyldar boyy tarihtyng «aqtandaq» betterine ainalyp kelgen bolatyn.

Qazaqstandaghy auyl sharuashylyghy salasynyng damuy tarihyna qatysty qújattardy jinaqtau jәne dayyndau barysynda  auyl sharuashylyghyn úiymdastyru tarihyna qatysty 5 myng qújat anyqtaldy, sonyng ishinde 310 qújat jinaqqa engizildi. Jinaqqa engizilgen qújattar qatarynda qararlar, búiryqtar, sheshimder bolatyn. Qazaqstandaghy auyl sharuashylyghyndaghy ózgerister turaly, jer-su reformalarynyn  jýrgizuleri turaly qújattar jinaghy da baspadan shygharyldy [1]. Shygharylghan qújattyq jinaqtargha  ókinishke oray 1930-1933 jylghy kýshpen újymdastyru kezenindegi kóptegen múraghattyq qújattar engizilmey qaldy.

El tarihyndaghy eng qaraly kezenderding biri, úly jút atalghan 1931-1932 jyldardaghy ashtyq turaly mәlimetter 80-shi jyldardyng ortasynda býkilodaqtyq, respublikalyq  merzimdi baspasóz betterinde jaryq kóre bastady. Tarihshy ghalymdar múraghat qorlaryndaghy qúpiya qorlardaghy qújattardy izdep, zerttep, saralap kópshilik qauymgha kenestik әmirshildik-әkimshildik jýie kezindegi asharshylyq turaly derekterdi jariyalay bastady.

Búl zúlmat jyldardy batys zertteushisi Dj Bekker «Qazaqtardyng birneshe úrpaqtarynyng esinde jazylmaytyn jara bolyp újymdastyru jәne onyng saldarynan bolghan 1931-1932 jyldardaghy asharshylyq turaly estelik qaldy»,-dep jazdy.

Kenes qoghamyndaghy ózgerister ótken ghasyrdyng 20-30-shy jyldary qalyptasqan әmirshildik-әkimshildik jýiening qyspaghymen, halyqtyng belgili bir bóligin qúrban etu arqyly iske asyryldy. Búl әsirese jer mәselesinde, auyl sharuashylyghyn újymdastyru negizinde qayta qúru sayasatynda aiqyn kórindi.  HH ghasyrdyng 30-shy jyldardaghy tarihy oqighalardy múraghat qújattary arqyly zerdeleu býgingi kýnning ózekti mәselelerining biri. Múraghattardaghy qúndy tarihy qújattardy saralap jәne zerdelep, zertteu arqyly tarihy ýderisti týsinu býgingi tandaghy basty mәsele. Ashtyq turaly esepter men statistikalyq derekter, qughyn-sýrginge úshyraghan qazaq ziyalylarynyng enbekteri, korrespondensiyalary kimdermen qarym-qatynasta bolghandyghy turaly materialdar búrynghy Qauipsizdik Komiytetine týsken, odan keyin qaytarylmaghan. Tipti búl organgha qaghaz betine týsken qazaq shejirelerine deyin aldyrylyp, olardan kim súltan, kimning biy-batyr bolghandyghy jóninde mәlimetter jinastyrylghan. Asharshylyq, qughyn-sýrgin tarihyna qatysty kóptegen qújattar men materialdar týrli vedomostvolardyng qoymalarynda qaldyryldy. Al, olardyng kópshiligi Últtyq Qauipsizdik Komiyteti, Bas Prokuratura, Ishki ister ministrligi múraghattarynda  saqtaluda.

Ukrain tarihshysy L.Protasova Ukrainadaghy 30-shy jyldardaghy asharshylyqqa kinәlilerding aty atalyp, jariya bolghandyghyn, Golodomordyng halyqaralyq dәrejede moyyndalghanyn mәlimdegen bolatyn.  Al biz de búl mәsele kýn tәrtibinde ótkir kýiinde qalyp otyr degen pikirdemiz. Asharshylyq aqiqatyna janasha kózqaras el tarihy ýshin, bolashaq úrpaq ýshin de kerek ekendigi kózi ashyq, kókiregi oyau kópshilik qauymgha belgili.

Qazaqstandaghy asharshylyq jyldary ólgenderding sany turaly әrtýrli derekter bar, mysaly «Qazaqstan Últtyq ensiklopediyasynda» ashtyq qúrbandary turaly 1926, 1937 jyldardaghy halyq sanaghynda olqylyqtar jiberilgendigi, sonyng saldarynan asharshylyqtaghy adam shyghyny dәl anyqtaugha kedergi keltirip, әrtýrli pikirlerding óresteuine sebep bolghandyghy әdil atap ótiledi jәne  1931-1933 jyldardaghy ashtyq qúrbandary 2 mln 200 myng adamnan asyp týsti delindi. Baspasóz betterinde 2,5 mln (Altyn Orda gazeti 9 aqpan, 2012), 3 mln (Altyn Orda gazeti, 2012), 3 mln 250 myng (Ayqyn gazeti, 7 sәuir, 2012), 2 mln 300 myng (Egemen Qazaqstan, 25 sәuir, 2012), 2,7 mln (Ayqyn gazeti, 4 mamyr, 2012) adam degen mәlimetter kórsetiledi. Ashtyq nәubeti qúrbandarynyng sany búl mәsele tereng zerttelip, saralanghan sayyn kóbeymese, azaymaydy.

Qazaq ólkesin basqarghan F.IY.Goloshekinning 1925-1933 jyldardaghy sayasatyn L.D.Troskiy: «Goloshekin orys derevnyalarynda әleumettik kelisimdi uaghyzdap,  al qazaq auyldarynda azamattyq soghysty qozdyruda»,-dep sipattady. 1932 jyly jazushy M.Sholohovtyng «hutorlarda әidik soghys jýrip ótti» dep jazuynda ashy da bolsa shyndyq jatyr.

F.IY.Goloshekinning Ortalyq Komiytetke jazghan mәlimdemesinde «qazaqtardyng kollektivti sharuashylyqqa ótuding erekshe qiyn jәne kýrdeli jaghdayynda tirshilik etuge qabiletsizdiginde... Búl qojalyqtar ózderining mal basyn joyyp, bir bóligin memlekettik dayyndaulargha ótkizip, bir bóligin jyrtqyshtyqpen joyda»,-dep jazdy. F.IY.Goloshekin kollektivtendiru kezindegi asyra silteudi, sholaq belsendilerding solaqay sayasatyn, mal dayyndau mýmkindigi eskerilmey josparsyz jasalghanyn mýldem qaperine de almaydy.

Kenes ýkimetining jýrgizgen sayasatynyng nәtiyjesinde ata-baba tarihynda myndaghan jyldary boyy kóship-qonyp jýrgen, jeke mal sharuashylyghymen ainalysqan halqymyzdyng túrmysyna kýrdeli betbúrys jasaldy. Kenes ókimetining alghashqy jyldarynda qolgha alghan sayasatynyng biri kóshpeli halyqtardy otyryqshylyqqa ainaldyru, ol ýshin әldilerdi tәrkileu isi qolgha alyndy.

Áldi sharuashylyqtardy tәrkileu halyqty jappay asharshylyqqa alyp kelgen jaghdaydyng alghy sharttarynyng biri dep qarastyrugha bolady. 1928 jyldyng 27 tamyzynda Qazaq AKSR Ortalyq Atqaru Komiyteti men Halyq Komissarlar Kenesining «Iri baylar sharuashylyghy men jartylay  feodaldardy sharuashylyghyn konfiskasiyalau men jer audaru» dekreti qabyldandy. Búl dekret boyynsha baylar men jartylay feodaldardyn  mal-mýlki, baylyghy tәrkilenip, ózderi otbasymen birge jer audarugha jatty. Konfeskeleu turaly zang boyynsha maly, dýnie mýlki tәrkilenip, ózi jer audarylugha tiyisti iri baylar men jartylay feodaldardyng qataryna kóshpeli audandarda maly 400-den asatyn (iri qaragha shaqqanda), jartylay kóshpeli audandarda 300-den asatyn, otyryqshy jerlerde 150, keyde 100 maly bar súltandar men handardyng úrpaqtary, el biylegen bolystar, atqaminerler jatqyzyldy. Osy dekret negizinde sol jyldyng kýzinde qazaq ólkesinde 696 iri bay, jartylay feodaldardyng mal-mýlki tәrkilenip, zorlyqpen tartyp alyndy. Baylardy tәrkileu ýlken zúlymdyqpen ayausyz jýrgizildi. Bir ókinishtisi baylardyng qatarynda solaqay sayasattyng nәtiyjesinde kóptegen orta sharualar da qosylyp ketip, tәrkeleuge úshyrady.

Konfeskeleu nauqany Atyrau ólkesining barlyq audandaryn sharpydy. Múraghat derekterinde ólkemizdegi ashtyq turaly mәlimetter óte az saqtalghan. Qazaqstan Respublikasy Preziydenti múraghaty qorynda Atyrau oblysymen qatar basqa da oblystardaghy konfiskasiyanyng qalay jýrgizilgeni turaly qújattar saqtalghan. Búrynghy Guriev okruginde baylardy tәrkeleu 1928 jyldyng 6 qyrkýieginde bastalghan. Okrug aumaghynda iri baylardyng mal, dýnie mýlkin tәrkileu maqsatynda 5 adamnan qúrylghan okrugtik komissiya qúrylghan. Komissiya qúramyna tómendegi ókilder endi.

  • J.Mynbaev – Komissiya tóraghasy, Ortalyq Atqaru Komiytetining ókili.
  • Martynov – Komissiya mýshesi, Memlekettik sayasy basqarma (GPU) bastyghy.
  • Jiyenbaev – Komissiya mýshesi, jerge ornalastyru bóliminen.
  • Saghyndyqov – «Qosshy» Odaghynyng tóraghasy, mýshe.
  • Tóreshev – Jer-orman basqarmasy tóraghasy, mýshe.
  • Dauylbaev – Okrug prokurory (kenesshi dauyspen).

Barlyq audandarda komissiyalar qúrylyp, tәrkileu júmystaryn jýrgizgen.

Mysaly, Novobogat audany boyynsha qúrylghan komissiya qúramyna nazar audarsaq:

  • Qarpyqov – Okrug atqaru komiytetining ókili, BKP(b) mýshesi.
  • Dýisekeshov – Audandyq atqaru komiytetining ókili.
  • Bogaudinov – «Qosshy» Odaghynyng ókili.
  • Omaraliyev – «Qosshy» Odaghynyng ókili.
  • T.Aldongharov – Audandyq jer bóliminen.
  • Shalqarov – Qarjy bóliminen, BKP(b) mýshesi ) [2, 43 p.].

Qúrylghan komissiyalar audandar aumaghyndaghy iri baylardy tәrkileu júmysyna qatysyp, auyldarda týsinik, ýgit-nasihat júmystaryn jýrgizdi.

Zang boyynsha tәrkileu turaly sheshimdi auyldyng kedey-malshylarynyng jiyny anyqtady. Al, baylardan tәrkilengen mal kolhozdardyng mýlkine ainaldy. Bastapqy da Qazaq ólkelik komiyteti Guriev okrugi boyynsha 40 sharuashylyqty, onyng 35-in 1 topqa, 5-uin 2 topqa jatqyzyp tәrkileudi josparlaghan.

Atyrau oblysy boyynsha tәrkileuge úsynghan iri baylar turaly mәlimetti tómendegi kesteden bayqaugha bolady. Kórsetilgen tizim boyynsha Atyrau jerinde barlyghy 24 bay tәrkileuge jatqyzylghan [2, 51 p.].

 

Tegi, aty-jóni Sanaty Sharuashylyghyndaghy mal sany (iri qaragha ainaldyrghanda)
1928 j.1 qantaryndaghy mәlimet boyynsha Teksergen kezdegi mәlimet boyynsha Tәrkileu uakytynda
Jamanqala audany
1.Begaliyev Syraly
 

 

 

1

 

 

 

440

 

 

 

309

 

 

 

216

Esbol audany

1. Mameshev Mayqy

 

 

1

 

 

310

 

 

389

 

 

350

Novobogat audany

1.Ismaghúlov Smadiyar

2.Bisaliyev Arystan

3.Mamekov Qajyghaliy

4.Jarmaghambetov Erghaliy

5.Omarov Mayran

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

2

 

 

 

320

 

350

 

305

 

290

 

160

 

 

 

325

 

223

 

311

 

360

 

233

 

 

 

192

 

169

 

98

 

202

 

149

Qyzylqogha audany

1.Kemesaev Baytileu

2.Mendaliyev Demeu

3.Júmabaev Dýzelbay

4.IYgilikov Áljan

5.Júldyzov Júmaghúl

6.Eleubaev Babas

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

2

 

2

1

 

 

 

250

 

348

 

686

 

225

 

90

750

 

 

 

730

 

356

 

824

 

50

 

92

277

 

 

 

610

 

287

 

684

 

40

 

62

115

Dossor audany

1.Núrjanov Sarjan

2.Bekmurzin Qazbek

3.Ýmbetaliyev Jaqsyghaliy

4.Baetov Ermaghambet

5.Júbaniyazov Qapu

6.Ayjigitov Amansha

7.Qojaghúlov Amanbay

8.Qojaghúlov Jamanbay

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

2

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

433

 

300

 

419

 

392

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

 

435

 

307

 

301

 

141

 

368

 

355

 

316

 

304

 

 

384

 

153

 

238

 

99

 

230

 

238

 

128

 

132

Teniz audany

1.Tanashev Qúsayyn

2.Qúrmanbaev Qayyrly

3.Saliyev Júmaghaliy

 

 

2

 

2

 

1

 

 

170

 

130

 

-

 

 

70

 

60

 

170

 

 

49

 

51

 

110

Alghashqy bekitilgen tizimnen tómendegi bay sharuashylyqtary alynyp tastalghan [2, 50 artqy p.].

Tegi, aty-jóni Sanaty Sharuashylyghyndaghy mal sany (iri qaragha ainaldyrghanda)
Bastapqy mәlimet boyynsha Songhy mәlimet boyynsha
Qyzylqogha audany

1.Esbolghanov Biysenbay

2.Janaysov Izbasar

3.Myrzaghaliyev Jaqsyghaliy

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

420

 

410

 

340

 

 

 

138

 

102

 

100

Teniz audany

1.Áliyev Ótepqaliy

 

1

 

 

400

 

 

46

Dossor audany

1.Qaraqúlov Shoqan

2.Jaqsybaev Jaqsyghaliy

 

1

 

1

 

 

457

 

534

 

 

224

 

198

Baylardy tәrkileu júmysy әr audanda jýrgizilip, jiyndar ótkizilip, baylardyng is әreketteri osy jiyndarda әshkerlendi. Mysaly Novobogat auylynda Jarmaghanbetov Erghaliyding (aqyn Hamit Erghaliyevting әkesi) mal mýlkin tәrkileu barysynda ótken jiynda kedey Jaqyp Jantaziyev sóilegen sózinde «Bay E.Jarmaghambetov 1916 jyly starshyn bolyp túrghan kezinde ózin tyldyng qara júmysyna tirkeu tizimine jazghanyn jәne odan bir ógiz, 5 rubi aqsha berip, yaghny para berip qalghanyn jәne bir maya shóp alghanyn» bayanday kelip, tap jau retinde tәrkileudi úsynghan [2, 46 p.]. Ony ortasha Bekmúhamedov qoldaghan. Qanbaqty auylynda Ismaghúlov Smadiyar atty baydyng dýniyesin tәrkileu barysynda Demen Kóbusynov 1916 jyly patsha ýkimeti organdaryna qazaq jigitterin tyl júmysyna alugha kómekteskenin jәne Uaqytsha ýkimet organdaryna materialdyq kómek kórsetkenin aitqan. Baydyng baqtashysy Sýndet Aldabergenovtyng ayaghy ýsip, mýgedek bolyp qalghan kezde emdelu ýshin kómek súraghan tústa, Smadiyar Ismaghúlovtyng sabaghanyn jetkize otyryp, ózining malyn Dauytov degenning atyna jazghanyn jәne bólshektep taratqanyn, salyqtan jaltarghanyn, tәrkileuden 95 qoyyn jasyrghanyn jiyn barysynda habardar etken [2, 47 p.]. Novobogat audany Begaydar auylynda jergilikti túrghyndar bay Júmaghaly Janghojindi qorghap sóilep, eldi aq bandylardan qorghaghanyn algha tartyp tәrkileuge qarsylyqtaryn bildirgen bolsa, al Arystanghaly Bisaliyevti 67 adam qol qoyyp, úiymshyldyqpen qorghaghan [1, 48 artqy p.]. Osy audannyng Qanbaqty auyldyq Kenesining tóraghasy Yqylasov pen audandyq komissiyanyng ókili T.Aldongharov baylar S.Ismaghúlov jәne M.Omarovtyng maldaryn әdeyi taratqandary ýshin isteri sotqa berilip, qyzmetterinen shettetildi [2, 55 p.].

Barlyq audandarda baylardyng mal-mýlkin tәrkileu barysynda jiyndar ótkizilip, kedeyler tarapynan qoldau tapqanyn múraghat qújattary naqtylay týsedi.

Degenmen de baylardy tәrkileudi býkil halyq qoldady desek artyq aitqandyq bolar edi. Onyng mysaly retinde myna bir derekterge sýiensek te bolady. Teniz audanynda ótken júmysshylardyng jalpy jiynynda № 30 memlekettik balyq tresining esepshisi Apolihin komissiya ókilderining júmystaryn tonaushylyq dep baghalap, júmysshylar men kedeylerdi tәrkileuge qarsy bolugha ashyq shaqyrghan [2, 48 p.]. Keyin ol jauapqa tartylghan. Sóitip ólkemizde baylardy tәrkileuding nәtiyjesinde ata qonysynan 24 baydyng 20-sy Petropavlskige, Qazaqstan territoriyasynan tysqary jerge – 3, okrug aimaghynan tys jerge túrghylyqty jerdi tandau qúqyghymen – 1 adam jer audaryldy [2, 52 artqy p.]. Qazaqstan aimaghynan tys jerge Teniz audanynan tәrkileuge úshyraghan Q.Tanashev, Q.Qúrmanbaev jәne Qyzylqogha audanynan J.Júldyzov aidaldy. Sonymen qatar әkimshilik kýshteu arqyly Novobogat audanynyng baylary  M.Omarov jәne S.Ismaghúlov jer audaryldy [2, 53 p.].

Atyrau ólkesi boyynsha tәrkileuden týsken maldar esebinen 24 kolhoz úiymdastyryldy. Alayda baylardyng aldymen jerin, odan sony maly men auyl sharuashylyq qúral-jabdyqtaryn tartyp alu tiyisti nәtiyje bermedi, kerisinshe kedey sharuashylyqtaryn nyghaytu isi úzaqqa sozylyp ketti. Baylardyng dýniye-mýlkin tәrkileu barysynda kóptegen jaghdaylarda adam qúqy men zandylyqtyng óreskel búzyluyna jol berildi. Qazaq últyna jasalghan osynau nәubetke sayasy bagha berilui tarih aldyndaghy adaldyq bolmaq.

Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter men derekter

1. Kollektivizasiya seliskogo hozyaystva Kazahstana (1926-1941gg.).  -Alma-Ata., 1967. - T. I-II. – 957s.

2. Qazaqstan Respublikasy Preziydenti múraghaty 141 qor, 1tizbe, 2058 is, 195 p.

Aqqaly Ahmet, H.Dosmúhamedov atyndaghy Atyrau memlekettik uniyversiyteti, tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, dosent

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