Dýisenbi, 29 Qarasha 2021
Alashorda 6985 1 pikir 12 Nauryz, 2015 saghat 12:29

«QAZAQQA ALALYQ QAYDAN KELDI»?

Búl maqala «Ayqap» jurnalynyng 1915 jylghy 2-nómirinde jaryq kórgen eken. Maqalany jazushy «Jarday Qarasart balasy» degen býrkenshik esimdi azamat sol kezendegi qazaq qoghamyndaghy ótkir mәselege qatysty últ ziyalylarynyng pikirtalasyna ýn qosypty. Maqalada Últ kósemi Álihan Bókeyhangha qatysty syndarly kózqaras bayqalady. Jalpy alghanda ghasyrdan astam uaqyt búryn talqygha týsken últtyq auyzbirshilik jayy - qazirgi kýni de ózekti taqyryp. Maqalany oqyrman nazaryna úsyna otyryp, búl jazbany jurnalist Jylbek Senbekúlynyng facebooktegi paraqshasynan alghanymyzdy aita ketpekpiz.

Abai.kz 


Peterborsk imperatorsk publichnyy bibliotekada Rosiyskiy zakondaryn jinaghan kitaptardy aqtarghanda, oqyp qaraghanda ekinshi Ekaterina patshanyng shygharghan qúpiya ukaz qaghazy úshyraydy. Sol ukaz kóshirilip alynsa da býgin de qaghazdar arasynan tabylmay jýr. Solay bolsa da 1775 hәm 1780 jyldardyng arasynda shyqqan zakondar arasynan izdegen kisige tabylsa kerek?!

Búl ukaz ótken uaqytta qúpiya bolsa da býginde zakon bolyp shyqqandyqtan, әrkimge oqugha bolady. Ukaz Orynborsk general-gubernator jәnәpterine jazylghan eken. Sózi oidan shyghyp úmytylmasa, bylay syqyldy edi:
1) Qyrghyz-qazaq halqynyng bir ru basshylaryn ekinshi ru basshylarymenen araz etip, biri menen birin qas etip, birining etin birin jeuge sebep bolynyz.
2) Súltandaryn biri menen birin araz qylyp, biri men birin ittey tartystyryp, birining etin biri jeuge sebep bolarday is qylynyz.
3) Qyrghyz-qazaqtyng basshy adamdaryn súltandarymen araz qylyp, súltandaryn óz qolastyndaghy aqsaqal adamdarymen araz qylynyz. Arasyna ot týsken uaqytta janyp keterdey kókir-sókir dayarlay beriniz.
Osylaysha arasyna ot tútatyp, bereke-birligin alsaq, ózara azyp, tozghandyqtarynan qazaq-qyrghyz júrty bóten patshalyq qol astyna kóship keterge dәrmeni bolmas. Óz-ózderi qyryq pyshaq bolyp, qyrylysyp, jenilgen jaghy jengen jaghynan ósh alar ýshin, kýsh alar ýshin Rossiya patshalyghyna jaqyndar ua patshalyqqa qorghalar. Sol uaqytta Rossiya hýkimeti aralaryna tóre bolyp, tórelep, retine qaray ya anasyna, ya mynau jaghyn quattap túru kerek. Týrli amalmenen súltandarynyng kýshin ketirsek, ózimizden ozyp eshqayda kete almas. Keletin, ketetin jeri ózimiz bolyp, tilegenimizshe qaqpalap jortarmyz. Rossiya patshalyghynyng búl amalyna bóten qazaq-qyrghyz aldanyp túzaqqa týsti, óte tez Kishi jýz aldandy. Kishi jýzde ýsh atanyng balasy bar edi. Birisi, alty ataly Álimúghyly, ekinshisi, on eki ataly Bayúghyly, ýshinshi jeti ataly Jetiru edi.
Búlar qútyrtushylarynyn, ot tútatushylarynyng tiline erip, solardyng amalyna týsip, qalmaq penen qytay syqyldy bir-birine jau bolyp, bastaryna qara kýn tughanda bir-birine qaraspaytyn boldy. Aralarynda kýnde soghys, kýnde barymta, kýnde tartys bolyp, attan at, kótten kót qalmaytyn boldy. Pәlenshe-týgensheleri óldi, qyryldy, jyghyldy dep jaranyng auzyn ashqanday bolyp ne ghylayyn, osy kýnge sheyin sol ýsh ru aralarynda tatulyq joq.
Hýkimet aqyldy bolyp nadan, soqyr qazaqty ózining amalyna týsirip aldy. Bereke-birligin ketirip әlsiretti, aitaqqa jýgirip, esi shyghyp beyshara qazaqtarda qazaq әri qazaq namysy qalmady, aitaqqa jýgiru jaray ma, joq pa dep oilaushy da bolmady. Biraq hýkimet aqyldy bolyp óz paydasyn tapqan song Rossiya hýkimetine ókpeleu, kinә qylu orynsyz bolghany syqyldy nadan ata-babalargha da ókpelep bolmaydy.
1898 jylda dala oblysyndaghy qazaq júrtyn basqarmaq ýshin uaqytsha polojeniya shygharyldy. Bú polojeniyanyng múraty jogharyda aitylghan ukazdy ornyna keltirip, qazaqtyng boyyna siniru edi. Volostnoy upraviyteli, auylnay, starshina degen týrli lauazymdar shygharylyp, qazaq júrtynyng bereke-birligin ketiruge sebep boldy. Búl lauazymdardy aqshagha satyp alatyn boldy. Qazaqtyng ózara qyryq pyshaq bolyp qyrylysuyna sebep boldy. Bolys bolghan kisi shygharghan shyghynyn qaytaryp alu ýshin qolastyndaghy júrtqa artyq aqsha salatyn boldy. Artyq ekenin bile túrsa da juan bilek bolys barmaq silkip qoydy, bolys ýstinen aryz jýrmeytin zaman boldy. Búl uaqytsha polojeniya qazaqty birlestirumen qoymay, jerinen aiyryp, jerin patshalyq qyldy. Jerden aiyrumenen qoymady mýftiyden de aiyrdy. Hýkimet haqiqatyna týsindi, ekinshi Ekaterina ukazynyng paydaly ekenin andady. Sondyqtan 1891 jyl 25 hamalda uaqytsha polojeniyagha «Stepnoy polojeniya» dep at qoydy, az-mәz ózgertip qazaqqa zakon qylyp qoydy. Osy kýnde qoldanyp jýrgen zakonymyz stepnoy polojeniya-dýr. Osynda biri men biri tatu qazaq joq, ata baladan, ini aghadan airylatyn zaman boldy. Narodnyy sudiyalyq ýshin halyq partiya, partiya jaq-jaq bolyp, biri men biri sottasyp, hýkimet esiginen esik, tesiginen tesik qoymay taptap bitirdi. Ekinshi Ekaterinanyng ukazy shyqqaly jýz jiyrma jyl boldy, sodan beri qazaqtyng bir-birine qylghan qastyqtary sanap bitirgisiz kóbeyip ketti. Qazaqtyng sýiegine sinip, bir-birin andu, birine-biri shúqyr qazu, ana-sheshe sýtimen birge emdiriletin boldy, emshek sýtimenen singen bir auru boldy.
Osy kýnde qazaqty etine singen auyrudan qútqaru ýshin Jihansha myrza Seydalin «Siyaz jasau kerek» dep, ózining tapqan daruyn júrt ortasyna keneske salyp, «Ayqap» jurnalyna jazdy. Búl tapqan daru paydaly daru bolghandyqtan, kóp qazaq siyaz bolsa eken dep tileules bolyp túr.
Álihan myrza Bókeyhanov bú siyazdyng paydaly daru ekenine qarsy, oryndy-orynsyz dәiek kórsetken bolady, kózge qúbyjyq elestetedi, qúbyjyqtyng bolatyny da ras, biraq biz bes jasar bala emespiz ghoy. Álihan myrzanyng Siyazgha qarsy kelui, paydasy bolmaytynyn dәiektuge qaraghanda Jihansha myrza Seydaliyngha qarsy bolu jaghynan qarsy kelgendigin ózining jazghan sózinen oqyghan qazaq bylay túrsyn, qarapayym qazaq ta anlarlyq. Júrt namysy, júrt ary qazaq ýshin onday keykiyiskendi tastap, bir auyzdan sóz shygharugha kerek dep bilemin. Búlay kerektigin Bókeyhanov ózi bilse de, biraq jenip ketken syqyldy kórinedi.
Álihan myrza:
— Han balasynda qazaqtyng haqy bar edi, qazaqqa qyzmet qylmay qoymaymyn, — deydi. Biraq búl myrzanyng búlay jalghyz shabuyn júrt únata qoymaydy, etetin qyzmeti qanday qyzmet ekendigin halyq týsine almay túr. Ahmet myrza Baytúrsyn balasy:
— Qazaqty atyp jegen de, satyp jegen de tóreler edi, әli de bolsa tóreler boryshyn óterge tiyisti, — deydi. Bas qosyp keneskendi jaqtyrynqyramaydy, kekesindi sózder jazady. Baytúrsynov myrzanyng ekinshi Ekaterinanyng shygharghan zakonynyng bel balasy boluyn júrt jaqtyrynqyramay renjiydi.
Qazaqty emdep jazady degen baqtashyl arymyz auyru bolsa, oghan dәrini qaydan tabamyz. Qazaq bolghan son, qazaqta qazaqtyng haqy joq dey almaymyn. Qazaq qazaqqa payda qylsa kóp emes, úyat-shamyn qúry kekesindi bos sózimen bireudi oqtamay, qaqpay, ózi adasqan qazaqty onan sayyn adastyrmay, týzu jol salu kerek dep bilemin...
Sorly qazaq júrtyn oqyp shyqqan jas óspirimderimiz ilgeri qarap tartpasa, kim tartady? Sonyng ýshin óspirimderimiz bala syqyldy qúbyjyqtan qorqyp túrmay iske kirisse qarapayym qazaq biz de jәrdemde bolar edik. «Óser elding jigiti birin-biri batyr deydi, ósher elding jigiti birin-biri qatyn deydi» degen sóz bar edi. Jatsaq ta, túrsaq ta bizding qazaq jigitterin óser elding jigitterindey edik dep tilep túrmyz. Álihan myrzaday tauy shaghylghan, qaruy qaytqan kisilerding sózi oqugha jaqsy bolsa da, qoldanugha ynghaysyz, jaysyz bolady.

Jarday Qarasart balasy


«Ayqap» №2, 1915 j.


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