Jeksenbi, 26 Mausym 2022
Mәiekti 3548 0 pikir 26 Qantar, 2017 saghat 12:14

JANÚZAQ ÁKIM. QAZAQSTAN QAY KEZDE DAMYGhAN EL BOLADY?

«...HHI ghasyrda әdiletti әlemdik jýiege negizdelgen,

aldau men jauapkersizdigi joq

jana ekonomikalyq modeli kerek.

N.A. Nazarbaev

Qazaqstan ekonomikasy negizinen shiykizat jәne agrarly-industrialidyq baghyttaghy damushy el. «Jana industrialidyq elder» qataryna damushy elderding tek 5% ghana ótude. Ol topqa Ontýstik Koreya, Singapur, Malayziya, Gonkong, Tayvani t.b. elder jatady. Olardyng ishinde  Singapur men Malayziya ghana 20 jylda aldyndaghy jýzden astam elderdi basyp ozyp damyghan elder qataryna kirdi. Býgin Singapur damyghan elderding alghashqy ondyghyna kiredi.

«Qazaqstan-2050» strategiyasy – ol «jana industrialidyq elder» qataryna kirudi mindet etken baghdarlama, yaghny osy joba sol strategiyany jýieli, jan–jaqty jәne qarqyndy iske asyratyn onyng iydeologiyasy. Sondyqtan, sol strategiyany iske asyryp aqparattanghan ekonomika qúru ýshin innovasiyalyq ekonomikany damytyp, qoghamdy әleumettik-ekonomikalyq modernizasiyalaytyn taktikalyq mindetteri bolyp tabylady.

BÚÚ–nyng belgili bir memleketti «jana industrialidyq elder» qataryna kirgizetin talaptarynyng metodikasy tómendegidey:

- әr adamgha shaqqandaghy jalpy ishki ónimning mólsheri;

- eksportqa shygharatyn ónerkәsip ónimderining mólsheri jәne onyng jalpy eksporttaghy ýlesi;

- ekonomikanyng ortasha jyldyq ósu qarqyny;

- shetten keletin tikeley investisiyanyng kólemi;

- óndeu ónerkәsibining JIÓ-degi ýlesi (ol 20%-dan joghary boluy kerek).

Jogharydaghylardy eskerip, Halyqaralyq Adam instituty (HAI) әlemdik naryqta bәsekeli jana industrialidyq strategiya dayyndady. Onyng negizgi mindeti ýnemdeuding jogharghy normasy men investisiyagha qol jetkizu, ekonomikany eksportqa baghyttau, naryq kapitalynyng ashyqtyghy, makroekonomikalyq túraqtylyq, últtyq valutany AQSh dollaryna tanu (privyazka), ekonomikanyng ósuin memleket jaghynan yntalandyru arqyly onyng túraqty damuyna qol jetkizu jәne últtyq ekonomikanyng әlemdik naryqta bәsekelestigin arttyru bolyp tabylady.

Búl strategiyany iske asyru ýshin kelesi mindetter oryndaluy kerek:

- qazirgi ónerkәsipti jәne infraqúrylymdy, onyng ishinde aqparattyq-kommunikasiya tehnologiyasy salasyn modernizasiyalau arqyly qalyptasqan damu modelin tez qarqyndy damu jolyna ózgertu;

- adam resurstarynyng sapasyn kóteru jәne ony damytugha túraqty investisiya tartu;

- ghylym men tehnologiyany damytatyn jeke kәsipkerlikti damytugha kómek beru;

- jergilikti halyqtyng mentaliyteti negizinde otandyq ekonomikany basqaru modelin dayyndau;

- qarjylyq baqylau, ekonomikanyng bank-qarjy salasyndaghy merzimi ótken qaryzdardy retteu, kapitaldyng keluine monitoring jasap baqylau ornatu arqyly kәsiporyndardy reformalap, búl saladaghy sayasatty ózgertu;

- shaghyn jәne orta biznesti jәne últtyq kompaniyelerdi damytu;

- sapasy halyqaralyq standarttargha say ónim óndiru men qyzmet kórsetudi iske asyru;

- memleket pen jeke sektor arasyndaghy qarym qatynastyng ashyq boluyn qamtamasyz etu.

Búl maqsattargha jetu ýshin jogharghy tehnologiyalyq sapaly ónim shygharatyn innovasiyalyq iydeyalardy damytu arqyly ekonomika damuynyng qarqynyn tezdetu qajet.

Ol ýshin ýlken korporasiyalarda aldynghy qatarly jana әdisterdi engizu sol salalardaghy aldynghy qatarly jetistikterdi monitorgteu, jaghdaydyng ózgeruine baylanysty josparlargha ózgeris engizip, әrqashan jospardy naqtylap otyru jәne bәsekelesterding aldyn orap otyru.

Búl«jana industrialidyq joba» qazirgi iske asyp jatqandardan kelesi parametrlermen ózgeshelenedi:

Kóp enbek pen kapitaldy qajet etetin shiykizat ekonomikasynan, ghylym men jana tehnologiyagha baghyttalyp, aqparat pen kommunikasiya jetistikterine negizdelgen jana industrialidyq sayasatqa ótu. Aqparattyq tehnologiya men infraqúrylymdy damytu negizinde qalyptasqan innovasiyalyq ekonomikanyng ósu modeli qoghamdyq óndiristi týpkilikti ózgertedi. Qogham, resurs shyghyndy jәne resurs ýnemdi tehnologiya arasyndaghy qatang tandaudan «resursy limittenbegen» aqparattyq ekonomikagha ótedi. Osynday ózgerister ghana Qazaqstannyng «jana industrialidyq el» (JIYE) qataryna jaqyndatady jәne onyng damyghan qoghamgha ótuin qamtamasyz etedi.

Ol ýshin kelesi qadamdardy iske asyru qajet:

A. Innovasiyalyq ekonomikagha ótetin tiyisti zandar men zannamalyq aktilerdi qabyldau arqyly ekonomikany  diyversifikasiyalau;

Á. Iri óndiris aimaqtary men kenoryndary janynan salalyq innovasiyalyq klasterler qalyptastyru. Mysaly, Atyrau múnay óndeu zauyty janynan  múnay óndeytin jәne servistik shaghyn jәne orta biznes klasterin qúrugha bolady;

B. Transformasiyanyn, nemese ótpeli ekonomikanyng basymdy salalarynyng kelesi mindetterin sheshu:

Birinshiden, birkelki ekonomikalyq damudy qamtamasyz etetin sheshimdi izdeu transformasiyanyng negizgi mindeti bolyp tabylady. Ol ýshin joghary qosymsha qúndy óndiris ónimderin óndirudi kóbeytu qajet. Otandyq naryq jýiesining ereksheligi men ekonomikanyng ósu modelin transformasiya túrghysynan qayta qarau;

Ekinshiden, syrtqy qaryzdar mәselesin sheshu;

Ýshinshiden, eksportqa baghyttalghan modeliding ósuin iske asyruda jetistikterge qol jetkizu. Oghan importty almastyru, elding artyqshylyq jaqtaryn týpkilikti saraptau, qarjy kózderin tolyqtyrudy mobilizasiyalau, eksporttyq baghdarlamalardy qoldau, investisiyalyq ahualdy jaqsartugha jaghday jasau, ghylymiy-tehnologiyalyq zertteu men joghary sapaly mamandar dayyndaytyn salalarda úzaq merzimdik sayasat jýrgizu, azyq-týlik qauipsizdigi men әleumettik-sayasy túraqtylyqty qamtamasyz etu t.b. Búl jerde damudy qamtamasyz etu ýshin eki modelidi paydalanghan tiyimdi. Mysaly, eksportqa baghyttalghan modelidi basqa elderden keletin sonday ónimderden joghary satydaghy kedendik qorghaudy qamtamasyz etu men   importty almastyru elementterin ýilestiru;

Tórtinshi, elge, onyng ýkimeti men kәsipkerligine degen senimdi әrqashan qoldap otyru. Onday maqsatqa qol jetkizudi kóp jaghdayda aimaqtardaghy kәsipkerlerge belgili dәrejede erkindik berumen qatar ortalyqtanghan basqaru qamtamasyz etedi. Búl jerde әleumettik-ekonomikalyq sayasattyng negizgi elementterin generasiyalau jәne jana reformalardyng nemese eki úshty bastamalargha kepil bolu arqyly salalyq kompaniyalardyng kópshiligin tikeley baqylauda ýkimet negizgi ról atqarady;

Besinshi, telekommunikasiyalyq jәne kólik infraqúrylymyn jetildiru;

Altynshy, iri korporasiyalarda qoldanatyn aldynghy qatarly ghylymy әdisterdi paydalanu, bolashaghy zor baghyttargha tiyanaqty monitoring jýrgizu, múqiyat josparlau, jaghdaydyng ózgeruine baylanysty jospardy uaqytyly ózgertip, bәsekelesterden búryn qimyldau. Mysaly,  qarjyny tehnologiyanyng basymdy salalary - biotehnologiya, kompiuter ónerkәsibi, arnayy himikattar shygharatyn óndiris jәne servis salalaryna salu;

Jetinshi, Qazaqstandy halyqaralyq innovasiyalyq, zertteu men óndeu (razrabotka) bazasyna ainaldyru jәne eldi «sifrlyq tehnologiya aimaghyna» transformasiyalaytyn operasiyalyq ortalyqqa ainaldyru;

Segizinshi,talantty úrpaq, "E" buynynyng ókilderin  tәrbiyeleu jәne intellektualidyq últ qalyptastyru;

Toghyzynshy, últtyq mәdeniyet salalaryn damytu. Qazaqstangha keletin turisterding sanyn eki esege ósiru;

Onynshy, auyl sharuashylyghyn jogharghy rentabelidi jәne eksportqa baghyttalghan salagha ainaldyru;

On birinshi, jergilikti halyqtyng mentaliytetine say ekonomikanyng tiyimdi modelin qalyptastyru;

On ekinshi, kómirsutegi, su jәne basqa tabighy resurstardy konservasiyalau.

Elding bәsekelestigin qamtamasyz etetin negizgi faktor adam kapitalyn (búdan әri AK) damytu, yaghny kreativti mamandar, bilim, intellekt, sapaly jәne joghary ónimdi enbek pen ómirding jogharghy sapasyna qol jetkizu;

Qogham damuynyng kórsetkishi retinde BÚÚ eldegi adam damuy kórsetkishining jiyntyghy - Adam damu indeksin (ADI) qoldanady. ADY azamattardyng densaulyghynyng ahualy, bilim alu dengeyi men naqty tabysynan túratyn ýsh negizgi baghyttaghy jetistikterdi kórsetedi:

- sәby dýniyege kelgennen bastap kýtiletin onyng densaulyghy men ómir úzaqtyghy;

- ýlkenderding sauattylyq dengeyimen ólshenetin jәne bilimmen qamtylghan barlyq túrghyndardyng koeffisiyentinen túratyn bilimge qoljetimdilik;

- әr adamnyng AQSh dollaryna shaqqandaghy satyp alu mýmkindigining pariyteti(SAMP) boyynsha Jalpy Ishki Ónimning (JIÓ) kólemimen ólshenetin baquatty ómir dengeyi. Búl indeks boyynsha Qazaqstannyng 2011 jyldan bergi әlem elderi ishindegi damu kórsetkishi 68-69 oryndarda. ADY ýsh indeksining ishinde Qazaqstannyng bilim salasyndaghy kórsetkishi aldynghy qatarda. Odan tómenirek - ómir úzaqtyghy indeksi jәne eng tómengi kórsetkish –ol әr túrghynnyng tabys indeksi.AQSh-taghy adam kapitalyna (AK) bólinetin jiyntyq qarjy JIÓ 26%-yn qúrasa, Qazaqstanda - 9%. Ómir dengeyi boyynsha Qazaqstan 2012 jyly әlemdegi 144 elding ishinde 46 oryngha túraqtady.

AK damytu elding túraqty damuyn qamtamasyz etedi jәne ol, birinshiden, tehnologiyany damytudyng esebinen enbek ónimdiligin arttyrugha mýmkindik beredi, al ol óz kezeginde elding bәsekelestigin qamtamasyz etedi, ekinshiden, - ol tausylmay, janaryp otyratyn resurs, sonymen qatar, bolashaq úrpaqqa jinalatyn kapital.

Adam kapitalynyng jaghdayyna әser etetin faktorlar

Adam kapitalyn jan-jaqty damytyp jәne elding túraqty damuyn qamtamasyz etu ýshin Institut (nemes IIN) Qazaqstannyng ýsh últtyq Akademiyasy men 4 jetekshi uniyversiytetin jәne qúramynda әlemning 3,5 myng ataqty ghalymdary (onyng ishinde TOP-500 jәne 87 Nobeli syilyghynyng laureattary) isteytin Álemdik innovasiyalyq Qor (әrmen qaray WIF) pen әlemdegi TOP-50 tehnologiyalyq kompaniyalaryn biriktirdi.

Forbstyng deregi boyynsha WIF ghalymdary songhy jarty ghasyrda әlemdegi ghylym, tehnologiya, innovasiya jәne ekonomikadaghy janalyqtardyng 70%-yn ashqan. Búl qordan shyqqan mamandar әlemdegi eki mynnan astam kompaniyalardyng basshysy nemese bas menedjerleri bolyp júmys isteydi.

Joba «Qazaqstan-2050» strategiyasyndaghy 8 basymdy salalardan túrady.

Qazaqstandaghy adam kapitalyn damytu baghyttary men ony iske asyratyn ghylymy mekemeler men kompaniyalar.

Joba bilim, ghylym, medisina, ruhaniy-gumanitarlyq salamen qatar innovasiyany engizu mehanizmderi, aqparattyq-kommunikasiyalyq jýie, agroónerkisiptik kompleks, ekonomikany basqarudyng jana jýiesi siyaqty salalardan túrady.

AK men jogharghy tehnologiyalardy damytu innovasiyalyq ekonomikagha kóshudi iske asyrudyng jәne jana industrialidyq qoghamgha ótuding naqty qadamdary bolyp tabylady. Ekonomikanyng bәsekelestik basymdyghy men ony modenizasiyalau mýmkindigi jinalghan jәne iske asqan adam kapitalymen anyqtalady. Qoghamdaghy tehnologiyalyq, ekonomikalyq jәne әleumettik modernizasiyanyng mýmkindigi ondaghy adamdardyng bilimi, kәsipkerligijәne mamandyghynyng dengeyimen anyqtalady. Jana industrialidyq qoghamgha ótu jaghdayynda industrialandyru jalghasa beredi. Damyghan elder ónerkәsip óndirisin damyta beredi jәne ony jana ózgeristerge baylanysty modernizasiyalap otyrady. Ol AK damytudyng bazasy jәne sharttary bolyp tabylady jәne negizgi kapitaldy ekinshi satygha yghystyrmay, olar ózara birin-biri tolyqtyru arqyly damidy. Aqparattyq-industrialidy qogham qalyptastyrudaghyqoghamdyq damu progressi osy ekeuining sintezinen qúralady. Industrialidyq jәne jana industrialidyq qogham arasynda naqty shegara joq, olar birinen ekinshisine birtindep ótip otyrady.

Innovasiyalyq klasterdi kompleksti damytu

Innovasiyalyq klaster kelesi kezenderden túrady:

1. Uniyversiytetter;

2. Irgeli jәne qoldanbaly ghylymdar;

3. Innovasiya jәne tehnologiya (KB, tehnoparkter…);

4. Qarjy-kәsipkerlik bólimder (bankter, venchurlikqorlar, deldalkompaniyalar…);

5. Industrialidyq komplekster.

«Elding jana industrialidyq strategiyasyn» iske asyru ýshin Institut,

WIF, әlemning TOP-50 tehnologiyalyq kompaniyalary, uniyversiytetter, GhZI, Últtyq kompaniyalar, tehnoparkter t.b. Halyqaralyq innovasiyalyq Ortalyq qúrady.

Innovasiyalyq klasterding alghashqy tórt satysyn (uniyversiytetter, GhZI, KB, tehnoparkter) kompleksti sheshu maqsatynda Institut ýsh baghytta jýrgizudi kózdeydi jәne ony iske asyru mehanizmderi:

A. WIF ghalymdaryn «Bolashaq» baghdarlamasy boyynsha shetelde oqityn magistranttar men doktoranttargha ghylymy jetekshi etip taghayyndau. Osy uaqytqa deyin batystyng uniyversiytetterinde oqyghan bolashaqtyqtar, endi sol jәne basqa aldynghy qatarly uniyversiytetter men ghylym ortalyqtarynda WIF ghalymdarynyng shәkirtteri retinde bilimderin jetildiredi. Osy uaqytqa deyin shetelde oqyghan jýz mynday qazaq jastarynyn, onyng ishinde on mynday bolashaqtyqtardyng eshqaysysynyng WIF ghalymdarynyng shәkirtteri bolmaghany belgili. Búl baghdarlama boyynsha magistranttar men doktoranttar «Bolashaq» halyqaralyq Ortalyq baghdarlamasy» AQ qarjysyna bilim alatyn bolady. Aldaghy 2-3 jylda búl baghdarlamagha qosymsha qarjy bólu qaralmaghan. WIF, Qazaqstan Respublikasy Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligi bekitken magistranttar men doktoranttar dayyndau baghyttary boyynsha әlemning 3500 belgili ghalym-professorlarynyn, negizinen TOP-500-ding ishinen jetekshiler tandaydy. Búl, Qazaqstan bilimi men ghylymynyng sapasyn jana satygha kóteretin qadam bolmaq;

Kelesi baghyt–ol WIF ghalymdaryn jogharghy oqu oryndaryna (JOO) shaqyrylghan professorlar retinde uniyversiytetterdegi bilim sapasyn arttyru. Ol professorlardyng leksiyalary qashyqtyqtan oqytu arqyly barlyq uniyversiytetterge taraydy jәne olar ashqan laboratoriyalarda (kafedra) yaghny oqu oryndarynyng qabyrghasynda magistranttar men doktoranttar dayyndaytyn bolady.

Búl mehanizm uniyversiytet ishinde kafedralar men fakulitetter arasynda payda bolghan bәsekelestik, kelesi kezende bilim sapasy men mamandar dayyndaudaghy uniyversiytetaralyq bәsekelestikke úlasady. Tәuelsizdik jyldary elde batys ýlgisindegi ashylghan ýsh uniyversiytet (QIYMEP, QBTU y Nazarbaev uniyversiyteti) jogharghy bilimning sapasyn jýieli týrde ózgerte almaydy. Halyqaralyq tәjiriybe kórsetkendey, mysaly 20 jylda uniyversiytetteri әlemdegi aldynghy qatarly jiyrma oqu oryndarynyng qataryna kirgen Malayziyanyng tәjiriybesi, bizge barlyq uniyversiytetterding sapasyn bir uaqytta jaqsartu arqyly ghana 2030-2032 jyldary әlemdegi 20-25 oqu oryndarynyng qataryna kiruge bolatynyn kórsetedi.    

Baghdarlamany iske asyrugha ýsh týrli qarjy kózderi qaralghan:

  1. Sheteldik professorlardy shaqyrugha bólinetin budjet qarjysy;
  2. Uniyversiytetke qajetti mamandar dayyndaugha jәne ghylymdy damytugha bólingen qarjygha WIF professorlarynyng basshylyghymen oqu ornyna qajettimagistrant-doktoranttar dayyndalyp, jana laboratoriyalar ashylady;
  3. Uniyversiytetterdegi bilim men ghylymdy damytugha tartylatyn investisiya.

Jogharydaghy sharalar uniyversiytetterding jauapkershiliginarttyryp, bilim sapasyn jaqsartugha yntalandyratyn mýmkindik tughyzatyn bolghandyqtan – ony oqu oryndaryn attestasiyalau sharttaryna engizu qajet. QR BjGhM men uniyversiytetting qajettiligine baylanysty mamandyqtar boyynsha Institut pen WIF el ishinde jәne shetelde dayyndalatyn magistranttar men doktoranttargha ghylymy jetekshilikke jәne ghylym men tehnologiyany damytugha professor-mamandardy tandap alady.

Búl júmystyng kestesi osynday: birinshi jyly-15-20, 2-3 jyldary – 55-60, 4-5 jyldary - 75-80 negizgi uniyversiytetterdi WIF professorlarymen qamtamasyz etu. Iri uniyversiytetterdi 7-10, ortasha uniyversiytetterdi – 4-6 jәne shaghyn uniyversiytetterdi - 2-3 WIF-ting professorymen tolyqtyru kózdelgen.

Kelesi kezende uniyversiytetterding innovasiyalyq jobalaryn nemese memleket baghdarlamasy boyynsha innovasiyalyq klasterge kirgen jobalardy iske asyru ýshin TOP-50 kompaniyamen qúrghan birikken kәsiporyndar innovasiyalyq ekonomikany qalyptastyruda manyzdy ról atqarady. Birinshi kezenning alghashqy 2-3 jylynda 13-15, 2020-2021 jyldary TOP-50 kompaniyemen birge 30-35 kәsiporyn ashu kózdelgen. 2024-2025 jyldary әlemdegi TOP-100 tehnologiyalyq kompaniyelermen (TOP-50 sonyng ishinde) 15-17, 2028-2030 jyldary 35-37,yaghny barlyghy toqsanday birikken kәsiporyn qúru kózdelgen.

Búl jobalardy iske asyru ýshin «Bәiterek» holdingi, «Damu» AQ, otandyq bankter bir jaghynan, Institut, WIF  y TOP-50 + (50) ekinshi jaghynan birigip Innovasiyanyng menedjmenti  jәne  kәsipkerlikting IT (aqparattyq- tehnologiya) Ortalyghy  (Ortalyq) jәne Innovasiyalyq qor qúrady. Búl eki qúrylym birikken kәsiporyndardyng innovasiyalyq jobalaryn iske asyratyn qarjy operatory bolady. Sonymen qatar, innovasiyalyq klasterge qatysatyn birikken kәsiporyndar men kompaniyalardy damytugha memlekettin, investorlar, bankter, qorlar t.b. qarjy kózderi tartylady.

IV. Ghylym, tehnologiya, dәstýrli últtyq mәdeniyet ýilesim tapqan jәne intellektualidyq últtyng yadrosyn qúraytynjana tvorchestvolyq toptan túratyn jan-jaqty damyghan azamattar ghylym, innovasiya  jәne intellektualidyq salalardy damytu arqyly eldi zamanauiy  tehnopoliske ainaldyrady. Qoghamdaghy barlyq óndirgish kýshterding ishinde ghylym men tehnologiya ghanajylyna 30-33% ósim beredi. Damushy elderding ishinde osy salalardy uaqytynda qolgha alghandary (5%) jana industrialidyq qoghamgha ótse, qalghandary búrynghy dengeyde qaluda. Innovasiyalyq ekonomikagha ótu, elding industrialidyq-innovasiyalyq damuyn ortasha 1,6-2,0 ese tezdetedi. Ol ýshin aldymen ghylymgha bólinetin qarjyny 2017-2018 jyldaryJIÓ-nin3,0%-na, odan arghy bes jylda 5%-gha jetkizu qajet. Elektrondyq jәne energiyany ýnemdeu tehnologiyalaryn paydalanu óndiriste, tauar eksporty men importynyng shyghyndaryn 50%-gha deyin tómendetedi.

V. Institut seriktesterimen birge Qazaqstannyng innovasiyany damytu baghdarlamasyn iske asyru maqsatynda EKSPO-2017 kórmesining túraqty paviliony retinde júmys jasaytyn «Halyqaralyq innovasiyalyq parktin» (HIP nemese Park) jobasyn dayyndady.

Últtyng joghary mәdeniyeti, sapaly bilim men ghylym jәne damyghan adam kapitaly qogham damuynyng jәne innovasiyalyq ekonomikanyng negizi. Búl joba intellektualidyq últ qalyptastyrugha arnalghan.

HIP boyynsha tórt millionday oqushylar, kolledj ben uniyversiytet studentteri, ústazdar, ghalymdar, injenerler men dәrigerlerdi qashyqtyqtan oqytyp halyqaralyq standarttargha say sertifikattar men diplomdar beru kózdelgen. Sonymen qatar, HIYP-te qashyqtyqtan oqytu arqyly әlemning aldynghy qatarly uniyversiytetterinde 2020 jylgha deyin on mynday studentterdi oqytu jәne bolashaqta halyqaralyq dengeydegi 600 ghalym, onyng ishinde 300 matematikter dayyndau josparlanghan. Yaghni, Park eldegi halyqtyng 25-26% qúraytyn, onyng belsendi jәne ónimdi bóligi – onyng bolashaqiaghy adam kapitalyn tolyq qamtidy.

Sonymen qatar, Institut HIP jobasyn iske asyru maqsatynda WIF, TOP-50 innovasiyalyq kompaniyalar, eldegi jetekshi GhZY men uniyversiytetter, Bayqonyr gharysh ailaghy, Kurchatov Ortalyghy, «Kazatomprom» AQ t.b. tartypbalamaly jәne janaryp otyratyn energiya kózderin zerttep-endirudi, kvanttyq tehnologiya men innovasiyalyq ekonomikanydamytudy josparlady.

Odan basqa HIP boyynsha elge jana tehnologiyany, aldynghy qatarly innovasiyalyq jәne bilim beretin jobalardy trendtep, olardy uniyversiytetter men industriyagha engizu jәne olardy jetildirip, otandyq tauar retinde reeksporttau («technology transfer») kózdelgen.

HIYP-ta ashylatyn Green Sciences Park ASTANA EKSPO-2017-ning mәngi simvoly bolmaq.

Sonymen qatar, búl Park arqyly әrqashan da Qazaqstannyn, Últtyq kompaniyalardyn, biznes qúrylymdardyn, otandyq mәdeniyettin  jetistikterin halyqaralyq dengeyde jarnamalu josparlanghan.

«Astanada ótetin EKSPO respublikanyng innovasiyalyq damuyna jana serpin beredi», dep Elbasy atap ótkendey, EKSPO-2017 ayasynda atqarylatyn mindetteri men sheshetin mәselelerining auqymy jóninen әlemde balamasy joq Halyqaralyq innovasiyalyq Park jobasynyng iske asuy innovasiyamen qatar, adam kapitalyn jan-jaqty damytyp jana industrialidyq qoghamgha ótuge mýmkindik beredi.

VI. Qazaqstan ekonomikasy modelining negizi memlekettik retteudin  belsendi aralasuymen bәsekelestik jaghdayynda jýretin naryqtyq qatynastar (zamanauy memleketting «100 qadamyna» say) bolyp tabylady.

Ol ýshin memleket óz funksiyasyn damyghan elderding (OESR)standarttaryna say, qogham aldynda esep beru, ashyqtyq, burokratizasiya men retteuden (regulirovaniye) ketu ústanymymen jәne sybaylas jemqorlyqpen ymyrasyz kýres jaghdayynda әleumettik-demokratiyalyq modelige ótuding institusionalidyq reforma jasau bolyp tabylady.

VII.Ekonomikalyq sayasattyng negizi júmyssyzdyqty jong jәne tabysty tenestiru bolyp tabylady.

Búl maqsattardy iske asyru ýshin jenil nesie beretin әrtýrli baghdarlamalardy (arnayy zaymdar beru, nesiyeni saqtandyru, subsidiya bólu t.b.) dayyndap engizu, bank jýiesindemonopolizasiyalau, sheteldik bankter jýiesin kóbeytu (mysaly, Singapurdaghy 122 bankting 116-sy sheteldik), shaghyn jәne orta bizneske, «óz kýnderin kórip jýrgenderge», auyl túrghyndaryna jәne kedeyler men túrmysy ortashalargha arnap islam bankingin engizu qajet.

Ishki naryqtyng tarlyghyn eskerip, tauar óndirushiler men ony eksportaytyndargha arnalghan jenildikter jýiesin dayyndap eksportqa baghyttalghan modeli jasau qajet.

Búl jerde jenildikti ónerkәsip óndirisinde shygharghan ónimning 25%-dan astamy shetke satylatyn jәne onyng jyldyq qúny $100 myng bolatyn firma paydalana alady.

VIII. Shaghyn jәne orta biznes pen tehnokәsipkerlikti damytu

Qazirgi bank jýiesi shaghyn jәne orta bizneske (ShOB) serik bola almauda. ShOB-tyng ekonomikadaghy ýlesi 22% (damyghan elderde 50%-dan astam). ShOB-qa seriktes bolyp qaraytyn qatynas qalyptaspaghan, yaghny islam qarjy ústanymyna say isteytin bankter joq bolghandyqtan shaghyn biznesting ortagha, onyng iri biznese ótuine mýmkindik jasalmaghan.

Islam jýiesindegi bankting boluy mikroqarjylandyrudy qamtamasyz etetin qolayly jýie jәne kedeyshilikpen kýresetin tiyimdi qúral bolar edi.

ShOB qúryp ketpes ýshin jәne shaghyn jәne orta biznesti qoldau qorynyng sheneunikterine tәueldi bolmau ýshin payyzsyz nesie beretin bank jýiesi qajet. Ekonmikany salasyndaghy islam modeline sybaylas jemqorlyq, aldau, tabysty jasyru, salyqtan ketu jәne basqa qylmystyq әreketter jat. Búl modeliding qyzyqtyratyn jeri–ondaghy materialdyq payda men ruhany qúndylyqtardyng ýilesiminde. Ol jýiede resurstar tabystyng normasyna baghyttalu arqyly potensialy naryqpen neghúrlym ong baghalanatyn ekonomikanyng sektoryna ainalatyn ústanymgha negizdelgendikten, tezirek islam ekonomikalyq modeline kóshu qajet.

Kapitalgha tikeley aralasudy óz aqshasymen qarjylandyru islam ekonomikalyq jýiesining negizi bolyp tabylady jәne ol jerde qarjy jýiesining túraqty bolghany manyzdy.

Islam qarjy jýiesi (IYQJ) naqty óndiriske investisiyalaumen baylanysty bolghandyqtan, ony qarjy daghdarysy jәne defolttan qorghaydy. Al, әlemdik qarjy jýiesindegi negizgi aktivterding tek bes payyzdayy ghananaqty aqshamen (valuta) bekitilgendikten ol әrtýrli daghdarystargha úshyraydy. Búl jaghdayda barlyq aqsha transasiyasynyng 95% taza spekulyativti bolghandyqtan, ol kommersiyalyq saudagha jatpaydy.

-  IYQJ birinshi kezekte qajetti tauar shygharatyn jәne bazisti qyzmet kórsetetin salalargha aksent jasay otyryp ekonomikanyng barlyq salalaryn birkelki nesiyeleudi ústanady;

- investisiyalyq sheshim qabyldaghanda, әsirese  basqa kәsiporyndardyng jarghylyq kapitalyna aralasqanda basymdylyqty úzaq merzimdik qarjylandyrugha beredi.

- IYQJ ekonomikanyng barlyq salasyn ýilesimdi qamtamasyz etetin jәne ekonomikanyng manyzdy elementi bolyp tabylatyn shaghyn biznesti damytugha kóp kónil bóledi;

- Áleumettik jauapkershilik jәne qayyrymdylyq islam qarjy instituty júmysynyng mindetti sharty bolyp tabylady;

- Investisiyalyq sayasattyng ýilesimdiligi, óndiristi belsendi qarjylandyru jәne bank qyzmetining tartymdylyghy arqasynda islam qarjy jýiesi ishten janaryp otyra alady jәne ol onyng ómirshendngnn kórsetedi.

Otandyq kәsipkerlikke IYQJ kelesi jaqtarymen paydaly:

-bank jýiesining payyzsyz modelin jasap, engizu óz kezeginde shaghyn biznesti ortagha jәne orta biznesting iri bizneske ainaluyna, yaghny biznesti damytugha mýmkindik ashady jәne ShOB-ting zkonomikalyq qatynasqa týsetin basqa subiektilermen seriktes boluyna jaghday jasaydy;

- әkimshilikting bizneske qysym kórsetui men әleumettik jauapkershilikke mәjbýrleudi joyyp, biznesting júmysyna memleketting aralasuyn shekteydi, sybaylas jemqorlyqpen kýresu arqyly kompaniyanyng ashyq boluyn qamtamasyz etedi;

-adaldyq, tazalyq, úqyptylyq, materialdyq payda men ruhany qúndylyqtardy úshtastyru siyaqty etnikalyq normalardy jәne kәsipkerlik qúrylymdarda әleumettik-jauapkershilikti qalyptastyryp, damytudyng tiregi bolady;

-búrynghydan әdiletti, demokratiyalanghan jәne ýilesimdi qoghamdyq jýiening júmys istep jәne damuyna, qogham men ekonomikanyng әleumettik qajettiligin qamtamasyz etuge kәsipkerlikti baghyttau;

-biznesting әleumettik jauapkershiligin arttyruda әlemdik tәjiriybege, әleumettik jauarkershilikting halyqaralyq standarttaryna, etnikalyq, payyzsyz modeli men seriktestik arqyly ekonomikany basqarudyng jýiesinebaghyttalu.

 

IX. Últtyq kompaniyalardy damytyp, olardy transúlttyq kompaniyalargha (TÚQ) ainaldyru.

Ol ýshin Ýkimet ekonomikanyng basymdy salalarynda isteytin Últtyq kompaniyalargha kenoryndaryn satyp aluda, sheteldik jәne basqa kompaniyalardyng aksiyalaryn (ýlesin) aluda jenildik jasaytyn sharalar qabyldap, mýmkindik ashuy kerek jәne olardyng el ishindegi jәne shettegi halyqaralyq jobalargha qatysuyna belsendi sayasat jýrgizui qajet.

 

Jana industrialidyq qoghamgha ótu kelesi kezenderden túrady:

-Qazaqstan onyng birinshi satysyn ótude, yaghny ol ekonomikada qalyptasqan múnaygaz sektoryn, múnayhimiya, týsti jәne qara metalldy, energetikany, astyq sharuashylyghy jәne basqa qoljetimdi salalaryn damytuda. «EKSPO 2017»qorytyndysy boyynshaekonomikanyng basymdy baghyttaryn qayta qarap ózgeris engizu qajet: ol jerde 5-6 jogharghy rentabelidi baghyttardy taghdap, solardy damytu qajet;

-2025-2027 jyldary eldegi tehnologiya jana sapagha kóshkende (2-shi kezen)jogharyda tandalghan 5-6 baghyttyng ishinen halyqaralyq naryqta jaqsy kórsetkishterge jetken 3-4 salany tandap, olardy әrmen qaray damytu qajet.

Ol salalar әlemdik naryqta óz oryndaryn tapqan kezde (3-shi kezen) innovasiyalyq tehnologiya óz maqsatyna jetedi. Ol kezde eksportqa baghyttalghan jogharghyy tehnologiya ónimderining ýlesi 45-50%, el ishinde qoldanatyn otandyq tehnologiyanyng ýlesi 70%-gha deyin kóteriledi.Importtalatyn mashiyn, qúral-sayman jәne tehnologiyanyng ýlesi 40-45%-gha kemiydi.

Jogharydaghy ózgerister ekonomikadaghy kelesi kórsetkishterge qoljetkizedi:

-ekonomikanyng tehnologiyalyq uklady innovasiyagha ózgeredi;

-JIÓ-ning jyldyq ósimi ortasha $85-90 mlrd bolady;

-JIÓ ortasha 8-10 jylda eki eselenip el ekonomikasy túraqty damidy;

-2032-2033 jyldary eldegi adam kapitalynyng ýlesin 65-70%-gha jetkizipbәsekeles ómir saltyn qalyptastyru;

- innovasiyalyq kәsiporyndar men innovasiyalyq ónimderding ýlesin 70%-gha jetkizu.

Búl jobanyng negizgi bólimderining túsaukeseri QR ýkimeti janyndaghy salaaralyq ghylymiy-tehnikalyq komissiyada, «NúrOtannyn» fraksiyasy men Qazaqstan Respublikasy Parlamentining birikken otyrysynda, «NúrOtannyn» ekspertter Kenesinde, Industriyany damytu ministrligi men Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligi t.b. vedomstvolarda jasalyp, qoldau tapty.  

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