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Janalyqtar 4402 0 pikir 30 Mamyr, 2009 saghat 10:48

Pavlodar atauyn auystyrudyng tiyimdi joly

Ghúlama babalarymyzdyng biri Ábu-Rayhan әl-Biruni: «Jer attary basqa halyqtyng sol jerdi jaulap aluymen birge ózgeredi. Olar óz tilderine kóshirgende, atau mindetti týrde ózgeriske úshyraydy, biraq bastapqy maghynasyn saqtap qalady» – dep, jer-su attarynyng tarihy oqighalargha, qoghamnyng sayasy ómirine tikeley baylanysty ekenin aityp ketken. Kezinde toponimist E. M. Pospelov: «Geografiyalyq ataular da, sol siyaqty qoghamdyq instituttardyn ózi de mazmúny jaghynan sayasatpen tikeley baylanysta jatady. Qoghamdaghy ýstem tap jer-su ataularyn ózining iydeologiyasy men sayasatyna baghyndyrmay túra almaydy» – dep atap kórsetken. V.A Nikonov bolsa, «Toponimika amalsyzdan iydeologiyalyq funksiyagha jegiledi» degen. Qoghamdaghy әrbir sayasi–ekonomikalyq ózgeris te sol qoghamnyng toponimikalyq jýie kenistigine tereng iz qaldyryp otyrady. Osynday toponimikalyq qúbylystardyng sayasiy-әleumettik bolmysyn bayyptay otyryp, syrttan engen nemese halyq erkinen tys taghylghan jer ataularynyng bәri de – otarshyldyq mazmúndaghy ataular dep bilemiz. Olardyng kópshiligi qala, kent, eldi meken ataulary.
Pavlodar oblysynyng jer-su ataularyn zertteu barysynda, jaulaushylardyng jәne otarshylardyng jergilikti ataulardy eki týrli sebeppen: biri – ataudy dúrys aitugha tili kelmegendikten, ekinshisi – jerdi ózderine menshiktep aludy kózdegendikten ózgertip jibergenin bayyptadyq.

Ghúlama babalarymyzdyng biri Ábu-Rayhan әl-Biruni: «Jer attary basqa halyqtyng sol jerdi jaulap aluymen birge ózgeredi. Olar óz tilderine kóshirgende, atau mindetti týrde ózgeriske úshyraydy, biraq bastapqy maghynasyn saqtap qalady» – dep, jer-su attarynyng tarihy oqighalargha, qoghamnyng sayasy ómirine tikeley baylanysty ekenin aityp ketken. Kezinde toponimist E. M. Pospelov: «Geografiyalyq ataular da, sol siyaqty qoghamdyq instituttardyn ózi de mazmúny jaghynan sayasatpen tikeley baylanysta jatady. Qoghamdaghy ýstem tap jer-su ataularyn ózining iydeologiyasy men sayasatyna baghyndyrmay túra almaydy» – dep atap kórsetken. V.A Nikonov bolsa, «Toponimika amalsyzdan iydeologiyalyq funksiyagha jegiledi» degen. Qoghamdaghy әrbir sayasi–ekonomikalyq ózgeris te sol qoghamnyng toponimikalyq jýie kenistigine tereng iz qaldyryp otyrady. Osynday toponimikalyq qúbylystardyng sayasiy-әleumettik bolmysyn bayyptay otyryp, syrttan engen nemese halyq erkinen tys taghylghan jer ataularynyng bәri de – otarshyldyq mazmúndaghy ataular dep bilemiz. Olardyng kópshiligi qala, kent, eldi meken ataulary.
Pavlodar oblysynyng jer-su ataularyn zertteu barysynda, jaulaushylardyng jәne otarshylardyng jergilikti ataulardy eki týrli sebeppen: biri – ataudy dúrys aitugha tili kelmegendikten, ekinshisi – jerdi ózderine menshiktep aludy kózdegendikten ózgertip jibergenin bayyptadyq.
Tórt týrli tarihy kezen: HIII ghasyrdyng basyndaghy monghol shapqynshylyghy; XVIII ghasyrdyng basyndaghy jonghar qalmaqtarynyng shabuyly; XVIII ghasyrda bastalghan patshalyq Resey otarshyldyghy, HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghymen HH ghasyrdyng basynda Resey men Ukrainadan qonys audaru ýrdisi (Stolypin túsynda); Kenes ýkimetinin ornauy men tyng jәne tynayghan jerlerdi iygeru toponimikanyng ózgeriske úshyrauyna qatty yqpal etken.
Bastapqy eki kezende Qazaqstanda monghol (qalmaq) tilinen engen jer-su ataulary payda bolsa, songhy eki kezende kóptegen (600-den astam) oryssha eldi-meken ataulary payda bolghan.
HIH ghasyrdyng ayaghy men HH ghasyrdyng basynda Stolypinning agrarlyq reformasy jyldary Reseyden, Ukrainadan qonys audaru búqaralyq sipat aldy. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde, HH ghasyrdyng basynda Pavlodar uezinde 220-dan astam qonys audarushylar selolary salyndy. Imperator Romanovtar әuletine baylanysty: Romanovka, Nikolaevka, Alekseevka, Elenovka, Irinovka, Tatiyanovka, Borisovka, Oligina, Natashina, Pavlodar (Pavelgha syilyq) tәrizdi patsha ýkimetining belgisin bildiretin barlyghy 605 toponim qalyptasty.
Biz zerttegen masshtaby 1:100000 topokarta negizinde (1942-1989jj) oblys aumaghynda 4412 toponim anyqtaldy, onyng 65,5% -y qazaq, 19,3 % -y kóne týrki, 13,7 % -y slavyan, 1,5 %-y basqa tildik (arab-iran, monghol-qalmaq) qabattardy qúraytyny saralanyp, Kereku ónirining geografiyalyq ataulary negizinen kóne týrki tilinde jәne qazaq tilinde ekeni dәleldendi.
Qazaq әdebiyetining iri ókili M.J. Kópeev enbekterinde Pavlodardyng búrynghy aty – Túzkent, óitkeni býkil Altay, Sibir halqy túzdy Ertis ónirinde osy qaladan tasyghan. Ol kezde túz óte útymdy tauar bolghan, óitkeni, adam da, mal da túzsyz ómir sýre almaydy. Abylay han qazaqtan týie jidyryp, qyryq by jәne Janaydardy atshy qylyp Saryarqadan túz jiberipti delinedi.
Qazaqtar әli de Pavlodar qalasyn Kereku dep ataydy. Al búl ataudy Tarsk kópesi delinetin Koryakov degenning esimimen baylanystyru negizsiz. Bizding pikirimizshe, Kereku atauy orta Ertis ónirining kóne týrki, qimaq dәuiri kezinde qalyptasqan ejelgi ataularynyng biri.
J.O. Artyqbaev, Q.J. Núrbaev, T. Ensebaev, A.Qanidyng t.b Kereku atauy jónindegi kóptegen ghylymy maqalalary jaryq kórdi. J. O. Artyqbaev Pavlodar qalasy ornalasqan jer ertede Kerege jar (Kereku Yar) atanghan, osy atau keyin slavyan leksikasynyng әserimen Koryakov Yargha ainalyp, bekinisting aty retinde qújattyq ainalymgha týsken degen ghylymy topshylaudy S.U. Remezovtyng kartasymen negizdedi.
Al Koryakovka eldi mekeni Pavlodar qalasynan soltýstik-shyghysqa qaray on shaqyrym jerde ornalasqan. Jergilikti qazaqtar Koryakovka salynbay túrghan kezde «Qúrmankól», «Qúrmantúz» – dep ataghan.
Degenmen, «Pavlodar» atauy otarshyldyqtyng belgisi ekeni aiqyn jәne ony auystyrudyng qajettiligi de bayqalady. Osy ataudy ózgertuding tiyimdi, jaghymdy joly qalany Ertis dep atau dep sanaymyz. Búl – Pavlodar oblysynyng aumaghyn ekige bólip aghatyn Ertis ózenining atauy jәne tap osy formada VIII ghasyrdaghy Kýltegin jәne Tonukók eskertkishterinde kezdesetin tarihy atau bolyp tabylady.
Sondyqtan mynjyldyq tarihy bar Ertis atauyn – onyng jaghasyndaghy Pavlodar qalasyna berse, eshqanday talas tuyndamaydy degen oidamyz. Aqsu, Qarasu ataularynyng bizding oblysymyzdyng ózinde, sonday-aq ózge aimaqtarda da jii kezdesetinin eskersek, oblys ortalyghy men oblystyng bir kentine qoyylghan Ertis atauy kóptik etpeydi.
Paydalanylghan әdebiyetter:
Pospelov E.M. Toponimika v shkolinoy geografii: Posobie dlya uchiyteley – M: Prosvesheniye, 1981. - 144 s.
Saparov Q.T. Pavlodar oblysynyng toponimikalyq kenistigi (qazaqtardyng kenistikti iygeru tәjiriybesining jer-su ataularynda kórinisi). Pavlodar: «EKO» GhÓF, 2007. - 308 b.
Nikonov V. A. Kratkiy toponimicheskiy slovari, M., 1966.-334s.
J.O. Artyqbaev, A.J. Ermanov, E.N. Dauenov. Orta Ertis ónirining toponimikalyq mәseleleri. Pavlodar, «Altyn kitap», 2006. - 151 b.
Malov S. E. Pamyatniky drevneturkskoy pismennostiy.-M., L., 1939, S.32
Qashghary M. Týrik tilining sózdigi (Diuaniy-lúghat-iyt-týrk) 3 tomdyq shygharmalar jinaghy (aud. A. Egeubay). Almaty: Hant, 1997, 1353 b.
Aspandiyarov B. Etimologiya nekotoryh toponimicheskih nazvaniy (K voprosam istoricheskoy toponimiki) // Geografiya v shkolah y v Vuzah Kazahstana. Almaty, 2007. №1. – S. 38-43.

Quat Tabyldyúly Saparov, geografiya ghylymdarynyng kandidaty, dosent, «Ghylym sardary» syilyghynyng iyegeri.

 

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