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Janalyqtar 6759 0 pikir 30 Mamyr, 2009 saghat 10:50

Pavlodargha kóne atauy qaytaryluy kerek.

Kereku atauy qazaqtardyng ejelgi dәstýri boyynsha, eldimekenderge tarihiy-jaghrafiyalyq erekshelikterine qaray qoyylghan kóne ataulardyng biri bolyp esepteledi. Ataudyng týp tórkini Qimaq dәuirinen (IX–X gh.gh.) bastau aluy mýmkin. Qimaq qaghandyghynyng ortalyghy Ertisting Kereku ónirinde bolghany jәne birqatar iri–iri qalalar – sauda ortalyqtarynyng da osy orta Ertisting boyynda ornalasqany tarihtan belgili.
Tarihy jazbalarda Ertisting Kereku ónirining eski ataulary kórsetilgen: «1722, avg. 4 – 1724, dek. 20 – iz jurnala kap. IYv. Unkovskogo o prebyvaniy ego u djungarskogo huntaydjy Sevan-Rabtana. Mesyas avg. 1722 goda... Proshly urochiyshe Skorodum yar y Koryakov yar. Proehaly ustie Belovodiya (qazirgi Aqsu – Q.J.N.). Proshly Krasnoy yar, Verblujey yar, Tolokonnye gory. Doshly do Yamyshevskoy kreposti. Mesyas sent. 1722 goda... Proehaly Chernoy yar (Qarajar: qazirgi Chernoyarka – Q.J.N.). Proshly drugoy Chernoy yar... Proshly Vohrenoy yar... Proehaly Kamennoy yar...».

Kereku atauy qazaqtardyng ejelgi dәstýri boyynsha, eldimekenderge tarihiy-jaghrafiyalyq erekshelikterine qaray qoyylghan kóne ataulardyng biri bolyp esepteledi. Ataudyng týp tórkini Qimaq dәuirinen (IX–X gh.gh.) bastau aluy mýmkin. Qimaq qaghandyghynyng ortalyghy Ertisting Kereku ónirinde bolghany jәne birqatar iri–iri qalalar – sauda ortalyqtarynyng da osy orta Ertisting boyynda ornalasqany tarihtan belgili.
Tarihy jazbalarda Ertisting Kereku ónirining eski ataulary kórsetilgen: «1722, avg. 4 – 1724, dek. 20 – iz jurnala kap. IYv. Unkovskogo o prebyvaniy ego u djungarskogo huntaydjy Sevan-Rabtana. Mesyas avg. 1722 goda... Proshly urochiyshe Skorodum yar y Koryakov yar. Proehaly ustie Belovodiya (qazirgi Aqsu – Q.J.N.). Proshly Krasnoy yar, Verblujey yar, Tolokonnye gory. Doshly do Yamyshevskoy kreposti. Mesyas sent. 1722 goda... Proehaly Chernoy yar (Qarajar: qazirgi Chernoyarka – Q.J.N.). Proshly drugoy Chernoy yar... Proshly Vohrenoy yar... Proehaly Kamennoy yar...».
Orys әskerining kapitany Unkovskiy Koryakov ornalasqan alqapty sol forpostyng atauymen emes, qystaulardyng (urochiyshe) atymen ataghan. Búl qúndy mәlimetterden 1720 jyly Koryakov әskery beketi salynardan búryn qazirgi Pavlodar qalasynyng ornynda qazaqtardyng Keregejar (kóne týrkishe Kerekujar) atalatyn qystauy bolghany, ony orystar «Koryakov Yar» dep, oryssha búrmalap aitqany jәne janadan salynghan forposty (әskery beket) solay ataghany bayqalady. Osy atalym birshama uaqyt qújattyq ainalymda jýrgen, tek keyin «Yar» tirkesi alynyp tastalyp, Koryakov Yar – Koryakovskiyge ainalghan. Sol kezende Ertisting ong jaghalauynda «jar» tirkesimen ayaqtalatyn Qyzyljar (qazirgi Ertis kentining manynda), Qarajar (qazirgi Chernoyar) tәrizdi ózge de eldimekender bolghan.
Al týbiri «keregeden» túratyn geografiyalyq ataular osy jerlerde de, basqa ónirlerde de qoldanylghan, mәselen Keregetas degen ózen de, tau da bar, qystaular da bolghan. Kókshetau syrtqy okruginde (syrtqy okrugter Orta Jýzde 1822 jyldan keyin qúryla bastady) Keregetas ózeni bolghanyn derekterden bayqay alamyz: «Letnie kochevky po rechkam... Keregetas». Ayagóz syrtqy okruginde Keregetas taulary bolghan: «Zimnie (kochevky – Q.J.N.) – pry gorah Keregetas». Bayanauyl, Ayagóz, Qarqaraly okrugterinde Keregetas atty qystaular bolghan: «Letnie kochevky – s rechky Chiyderty do Saza; zimnie – urochiyshe Keregetash, v 70 verstah ot prikaza (Bayanaulskogo – Q.J.N.)... Zimnie – pry urochiyshe Kereyge-tash, v 150 verstah ot prikaza».
Alayda, tanymal zertteushi V.N. Popovanyng qanday da bir anyqtalghan, shýbasyz derekke sýienbey-aq, qazaqtar Qúrmankól, Qúrmantúz dep ataghan Koryakov kóli men sol kólding manyndaghy auyl ataulary taralyq (Tara qalasynyng tumasy) saudager, túz óndirushi N. Koryakovtyng atynan tuyndaghan dep jazuy ataudyng etnoniymi jóninde qate týsinikting ornyghuyna negiz saldy. Onyng ýstine, V. Popovanyng orystardyng әlgi kólden túz óndirui 1700 jyly bastalghan dep jazghany da shyndyqpen sәikespeydi.
Tarihy mәlimetterge jýginsek, Qúrmankólde (orystarsha: Koryakov kóli) túz óndirilui XVIII ghasyrdyng ortasynan ghana bastalghan: «...Razrabatyvatisya ono (Koryakovskoe solyanoe ozero – Q.J.N.) stalo s poloviny XVIII stoletiya... Koryakovskaya soli schitaetsya odnoy iz luchshih v Sibiriy...».
Demek, irgetasy 1720 jyly qalanghan Koryakov forposty Qúrmankólden túz óndiripti-mis delinetin N. Koryakovtyng esimimen ataluy qisyngha kelmeydi. Jәne bir eskeretin jayt: V. Popovanyn, t.b. jazghanynday, eger jergilikti qazaqtar Koryakov forpostyn «Kereku» dep qazaqshalasa, Koryakov kólining manyndaghy auyldy da nege dәl solay qazaqshalamaghan? Áli de ony óz atymen, – Koryakovka dep ataydy.
V. Popovanyng jazghanyn joqqa shygharatyn taghy bir tarihy qújat bar: 1750 jyly, 21 jeltoqsanda patsha ýkimetining «O zagotovleniy soly v sibirskie magaziny iz Koryakovskogo y pr. ozer slujilymy kazakami» atty jarlyghy shyqty, sol kezde Tobolisk qalasynda túz óndirisin baqylaytyn arnayy komissariat qúrylyp, Koryakov forposty resmy týrde túz tasymaldaytyn beket retinde tanyldy.
Tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory Jambyl Artyqbaev XVIII ghasyrda N. Koryakov degen orys kәsipkeri Tara qalasynda mýlde túrmaghanyn anyqtady.
Eger, shynynda, N. Koryakov degen adam Qúrmankólde túz óndirse, XVIII ghasyrdyng ortasynda ghana kelip óndirdi. Al onyng 1720 jyldan bastap Koryakov forpostynda túruy mýmkin emes, tipti búl ólkege 1747–1750 jyldardan búryn kelui de mýmkin emes, óitkeni, búny tarihy derekter aighaqtaydy.
Birinshiden, 1716 jyldan bastap Ertisting ong jaghalauyndaghy bizding ólkemizde Reseyding әskery bekinisteri salynghannan keyin ghana alghash ret orystar (әskery kazaktar) payda boldy: «Odnako v techenie vsego 17 stoletiya stremlenii russkih prodvinutisya vverh po Irtyshu, k yugu ot goroda Tary ne sujdeno bylo osushestvitisya, hotya takie popytky delalisi sarskim praviytelistvom neodnokratno». Búl derekti Sibir kazaktary tarihyn zertteushi G.E. Katanaev ta qúptaydy: «Namechennoe bylo eshe pry sare Mihaiyle Feodoroviche postepennoe zanyatie russkimy ostrojkamy y peredovymy otryadamy mest, lejashih po Irtyshu yujnee g. Tary pry ustiyah reky Omi, prishlosi otlojiti do bolee blagopriyatnogo vremeni, ogranichivshisi lishi ejegodnymy solyanymy ekspedisiyamy vverh po Irtyshu do nyneshnego g. Pavlodara…».
Ekinshiden, әskery emes túrghyndar Koryakovqa 1838 jyly stanisa mәrtebesi berilgennen keyin ghana qonystana bastady: «Suda je posle uprazdneniya Yamyshevskoy kreposty v 1838 godu byly perevedeny vse voinskie chasti, Koryakovskiy forpost pereiymenovaly v Koryakovskuy stanisu, kotoraya vskore stala sentrom menovoy torgovliy».
Ýshinshiden, XVIII ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysyndaghy qazaqtar men jongharlar arasyndaghy soghys jaghdayy orys kәsipkerlerine túz óndirisimen ainalysuyna mýmkindik bermeytin edi. Tek ekinshi qazaq-jonghar soghysy (1739–1741 j.j.) qazaqtardyng jenilisimen ayaqtalghan song orystar olardyng kelisimimen Qúrmankól túzyn óndiruge kirisken. Ol kezde Reseyde túz tovar retinde óte joghary baghalandy: «V to dalekoe vremya gosudarstvennoe jalovanie vydavalosi ne toliko denigami, no y v naturalinoy forme: hlebom, ovsom, soliu. Osobenno vysoko senilasi soli, – tak, vysokooplachivaemye kazachiy atamany poluchaly po try puda soly v god, v Yamyshevskom je ozere sadilasi nailuchshaya, ocheni chistaya povarennaya soli», – dep jazady ombylyq ólketanushy D.N. Fialkov.
Degenmen, ólkemizding XVIII ghasyrdan búrynghy tarihyna ýnilsek, XVII ghasyrdan bastap Sibir kazaktarynyng Yamysh kóline kelip, ketip jýrip túz óndirgenine kózimiz jetedi. Mәselen, D.N. Fialkov bylay jazghan: «Uje v 1610 godu Toboliskoe voevodstvo zakrepilo za soboy pravo dobyvati soli v stepnyh ozyorah yuga Zapadnoy Sibiry s seliu snabjeniya ei vsey severnoy Sibiri, a v 1613 godu byl zalojen Yamyshevskiy post dlya dobychy y otpravky soly v Sibiri».
Biraq búl kezde orys kazaktary Yamysh kóline jylyna bir ret qana kele aldy, óitkeni Ertisting arghy jaghyndaghy jәne Yamysh kólinen ontýstikke qaray jerlerdi jongharlar qonystanyp alghan bolatyn. «Yamyshevskiy post... s odnoy storony ograjdalsya beregom Irtysha, a s treh storon byl zashiyshen iskusstvennymy ukrepleniyami, na kotoryh byly vystavleny pushkiy... Stoyaly vremennye palatkiy... Raboty velisi pod postoyannoy ohranoy, tak kak na levom beregu Irtysha nahodilisi kalmykiy», – dep jazady D.N. Fialkov.
XVII ghasyrdyng sonynda Yamysh kólining jaghasynda ótetin jәrmenkede orystarmen sauda jasaghan qalmaqtar, tatarlar, búharalyqtar da búl jerlerde túraqty túrmaghan, óitkeni jongharlardan qauip tóngen: «Vajnoe znachenie iymela Yamyshevskaya yarmarka, prohodivshaya ejegodno vo vremya uspenskogo posta v techenie 2-h ily 3-h nedeli».
Sózimizdi tújyrymdasaq, Pavlodardyng kóne aty – Kereku kýni býginge deyin halyqtyng jadynda saqtalsa da, búl ólkening toponimikasynda saqtalmaghan, sebebi patsha ýkimeti zamanynda jәne Kenes ýkimeti kezeninde qazaq ataularyn tarih betterinen óshirip tastaugha әreket jasalghan. Zertteushi M. Myrzahmetovtyng aituynsha, qazaq jerining orystandyryluy patsha ókimeti túsynda 3 kezenge bólingen: 1) 1731–1822 j.j., 2) 1822–1867 j.j., 3) 1867–1917 j.j.
Qazirgi Pavlodar oblysyndaghy birqatar auyldardyng tarihy ataulary XIX ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysy men XX ghasyrdyng basynda, Pavlodar uezine jappay qonys audarghan orys sharualary qonystanghan song ózgertilip, Mihaylovskiy, Troiskiy, Blagoveshenskiy, Tihomirovskiy, Novospasskiy, Fedorovskiy, Ivanovskiy, Voskresenskiy, Blagodatnyi, Pokrovskiy, Voznesenskiy, Duhovniskiy siyaqty jana oryssha ataular payda bolghan.
Kenes ýkimeti kezeninde de qalalar, eldimekender men kóshelerding attaryn ózgertu nauqany jappay jýrgizildi. Mәselen, N. Hrushev biylegen jyldary Qazaqstan kompartiyasynyng Pavlodar oblystyq burosy ózining Ortalyq komiytetke joldaghan hatynda qalanyng atyn Hrushevogradqa ózgertudi úsynghan-dy. Tyng jәne tynayghan jerlerdi iygeru jyldary, dәlirek aitsaq, 1954-1964 jyldary Tyng ólkesine qaraytyn 5 oblysta 200 astam auyldyq jәne audandyq kenesterding ataulary orysshagha ózgertildi.
Alayda, Qazaqstannyng tәuelsizdik kezeninde de Pavlodar, Petropavel siyaqty qala ataularynan aryla almauymyz – otarshyldyq dәuirining yqpalynan tolyq qútylmaghanymyzdyng kórinisi siyaqty. Otarshyl patshanyng balasy Pavelding qúrmetine qoyylghan Pavlodar qalasynyng aty ózgertilmeyinshe ózimizdi egemen elding azamattary retinde sezinuimiz qiyn.
Endi mәsele qala atauynyng ózgertilui jóninde emes, onyng búrynghy atauynyng qaytaryluy jóninde kóteriluge tiyis. Oblystyng ortalyghyna bayyrghy Kereku atauy qaytaryluy kerek, tek onyng bayyrghy núsqasy Keregejar, kóne týrkishesi Kerekujar ekeni eskerilip, әri búl ataudyng Petropaveldyng bayyrghy aty Qyzyljargha úqsastyghy da qaperge alyna otyryp, Kereku atauyna tarihy «jar» degen tirkes qosylyp berilgeni dúrys dep sanaymyz.
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Qayyrbolat Jәkenúly Núrbaev, tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory. Pavlodar qalasy.

 

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