Júma, 4 Jeltoqsan 2020
COVID-19 QAZAQSTANDA. Júqtyrghandar — 133887. Jazylghandar — 118004. Qaytys bolghandar — 1990
Qogham 6251 0 pikir 9 Aqpan, 2015 saghat 11:37

QAZAQ AUYLSYZ TIRShILIK KEShE ALA MA?

Bizding qazirgi osal jerimiz osy – auyl túrghynyn kedeyshilikke dushar etip otyrmyz. Biz auyldyng namysyn ayaqqa taptadyq.

Qoghamnyng damu zandylyghyna baylanysty sharualar әrqashan da memleketting damytushy kýshi, әri eng senimdi tiregi bolyp keldi. Talay-talay soghystardyng qiyn jyldarynda sharualar birinshi bolyp, qoldaryna aiyr-kýrekterin alatyn, qashanda olardyng otany ózderi túryp jatqan sol qara jerden bastalady. Al beybit ómir bastalghaly beri, olar ertemen túryp, birinshi bolyp ózderi saylaghan kandidatqa dauystaryn berip, tezirek egistiktegi júmysyna asyghatyn. Sóite túra, ózi tandaghan kandidat joghary jaqta otyryp, ózin eshqashan aldamaytynyna ol kәmil senetin.

Mine, naq osy patriottyq senimdilik pen qarapayymdylyq, tózimdilik, tipti moyynsúnushylyq auyl adamynyng boyyna bitken tabighy qasiyeti edi. Al ýkimet bolsa, tarihy derekterde jazylghanday, kedey sharuanyng osy bir dildik qasiyetin ýnemi óz ynghayyna qaray qoldanyp, keyde tipti sheksiz óreskeldikpen paydalanyp keldi. Onyng ýstine qoghamnyng basqa ókilderine qaraghanda, auyl adamdaryn tózimdilik saqtaugha, qanday jaghday bolsa da shyday túrugha jiyirek shaqyrushy edi. Al qoghamnyng osynau bir әleumettik-ekonomikalyq qiylysyndaghy ózgeristerding damu baghyty ylghy da birjaqty bolady.

Bizding auyldardyng býgingi túrmys-tirshiligi turaly jazudyng ózi – óte qiyn mәsele. Al ómirining jartysynan kóp uaqytyn agrarlyq sektorda qyzmet etuge arnaghan men ýshin búl – eki ese qiyn. Tap-tamasha gýldenip otyrghan auyl sharuashylyghyn joghaltyp alghanymyz – osy kýnge deyin mening moynyma týsken auyr jýk sekildi qabyrghamdy qayystyrady. Onyng ýstine elimiz túrghyndarynyng 45%-y sol qanyrap qalghan auyldarda ólmesting kýnin keshude.

Osynday sәtte sonau HVIII ghasyrda orystyng belgili sayahatshysy A.Radiyshevting «Mәskeuden Peterborgha sayahat» atty ataqty shygharmasynda jazghan joldary eske týsedi. Ol orys derevnyalaryndaghy mújyqtardyng auyr әri tegin enbegin, olardyng júpyny, kýiki tirligin mynaday sózdermen óte qatang suretteydi: «Men jan-jaghyma qaradym – sol sәtte mening ishki dýniyem adamzattyng qayghy-qasiretimen qorlandy».

Radiyshevting dәl osy kitaby sol kezding ózinde reseylik aqsýiekterdi dýr silkindirgen edi. Sonyng arqasynda Reseyde auyl sharuashylyq reformalary qabyldanyp, zemstvolar qúryla bastady. Eng bastysy – auyl túrghyny shyn mәninde ózi túrghan jerining qojayynyna ainaldy. Mine, sonyng nәtiyjesinde bir kezderi damuy jaghynan artta qalghan Resey Europany astyqpen qamtamasyz etushi aldynghy qatarly damushy el bolyp shygha keldi.

Býgingi kýni kóptegen avtorlar auyldyng tirshiligin óte auyr, abdyraghan, qúrdymgha ketkendey qylyp suretteydi. Eng ókinishtisi – eger de salystyra aitatyn bolsaq, bizding arqa sýier atqaminerlerding arasynda osyghan syn taghar, toqtau aitar birde-bir iri túlgha tabylmady. Biz tabighy baylyghymyz ben mýmkindikterimiz barshylyq agrarly elmiz. Osydan 20–30 jyl búryn túrghyndardyng 60%-y bolashaqqa nyq senimmen, emin-erkin auyldy jerde ómir sýrdi. Sol kezde auyl túrghyndarynda dәl qazirgidey kedeyshilik degen bolghan joq edi. Ol kezding sýiikti úrandarynyng biri: «Auyl jәne qala túrghyndarynyng ómir sýru dengeyin tenestiru!» degenning ózi az da bolsa kýshinde túrdy. Alayda múnyng bәri mening emosiyalyq sezimimning bir kórinisi ghana.

1991 jyly elde jappay jekeshelendiru júmystary bastaldy. Sol kezde men Qaratal audandyq atqaru komiyteti tóraghasynyng orynbasary edim. Audanda jekeshelendiru men ekonomikalyq ózgeristerdi engizu júmystaryna basshylyq etu maghan jýkteldi. Janadan shyqqan zandar men qújattar bastan asady. Júmys óte qyzyqty jýretindey bolyp kórindi. Eng aldymen audandaghy túrghyn ýilerdi jekeshelendiruden bastadyq.

Qoldaghy bar qújatty oqyp, onyng sharttarymen jәne aldaghy júmysymyzdyng mәnimen, onyng naryqtaghy nәtiyjesimen tanysqannan keyin, men elde múnday jekeshelendiru jýrgizuge ýzildi-kesildi qarsylyghymdy bildirdim. Búl jekeshelendiruding nәtiyjesinde auyl túrghyny ekonomikalyq shyghyngha úshyraytyny aidan anyq bolghan edi. Men óz taldaularymda kózim jetkeni: qalalyq pәterlerding naryqtyq qúnynyng auyldyq jerlerdegi túrghyn ýilerding naryqtyq qúnynan on ese aiyrmashylyghy boldy, әri ol auyl túrghyndaryn birneshe ese shyghyngha úshyratty. Mysaly, sol kezde auyldy jerdegi ortasha statistikalyq ýsh bólmeli pәterding naryqtyq qúny 2–3 myng AQSh dollary túratyn. Audan ortalyghy – Ýshtóbede ol 3–5 myng dollargha әreng jetetin. Al oblys ortalyghy – Taldyqorghan qalasynda búl soma 6–7 myng dollargha, Almaty qalasynda – 15 myng dollargha deyin jetip jyghylatyn. (Búl jerde, әriyne, 1991 jylghy naryq baghasy keltirilip túr).

Jekeshelendiru kezindegi eng basty shart – jalpy enbek ótili (trudovoy staj) esepke alynatyn. Nәtiyjesinde ortasha auyl túrghyny jekeshelendirilgen pәterge ie bolghany siyaqty qalalyq túrghyn da pәterge ie bolghan kezde, eger de ekeuining enbek ótili birdey bolsa, auyl túrghyny qalalyq túrghyngha qaraghanda 5–10 ese jelinip qaldy. Mine, jogharydaghy men aitqan qújattarda auyl men qala túrghyny arasyndaghy osynday tensizdik taygha tanba basqanday kórinip túrdy.

Men osy әdiletsiz әleumettik tensizdik jayyndaghy óz oiymdy barlyq esepterim men taldaularymdy keltire otyryp, 1991 jyly «Kazahstanskaya pravda» gazetinde ashyq aittym. Alayda resmy oryndardan eshqanday jauap bolmady. Tek jalghyz eks-deputat T.Kvyatkovskaya ghana sol gazet arqyly maghan syn aityp, mening sol úsynystarymdy «pessimistik kózqaras» dep tapty. Al qalalyq ministrliktegi sheneunikter men zang oryndary auyl túrghynynyng aitqandaryna qúlaq aspady, óitkeni, sol jekeshelendiruden olardyng auyzdary maylanyp, qaltalary qalynday týsken edi. Esesine, men óz basshylarymnan «bos sózdi qoyyp, jekeshelendirumen naqty ainalysu kerek» degen synayda eskertu aldym.

Áriyne, mәseleni sheship, onymen júmys istegennen góri, tynysh qana búiryqty oryndap jýre bergen әldeqayda onay. Sóitip, men Qaratal audandyq atqaru komiytetining audandaghy túrghyn ýilerdi jekeshelendiru turaly sheshimin dayyndaugha kiristim. Búl qújatqa biz Ýshtóbe qalasyndaghy túrghyn ýiler qúnynyng eng jogharghy koeffisiyentin (1,25) jәne auyldyq jerdegi túrghyn ýiler qúnynyn, kerisinshe, eng tómengi koeffisiyentin (0,75) engizdik. Osylaysha biz tym bolmasa osy audandaghy tensizdikti jongha tyrystyq. Al múnday koeffisiyentterdi engizuge bizge sol kezdegi zang mýmkindik bergen edi.

Alayda, keyinnen maghan belgili bolghanday, jekeshelendiru kezinde bolghan әleumettik әdiletsizdikti osynday әdispen sheshuge tyrysqan azghantay ghana toptyng biri – Qaratal audany bolypty. Bizding osy mәsele jónindegi adal sheshimderimizdi keyinnen naryq zandylyghy men ómirding shyndyghy ózi dәleldep berdi. Mysaly, 2007 jyly túrghyn ýy baghasy, mening jazbalarym boyynsha, mynaday edi: mening tughan jerim – Jambyl oblysynyng Moyynqúm audanynda ýsh bólmeli ortasha pәterding qúny alys auyldarda – 1-2 myng dollar, oblys ortalyghy Taraz qalasynda – 45–50 myng dollar, al Almatyda – 100–150 AQSh dollary boldy. Búdan shyghatyn qorytyndy: bir-birine sәikes jaghdayda auyldaghy Myrqymbay (Janbyrbaev) astanalyq Sidorovqa 100 esege útylyp qaldy.

Al býgingi kýni kez kelgen azamat ózining jekeshelendirip alghan pәteri auylda, audan ortalyghynda, oblys ortalyghynda jәne astanalyq qalalarda qansha túratynyn ózi eseptep shygharyp, osy әleumettik әdiletsizdik pen aiyrmashylyqty óz kózimen kóre alady. Al endi túrghyn ýilerdi jekeshelendiru saldarynan auyl túrghyny audan túrghynyna 4–5 esege, oblys ortalyghy túrghynyna 30–40 esege, al Astana men Almaty siyaqty iri qalalar túrghynyna tipti 100 eseden de joghary payyz útylyp qalghany bagha dinamikasynyng jalpy sheshiminen kórinedi. Dәl sol jyldarda auyldyq jerlerde respublika túrghyndarynyng 60%-y ómir sýrip, olar negizinen memleket qúrushy etnostyng ókilderi bolghany aitpasa da týsinikti.

Mine, osynyng bәrine mynaday negizde qorytyndy jasaugha bolady: býgingi kýngi naryq jaghdayynda auyl túrghyny ýshin múnyng bәri kýtpegen әdiletsizdik pen әleumettik-ekonomikalyq tensizdik ekeni anyq; biz ózimizding osy qylyghymyzben auyl túrghynyn birneshe mәrte ekonomikalyq shyghyngha (30–100 ese) dushar etip, olardyng ar-namysyn ayaqqa taptap tastadyq.

Ókinishke qaray, 90-jyldardaghy túrghyn ýy qorynyng mәlimetteri mende joq. Alayda túrghyn ýy kólemining adam basyna shaqqandaghy sol jyldarghy ortasha esebi boyynsha, auyl túrghynynyng qanshalyqty útylyp qalghanyn eseptep shygharu op-onay. Mysaly, 1991 jyly elde túratyn halyq sany 16,7 mln adam bolyp, onyng 60%-y auyldy jerlerde túrdy. Al endi túrghyn ýilerding 2007 jylghy baghasynyng negizinde, bizding esebimiz boyynsha, jalpy auyl túrghyny jekeshelendiruding saldarynan 95–98 mlrd AQSh dollaryn joghaltyp aldy. Búl kórsetkish Qazaqstannyng 2007 jylghy IJÓ-ne ten. Ony auyldaghy әrbir túrghyngha esepteytin bolsaq, 9,8 mlrd AQSh dollary kóleminde bolyp shyghady. Mine, dәl osy somany auyldaghy әrbir túrghyn jekeshelendiru nәtiyjesinde joghaltyp aldy.

Degenmen, sol jyldargha qayta oralayyq. Jekeshelendirumen qatar sovhozdar men kolhozdardy, basqa da memlekettik mekemelerdi taratu júmystary bastaldy. Bizding audandyq komissiyagha «Novyy miyr», «Bayshegir» jәne «Qorjynkól» sovhozdaryn taratu jónindegi qújattardy dayyndau jýkteldi.

Áriyne, komissiya odan basqa da nysandardy qarastyrdy. Ásirese Ýshtóbe et kombinaty, audandyq arnayy jemis-jiydek bazasy, monsha-kir juatyn keshen jәne t. b. Jekeshelendiruge úsynylghan nysandardyng tehnika-ekonomikalyq kórsetkishterin jiktey kele, komissiyanyng tóraghasy retinde auyldyq túrghyndardyng útylyp qalghanyna taghy da kuәger boldym. Mysaly, auyldyq nysandardyng qúnyn baghalaghan kezde oghan qatysty ainalymdaghy qor da baghalanuy tiyis edi (shóp, jem, túqym, t. b.). Óitkeni, múnyng bәri adamnyng qolymen jasalady emes pe?!

Eng qyzyghy – esep boyynsha, sovhozdardyng jabdyqtaluy myqty-myqty qúral-jabdyqtarmen, stanoktarmen jәne kýrdeli mehanizmdermen jaraqtandyrylghan ózi sekildi qalalyq nysandargha qaraghanda 2–4 ese tómen bolyp shyqty. Onyng ýstine, tipti túrghan jerin aitpaghannyng ózinde, qalanyng negizgi qory әri ishki qúrylymdary anaghúrlym jaqsy jaghdayda edi. Mine, osynyng saldarynan jekeshelendiru kezinde taghy da әdiletsizdikter men tensizdikter bolyp, auyl adamy qalalyq túrghyngha qaraghanda 4–6 esege útylyp qaldy. Dәl osy mәselege men ózimshe zertteu jýrgizip, onyng nәtiyjeleri jayly osy taqyrypta jazylghan maqalamdy keyinnen «Kazahstanskaya pravda» gazetinde jariyaladym.

Alayda búl joly da tiyisti oryndardan resmy naqty jauap bolmady. Tek qús birlestigining bas diyrektory Koviniko mening keltirgen sheshimderime sol gazet arqyly qoldau kórsetken bolatyn. Al oblys basshylarynan men taghy da kezekti eskertuimdi aldym.

1991–92 jyldarghy jekeshelendiru kezinde býkil el boyynsha 490 sovhoz jekeshelendirilip, auyldaghy әrbir túrghyngha tiyesili jer telimi qosa bólinip berildi. Sodan bastap úsaq tauarly, sapasy tómen kishigirim óndirister elde jauynnan keyingi sanyrauqúlaqtay qaptap ketti. Ýkimet tarapynan búl ýrdiske eshqanday baqylau bolmaghandyqtan, barlyghy da josparsyz, óz betinshe jýrgizildi. Sóitip, az ghana uaqyttyng ishinde auyl sharuashylyghy qúldyrap shygha keldi.

Al 90-jyldardyng orta shenine taman biz óz ónimimizdi eksporttap otyrghan agrariylerding sanatynan birden tek qana importtyq ónimmen kýn kóretinder qataryna kóshtik. Sóite túra, elding qazba baylyqtaryn ondy-soldy ayausyz shashyp, ústaghannyng qolynda, tistegenning auzynda jiberdik.

Al odan keyingi uaqytta jekeshelendiru ózge baghytqa ie bolyp, halyq odan aqyryn-aqyryn ysyryla bastady. Endi iri-iri aqshaly-nesiyeli, bayly-túyaqty jalghan atqaminerler oiyngha qosyldy. Solardyng saldarynan oryn alghan ekonomikalyq daghdarystyng sazayyn halyq osy kýnge deyin tartyp keledi. Ol turaly, әriyne, әngime basqa.

Mine, osynday jekeshelendiruding jalpy nәtiyjesi retinde auyl túrghynynyng ekonomikalyq ta, әleumettik te dәrejesining tómendegenin aitugha bolady. Óitkeni, qay jaghynan alyp qarasaq ta, auyl adamy edәuir útylyp qaldy. Áriyne, búl jerde biz jekeshelendirudi qayta qarau kerek degen niyetten aulaqpyz. Auyl adamy qashan da, nege bolsa da tózimdi ghoy. Ol, әriyne, ózining aldanghanyn әldeqashan týsingen, sóitip «bolary – boldy» dep, ýkimetke de, memleketke de qolyn bir-aq siltedi.

IYә, shynymen de, bolary – boldy. Endi ol ózining qoly jetpegen qalagha balalaryn jiberip, solardyng kelesheginen ghana zor ýmit kýtip otyr. Al balalary oquyn oqyp, mamandyq alyp, shamalary kelgenshe qalada júmysqa túrugha tyrysyp jatyr. Tipti ne oqugha týse almay, ne eki qolgha bir júmys taba almay sandalghan keybireuleri diny ekstremisterding qatarynan da tabylyp jatyr.

2000 jyldardan bastap memlekette az da bolsa resurstar payda bolyp, aqyryn-aqyryn eldi qalpyna keltiru júmystary bastaldy. Taghy da esepsiz ketken shyghyndar tútas bir oblystyng budjetining ar jaq-ber jaghyna jetip artylady. Tek bir ghana Astananyng qúrylysyna ketip jatqan qarjy týpsiz túnghiyqqa qúiylyp jatqanday.

Mysaly, 2013 jylghy túrghyn ýy qúrylysy qoryn alayyq. Osy jyly jalpy respublika boyynsha qoldanugha berilgen túrghyn ýy kólemining 28,2 %-y tek Astana men Almaty qalalarynda salynghan. El halqynyng 4,67%-y túraqtaytyn Astana qalasynda 1,1 mln sharshy metr nemese jalpy respublika boyynsha túrghyn ýy kólemining 16%-y qoldanysqa berilgen, búl orta eseppen alghandaghy kórsetkishten 4 ese kóp.

Áriyne, múnda jeke menshik investorlardyng ýlesi óte joghary, degenmen qalalar da ózderining әleumettik qúrylystar men ishki qúrylymdargha arnalghan qarjylaryn mektepter men balabaqshalar salugha júmsady. Alayda әleumettik qúrylysty basqa ólshemde kórginiz kelse, Astanadan nebary 20–30 shaqyrym jerde ornalasqan auylgha kelseniz boldy. Múnda basqasyn aitpaghanda, tipti auyz su mәselesining ózi - sheshimin tappay kele jatqan ýlken problema. Mysaly, keybir aqparat qúraldarynda aitylghanday, Astananyng neshe týrli mәdeni-oyyn-sauyq sharalaryna halyqtyng qarjysy júmsalatyny belgili. Sonday merekelik is-sharanyng tek bireuin ghana ótkizu ýshin, shaghyn qalanyng tútas bir jyldyq budjetine para-par qarjy júmsalady eken. Eger de is-shara ótkizetin ol qala óz shyghynyn ózi jauyp otyrsa jaqsy ghoy, biraq 16 jasqa tolghanymen, Astanamyz әli kýnge deyin salyq tóleushilerge auyz ashyp otyr.

Qazaqta «balany emshekten shygharu» degen úghym bar. Sol siyaqty biz de Astanany osy kýnge deyin dotasiya men budjetting «emsheginen» ajyrata almay otyrmyz.

Qazaqstannyng barlyq auyldyq eldi mekenderinde jalpy sany 7,7 mln adam túrady, solargha elimizdegi jalpy túrghyn ýy kólemining 20%-nan da az mólsherde túrghyn ýy bólinedi. Búl tek jalghyz ghana Astananyng kórsetkishine teng eken. Onyng ýstine osy 20%-dyng ózin kóbinese jeke qúrylys kompaniyalary qala manyndaghy auyldy jerlerde ghana salady. Sonda biz kimderdi qoldap otyrmyz? Bizdi auyl sharuashylyghy ónimderimen qamtamasyz etip otyrghan enbekshilerdi me, әlde solardyng enbekterin eselep jep otyrghan aramtamaqtardy ma? Eger de mәrtebesi joghary iri qalalar men auyldyq audandardyng budjetin salystyratyn bolsaq, onda, әriyne, qalalyq әrbir túrghynnyng esebi auyl túrghynyna qaraghanda 3–4 esege kóp. Mysaly, Astananyng budjetin onyng әrbir túrghynyna eseptegende shyghatyn soma eldegi audan budjetterin әrbir túrghyngha shaqqandaghydan 3–4 ese kóp.

Al endi búl kórsetkish shetelderde qalay ekenin bilginiz kele me? Qaranyz: Chehiya men Slovakiyada onyng aiyrmashylyghy nebary 1,5–1,8 eseni qúraydy. Ol jaqta auyl túrghynyn 3-súrypty adamdar dep sanamaydy.

Endi kelesi әleumettik tensizdik dep ailyq jalaqyny aitugha bolady. Statistika mәlimeti boyynsha, eldegi ortasha ailyq jalaqy 2014 jyly 116–120 myng tengeni qúrady. Al auyldyq jerlerde búl kórsetkish 54 myng tenge bolyp, ortasha kórsetkishting 53%-yn qúraydy. Al Almaty men Astana qalalarynda búl kórsetkish auyldy jerlerge qaraghanda 3–4 ese kóp. Búl kórsetkish jyldan-jylgha qaytalanyp, auyl túrghynyn eldegi әleumettik kóshten shettetip tastady. Kýndiz-týni qyrda jýrgen eginshi men shelek-shelek sýt sauatyn sauynshyny qashanghy biz osylay kemsite beremiz?! Tipti jogharyda keltirilgen sandardyng ózi – audan boyynsha ortasha alynghan kórsetkish. Olar shyn mәnindegi jaghdaydy tolyq kórsete almaydy.

Búryn Taldyqorghan oblysynyng birqatar auyldyq audandarynda basshylyq qyzmet atqarghan, qazirgi uaqytta «Bostan» sharuashylyq qojalyghynyng diyrektory Gh.Túrghambaevtyng aituynsha, auyl túrghyndarynyng naqty alatyn ailyq jalaqysy 2013 jyly 35–40 myng tengeden aspaghan. Talghar audanyna qarasty «Almaty» plemzavody sauynshylarynyng alatyn ortasha ailyq jalaqysy – búghan tolyq kuә. Olar ózderining demalyssyz jәne meyram kýnderinsiz, ýsh mezgilde isteytin enbekterine ortasha eseppen nebary 25 myng tenge, al sugharushylar – 35 myng tenge alady.

Al Soltýstik Qazaqstan oblysy Ruzaev audanyna qarasty «Birlik» sovhozynyng jeke menshik biday sharuashylyghynyng tәjiriybeli mehanizatorlary nauqan kezinde aiyna 40–60 myng tengeden, al nauqan ayaqtalghannan keyin 25 myng tengeden alady. Sóitip, jylyna shaqqanda, ortasha eseppen ay sayyn 35–40 myng tengeden shyghady.

Býgingi kýni aldynghy qatarly mehanizator aiyna 50–60 myng tenge alady, búl auyl sharuashylyghy ministri A.Mamytbekovting alatyn ailyq jalaqysynan 20 ese az. Mysaly, kenes kezindegi shopan, Sosialistik Enbek Eri, mening moyynqúmdyq jerlesim J.Quanyshbaev ózinen joghary túrghan ministrden әldeqayda kóp ailyq alatyn. Sonda býgingi kýni nan men et óndiruden góri qaghazbastylyqqa kóbirek kónil bólinip otyrghany ma?!

Sondyqtan da qazir biz qauym bolyp birlesip, ne jeytinimiz jayly kelisip aluymyz kerek: auyl sharuashylyq ministrligining bas-ayaghy joq, tolyp jatqan baghdarlamalaryn ba, әlde auyl enbekkerlerining shygharyp jatqan ónimderin be? Árqaysysynyng enbegining layyqty baghasyn beru kerek. Búl eshqanday jarnamalau da emes, nemese tenestiru de emes. Al aldynghy qatarly, kórkeygen Norvegiya elinde búl aiyrmashylyq nebary 5–6 ese ghana. Óitkeni, búl soltýstik memleket biz siyaqty emes, ol óz halqyn tek qana óz auyl sharuashylyq ónimderimen qamtamasyz etip otyr.

Auyl túrghyndarynyng tómen ailyq jalaqysy jayly osy keltirilgen mysaldardy elimizding agrarlyq sektoryna jarqyratyp keltire salugha bolady. Al enbekshilerding nauqandyq júmysyn eskeretin bolsaq, búl ailyq kórsetkish keyde birneshe esege tómendeydi. Osy gazette shyqqan O.Sәbden men Gh.Túrghambaev ózderining maqalasynda keltirgendey, bizding elde auyldyq jerdegi júmyssyzdyqtyng naqty kórsetkishi 85–87% qúraydy. Zertteulerding ótken tamyz aiynda kórsetken nәtiyjeleri boyynsha (QazTAG), Qazaqstanda 2,6 mln adam jaldanusyz-aq júmyspen qamtylghan, yaghny ózin-ózi júmyspen qamtyp otyr. Olardyng kópshilik bóligi auyldyq jerlerde shoghyrlanghan – 51,2%. Jeke sauda boyynsha, búl kórsetkish 24%, transportta – 8%, qúrylys boyynsha – 7%-gha ten. Al búlar halyq sanynyng 26%-yn qúraydy, olardyng qúramynda auyl túrghyndary kóp, әsirese jastar jaghy basym.

Naryq mehanizmderi osy mәselelerding bәrin ózi joyyp tastaydy degen ýmitpen osylay kózimizdi júmyp, otyra beremiz be? Olay bolsa, búrynnan naryqtyq ekonomikamen ómir sýrip kele jatqan basqa elderge kóz salayyq.

Mysaly, AQSh-ta auyl sharuashylyghy sektory jalpy budjetting 70%-yn shyghyndaydy, onyng ishine mehanizasiya, infrastruktura jәne arnayy qyzmet kórsetu týrleri (januarlar men ósimdikterding aurularyn emdeu jәne t. b.) enedi. Al endi Europa elderinde múnday jobalargha auyl sharuashylyghy budjetining 40%-y bólinedi. Reseyge qarsy engizilgen sanksiyalardyng nәtiyjesinde, fermerlerding kýni búrynghy shyghyndary ýshin ghana Eurokomissiya 460 mln evro bóldi. Búl europalyq fermerlerding boljamdy shyghyndary ýshin bólingen, bizdinshe 106 mlrd tenge. Qazir Ázerbayjan memleketi auyl enbekkerlerine 2% ósimaqymen nesie berip, ózining agrarlyq mýmkindikterin jetildirip otyr.

Al bizding elimiz osy kýnge deyin «Agrobiznes-2020» dep atalatyn sholaq baghdarlamany mýjip keledi. Jalpy ýkimet te, Auyl sharuashylyghy ministrligi de agrariylerding mәselelerine degen strategiyalyq jedel eleulikti shyn mәninde joghaltyp aldy. Bizge keregi «Agrobiznes-2020» sekildi esh nәtiyjesi joq myndaghan jobalar emes. Bizge naqty keregi – әleumettik te, ekonomikalyq ta, auyl enbekkerlerining kommunaldyq infraqúrylymyn da tolyghymen jan-jaqty qamty alatyn myqty baghdarlama.

Al 1 mln-gha juyq adamdy tómengi dәrejeli enbekpen qamtamasyz etip otyrghan býgingi úsaq tauarly ónerkәsip oryndary elge qajetti ónimdi óndire almay, júmysshylaryna tiyisti ailyq jalaqysyn bere almay otyr. Olardyng qolda bar qúral-saymany – bar-joghy bir kýrek pen bir tyrnauysh qana. Olardaghy kenes zamanynan kele jatqan tehnika degeninizding 70%-y әldeqashan tozyghy jetip bitken. Tipti solardy esepke alghannyng ózinde, akademik Kaygorodsevting mәlimeti boyynsha, býgingi kýni Qazaqstandaghy jyrtylyp, paydalanyp kele jatqan 1000 ga jerge nebary 8,3 traktordan keledi eken. Salystyru ýshin: Italiyada búl kórsetkish – 70, Fransiyada – 85, Germaniyada – 124 traktorgha ten. Al Euraziyalyq ekonomikalyq odaq boyynsha seriktesimiz Belorussiyanyng ózinde 41 traktordan keledi. Tipti kórshi otyrghan Ózbekstanda búl kórsetkish bizdikinen 3 ese kóp bolyp, 23 traktordan kelip túr. Songhy eki elding ekonomikasy bizding elge qaraghanda әldeqayda tómen ekeni belgili. Belorussiyanyng IJÓ-i 2013 jyly adam basyna shaqqanda 7404 dollardy qúrady. Ózbekstanda osy kórsetkish 1852 dollargha ten. Al bizde ol 2013 jyly adam basyna 13 084 dollargha teng boldy.

Qazir el qazynasynda az da bolsa aqsha bar. Nebir jemqorlardan qorghanu ýshin, sodan naqty agrariylerge azdap aqsha bólu kerek. Bir ghana Bergey Rysqaliyevting qylmystyq toby 71 mlrd tengege úrlyq jasaghan. Eger de búl somany traktorgha ainaldyratyn bolsaq, 10 myng dana tehnika shyghady. Endi osyghan Pavlodar men Qaraghandy oblystarynda úrlanghan shyghyndardy qossanyz, eldegi auyl sharuashylyghy tehnikasynyng eki esege úlghayatynyn kóruge bolady. Al endi auyldyq jerdegi mashina-traktorlardy jóndeu, olargha qyzmet kórsetu júmystaryn qanday qarjylyq jolmen jýrgizuge bolady: jenildigi bar maqsatty nesie arqyly ma, nemese lizing arqyly ma? Áriyne, onyng sheshimin tabugha bolady.

Qalay bolghan kýnde de, kreditorlardyng 2%-dyq syiaqysyn joghaltyp almau ýshin, múnday jobalardy memleketting qoldauy arqyly iske asyru kerek. Óitkeni, IJÓ kólemi adam basyna shaqqanda nebary 8165 dollardy qúraytyn Ázerbayjan eli dәl osylay jasap otyrghanda, biz nesiyelendirudi auyl túrghyndarynyng paydasyna qaray kóp payyzdyq shegerispen beruge tolyq mýmkindigimiz bar. Óitkeni, auyl túrghyndaryn qajetti tehnikamen qamtamasyz etpey, biz enbek ónimin ósire almaymyz, onymen qosa sharualargha enbekteri ýshin beriletin syiaqy dengeyin de ósire almaymyz. Sondyqtan da fermerlerdi qyzmetterining manyzdylyghyna oray qoghamnan tysqary shygharyp tastaugha bolmaydy.

Endi taghy da bir mәselege toqtalyp ótuge tura keledi. Osy maqalany dayyndau barysynda biz ónimning naqty baghasyn eseptep shygharu ýshin, fermerlerding tolyq shyghynyn zerttegen bolatynbyz. Tanqalarlyq jәit – auyl sharuashylyghy ónimining shyghynyn eseptegen kezde jerdi gektaryna 200–300 dollardan jalgha beru turaly shyghyn bizge qayta-qayta kezige berdi. Búdan shyghatyn qorytyndy – ol jerlerding qojayyny onda júmys istep jýrgen fermer-sharualar emes, yaghny ol jerlerge jogharyda otyrghan sheneuniksymaq әkim-qaralar qojalyq etedi. Onyng ýstine ózderining attaryn atamaudy ótingen jeke fermerler ol jerlerdi saqtap qalatyndaryna senimsizdik tanytyp otyr. Óitkeni, jergilikti әkim-qaralar men kishigirim sheneunikter barlyq jaqsy-jaqsy jerlerdi ózderi aqyryndap iyemdenip jatyr. Sondyqtan da songhy kezderi audandyq әkimning sheshimimen qoldan-qolgha ótip jatqan jer resurstaryna tekseris jýrgizuding uaqyty әldeqashan tudy. Biz qazir pomeshiyk-latifundisterdi qyzmetine qaray emes, sheneuniktik dәrejesine qaray baghalap, ósirip otyrmyz. Sondyqtan da bizge dereu mynaday zandylyqtar qabyldau kerek: eger de audandyq әkim qyzmetinen ketetin bolsa, onyng istegen qyzmetine, әsirese jana әkimning jer mәselesine qatysty shygharghan sheshimderine dereu tekseris jýrgizu kerek, qazaqsha aitqanda, jaqyn tuysqanbayshylyqtyng týbine balta shabu kerek.

Býgin sonymen qatar auyldy jerlerdi әleumettik túrghyda jetildiru turaly jýieli baghdarlamany jýzege asyru qajet. Onyng ishinde eng aldymen audandyq jerlerde túrghyn ýy qúrylysyna basa nazar audaru kerek. Ásirese «Diplommen – auylgha!» atty baghdarlamamen qyzmetke baratyn jas mamandardy (múghalim, dәriger, agronom jәne t.b.) túrghyn ýimen qamtamasyz etu júmystary qolgha alynuy kerek. Sonday-aq auyldy jerlerdegi sporttyq nysandardy, mәdeniyet oshaqtaryn (klub, biblioteka jәne t. b.) qaytadan jandandyru qajet. Sol ýshin tipti Astana men Almaty qalalarynda 3–4 ghimarat pen oblys ortalyqtaryndaghy birneshe pәterge arnalghan ýlken ghimarat salynbay qalsa da, eshtene etpeydi.

Auyldyq jerlerdi memlekettik Ýdemeli industrialdy-innovasiyalyq baghdarlama boyynsha da jandandyrugha bolady. Ol ýshin, mysaly, osy baghdarlama ayasynda túrghyndary óte tyghyz ornalasqan auyldyq audandarda irimshik, jemis-jiydek konservilerin dayyndaytyn, súiyqmay, et-shújyq, sýt ónimderin shygharatyn 200–300 kishigirim zauyt salugha bolady.

Al QR Investisiya jәne damu ministri Áset IYsekeshev bolsa, múnday úsaq-týiek júmystarmen ainalysqysy kelmey, alyp jobalarmen qúlashyn kenge sermedi. Injenerlik talghamy bolmasa da, IYsekeshev myrza birden planshet jinau zauytyn, fermerlerge arnalghan úshaqtar jinau zauytyn salugha kirisip, sóitip, memlekettik Ýdemeli industrialdy-innovasiyalyq baghdarlamany tas-talqan etti. Osy baghdarlama boyynsha salynghan nysandardyng kópshiligining ghúmyry úzaqqa barmay-aq, ashylghan boyda qaytadan jabylyp qaldy. Solardyng biri – Qaraghandy qalasyndaghy temir-kremniy zauyty.

Al agrariylerge múnday baghdarlamalar auaday qajet. Óitkeni, ol baghdarlama auyl sharuashylyghy shiykizatyn óndeu mәselelerin sheship qana qoymay, osy aitylghan mәselelerding bәrin de jandandyrugha kómektesedi. Onyng ýstine auyl jastaryn júmysqa ornalastyryp, olargha layyqty ailyq jalaqy tóleuge de sep bolar edi.

Sóz sonynda aitarym: kenes kezindegi auyl túrghyndaryna qosymsha ýstemaqy tóleu jýiesin bizge qazir qaytadan janghyrtu kerek. Ol kezde auyldaghy múghalimderge, dәrigerlerge jәne basqa da mamandar men auyl enbekshilerining ailyq jalaqysyna 10% qosymsha ýstemaqy tólenetin. Sonymen qatar olargha otyn, kómir tegin bólinip, elektr energiyasy ýshin tólemaqygha jenildikter jasalushy edi ghoy. Áriyne, qazirgi naryqtyq jaghdaydy syltauratyp, basy artyq qarjynyng joqtyghyn algha tartyp, múnday bastamagha qarsy shyghushylar da tabylady. Olargha biz bylay dep jauap beremiz:

Jekeshelendiru kezinde auyl túrghynynyng qúqyghy búzylyp, olar 100 mlrd dollargha jelinip jatqan kezde, sizder nege bir auyz ýn qatpadynyzdar? Jogharyda aitylghanday, zertteu boyynsha, búl soma bizding elimizding 2007 jylghy IJÓ-ne teng edi.

Elding túrghyn ýy qory halyqtyng kýshimen jasalghan. Jekeshelendiru nәtiyjesi boyynsha, nege tek qalalyq túrghyndar ghana útyp, al auyldyq túrghyndar útylyp qaldy? Sóite túra, joldar men kommunaldyq jelilerimiz dúrys jóndelmegen dep qalalyq túrghyndar osy kýnge deyin ókpeli. Al auyl bolsa, joldar men kommunaldyq jeliler týgili, ishetin taza auyz sugha osy uaqytqa deyin jarymay otyr. Konstitusiya boyynsha biz bәrimiz teng qúqyly emespiz be?! Sondyqtan da sol jekeshelendiru kezindegi aiyrmashylyqty auylgha qaytaratyn uaqyt jetti, әri ony mindetti týrde qaytaruymyz kerek.

Mәsele búl jerde qarjynyng jetispeushiliginde emes. Búl jerde mәsele әri strategiyalyq, әri etnikalyq boljamda bolyp túr. Biz auyl túrghyndarynyng qayrat-jigerin, oqu-bilimin elding qajetine tolyghymen paydalanbay, olardy naryqtyq zamannyng aghymyna óz betterinshe damugha iytere salghanymyz týbinde ózimizge shoqpar bolyp tiymesine kim kepil?! Tipti qazirding ózinde sonyng zardabyn tartyp kele jatyrmyz.

Bizding kishkene ghana elimiz (jer shary túrghyndarynyng 0,23 % ghana) qoldanylmay, qarausyz jatqan auyl resurstaryn qajetinshe paydalanbay otyr. Múny endi sayasi-ekonomikalyq sauatsyzdyq, etnikalyq jәne aimaqtyq qaranghylyq deuge bolady. Onsyz da halyq sany azghantay elding 2,5 million adamy júmyssyz jýrgenining ózi – әri ekonomikalyq, әri әleumettik auytqushylyq: búl dúrys kózqarastan arylu emey nemene?! Ol mәsele jyldan-jylgha qordalanyp, ýsti-ýstine jinala beretini haq. Óitkeni, auyl túrghyndarynyng 25–35%-y kýnkóris maqsatynda, әri bilim men enbek quyp qala jaghalap ketti. Sondyqtan da auyldaghy bizding qanshama jerlerimiz iygerilmey, iyesiz qalyp jatyr. Onsyz da az halyq ýshin búl jyghylghan ýstine júdyryq emes pe?!

Adam resursy – kez kelgen elding eng basty kapitaly. Al bizding jaghdayymyzda múnyng geosayasy manyzy óte zor. Auyl túrghyny qashan da ósuge, kóbenge tyrysady. Olardyng balalary da, janúya mýsheleri de kóbirek. Sondyqtan da memlekettik baghdarlamalardy qabyldaghan kezde, auyldyng osy jaghdayy ýnemi eskerilui kerek, qanday da bolmasyn ekonomikalyq baghdarlama kem degende túrghyndardyng eki ese ósimine sәikes eseptelui kerek. Bolashaqta bizding elding halqynyng sany 35–40 mln adamgha jetui tiyis. Búl býgin bar, erteng joq, keleshegine balta shabylghan aldamshy baghdarlamalardan әldeqayda manyzdy. Búl tek azyq-týlik baghdarlamasy ghana emes, eng bastysy – búl el men eldegi etnosaralyq qauipsizdik pen birlik. Al elding birligi bizge auaday qajet.

Mine, osy zandy ýrdisti biz kópúltty, óte úiymshyl, әri sharuashylyghy әbden qalyptasqan, eng bastysy – nesibesi mol, auyldy azyq-týlikpen molynan qamty alatyn myqty memleket retinde jýrip ótuimiz kerek. Biz múny eshqashan esten shygharmauymyz kerek. Bizding kórshi elderimizding (Resey, Qytay jәne Ózbekstan) halqy bizge qaraghanda әldeqayda kóp. Sondyqtan da qúryp ketuge shaq qalghan bizding auyldardy ekonomikalyq túrghyda qaytadan jandandyru – dereu qarjylandyrudy talap etetin aimaqtyq Jana ekonomikalyq sayasattyng basty mindeti.

Alayda bizding ýkimetting júmysyn talday kele, olardyng múnday mindetterdi oryndaudan aulaq ekenin kóruge bolady. Olardyng qazirgi is-әreketi óte búlynghyr, qylyqtary soqyrdyng isi siyaqty. Mysaly, Kәrim Mәsimov mәseleni tolyqtay týsine de almaytyn siyaqty. Al naqty auyl sharuashylyghyna qatysty ministrler A.Mamytbekov pen Á.IYsekeshevting әreketteri tipti kýlkini keltiredi. Qazirgi kýnning talabyn eskere otyryp, onsyz da túralap qalghan ekonomikamyzdyng nәtiyjeli damuyna kedergi keltirmeu ýshin, olardy búl sektordan shettetu kerek. Óitkeni, qazirgi tarih pen onyng damu ýderisine әser etushi ekonomikanyng týrlenu zandylyghyna sәikes, túrghyndarynyng bәri júmyspen qamtamasyz etilip, adam resurstaryn tolyghymen paydalanatyn, ómir sýru sapasy óte joghary, azamattyq qauymdastyghy bar el ghana eng bay, eng damyghan el bolyp sanalady. Ókinishke qaray, bizding elimiz onday elderding qataryna qosylu ýshin әli talay jyldar kerek. Bizde tipti jana oi-órisi, jana kózqarasy qalyptasqan elita joqtyng qasy.

Al deputattyq korpustyng qyzmetine taldau jasay kele, olardyng ishinde ózekti mәselelerdi kóterip, basa syn aita alatyn 2–3 adamdy ghana auyzgha alugha bolady. Auyldyng býgingi jaghdayyn ózderining shyqqan jerlerin úmytpaghan sonday deputattardyng kómegimen sheshu kerek. Al qyzmeti aqsap otyrghan Auyl sharuashylyghy ministrligi qyzmetkerlerinen istegen isteri jayly esep beruin talap etu kerek jәne bosqa oryn alyp otyrghan olardyng teng jartysyn qyzmetinen bosatu qajet. Áytpese auyl ýstine tónip túrghan ekonomikalyq daghdarys búltyna, bәsekege tótep bere almay, birjola seyilip, joq bolyp ketui mýmkin.

Ókinishke qaray, biz qaytyp kelmeytin altyn uaqytymyzdy joghaltyp otyrmyz. Ol uaqytty biz óz halqymyzdan, әsirese auyl adamynan úrlau ýstindemiz. Sóite túra, ony kedeyshilikke iytermelep, keleshegine degen seniminen aryltyp, ózi men bala-shaghasynyng kýnkórisi ýshin qayghygha salyp, әlsiz kýige týsirip qoydyq.

Aydar Seyit-qoja SEYDALIYEV,

ekonomikalyq  sholushy.

 

Abay.kz

 

DEREKKÓZ: «Obshestvennaya pozisiya» gazeti, (proekt «DAT» №05 (276) ot 05 fevralya 2015 g.) 

Túpnúsqadaghy taqyryp: BIZ AUYLGhA nege satqyndyq JASADYQ?

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