Beysenbi, 19 Mamyr 2022
Alashorda 8929 1 pikir 10 Mamyr, 2016 saghat 18:50

Túrsyn JÚRTBAY. BESIGINDI TÝZE (jalghasy)

Al 1915 jyly 22 mamyrda Múhtardyng atyna toltyrylghan attestatta onyng Semeydegi er balalargha arnalghan joghary bastauysh uchiliyshesin “ýlgili tәrtippen” tórt sabaqtan – tórt, tórt sabaqtan – bes degen baghamen bitirgeni jazylyp, inspektor IY.Malahov pen pәn oqytushylarynyng qoldary qoyylghan. Qyr bolystarynda siyrek kezdesetin bir jay, osy oqudy bitirer qarsanynda Shynghys bolysy Imantaev:

Shynghys bolysynyng 8 auylynyng qazaghy Omarhan Áuezovting úly Múhtar Áuezov 1897 jyly 10 qyrkýiek kýni tughanyn osy kuәlik rastaydy” – dep qolhat berip, mórin basqan.

Zady búl qújat – attestatty dúrys toltyru ýshin súratylsa kerek. Sonday-aq Múhtardyng 1912-1913 jylghy oqu merziminde 1-klasty maqtau qaghazymen bitirip, 2-klassqa kóshirilgeni jóninde de tabeli saqtalypty. Endi bir óte qyzyqty derek – oqytushylar seminariyasynda 1913-1916 jyldary oqyghan qazaq jastarynyng baghasy, klasy kórsetilgen qújat. Múnda keyin qazaqtyng maqtanshaqtary bolghan azamattardyng aty-jóni jýrgendikten tizimi tolyq keltirudi úighardyq.

1. Áuezov Qasymbek – 2 klass, Dýisebaev Abdul-Karim – 3 klass, Aymauytov Jýsipbek, Sәtbaev Gabdul-Galy (Qanysh Sәtbaev – T.J.), Áuezov Múhtar, Núrmúhambetov Qazy, Senekin Zakariya, Áuezov Ahmet, Jarmaqov Smaghúl – dayyndyq klastarynda, Bekmúhamedov Azambek, Nahimjanov Ámze – 1-klasta, Seysembaev Ahmet – 2-klasta”.

Búghan týsinikteme artyq siyaqty.

Múhtardyng anshylyghy turaly ótirik-shyny, әzili aralas talay-talay hikayalar aitylyp jýr. Úly shygharmasynda da sýisinip jazghan túsynyng biri osy sayatshylyq ekeni anyq bayqalady. Al múnday әuesqoylyq jas basynan bolmasa, ne ózi qús ústap, ang qaqpasa, shynayy shygha qoyy qiyn. Sondyqtan da aralas ósken jiyeni Mәjitting deregine nazar salmay ótuge bolmaydy:

Múhtardy jengeleri, apalary Qara Shonqa” dep ataytyn. Múnyng sebebi ózi juas, anqau, balalardyng ishindegi “qara Jonqa” siyaqty kóringendikten qoyylghan. Ol demalysqa kelgende auyldyng úl, qyzdaryn jiyp alyp keshke jaqyn barlyghymyzgha deneshynyqtyru jasatatyn. Kýrestiretin. Qarghytyp, basymyzben túrghyzyp, keudemizdi jerge tiygizetin. Qysta oqyghan sabaghymyzda súraydy... Qyzdar men úldardy qatar túrghyzyp Abaydyng “Segiz ayaq”, “Qor boldy, janym”, “Kózimning qarasy” әnderin hor etip aitqyzatyn... Jasyraq kezinde, 14-15 jastarynda qolyna ylghy túrymtay ústaytyn. Onyng ýy ishinde qolgha ýiretip, jas etke qant seuip jegizip, dәndegen song ózi tórde túryp “kel-kel” dep shaqyratyn. Ábden jattyqqan song dalagha shygharyp, inning qasyna baryp “shaq-shaq” dep dauystaytyn. Keyin “shaq-shaq» degenge túrymtay torghaydy bas salyp ústaytyn boldy. Sonda atyn “Qyrghyn” dep qoyyp edi... Qys kýnderi balalardy jinap ap “Myrshyma-myrshym”, “Belbeusoq”, “Qystau”, “Han-Uәzir,” jazda – “Altybaqan”, “Serek-qudaq”, “Aq sýiek”, “Aykóbelek” oiyndaryn oinaytyn. Bizding auyldyng qyzdary Múhtardy ólenge qosyp: “qara Jonqa” qashan keler, bauyrlaryn oilaghan ” dep әndetip aityp jýretin”.

Osynyng ózinen-aq onyng eseygen kezindegi minez-qúlqyn anyq bayqaugha bolady.

Ol kezde Semey qalasy qoghamdyq, әleumettik, últaralyq qarym-qatynastar túrghysynan qaraghanda, búryn adamzat balasy kóp shoghyrlanghan shahalardyng túrmys-saltynda úshyraspaghan bir aluan kýidi basynan keshirip jatqan. Feodalizmning de, kapitalizmning de qaymaghy aralasyp, әr tústan demokratiyalyq oidyng úshqyny shaqpaqtay jarqyldap qalatyn. Imperiyalyq – reaksiyalyq otarlau sayasaty tizesin batyra týsti. Ziyaly-últ ókilderi bas kótere bastady, azattyq iydeyasy tamyr jaydy, diny missionerlik baghyt órship, pan-islamizmdi tudyrdy. “Tarahaiyat» (progress) dýbiri qyr qazaghyn oyatyp, oigha qaldyrdy. El ýmittilerining biri – otyryqshylyqty qoldap, qonystanudy úsyndy, endi biri – kóshpeli ómirding eteginen aiyrylmaugha shaqyrdy. Búryn ghadette joq kәsip – gazet, jurnal, kitap shygharu isi nauqan boldy. Tipti ózgeni bylay qoyghanda, 1910-1913 jyl aralyghynda qazaq – qazaq bolghaly kezdespegen qúbylys – ýsh roman jaryq kórdi. Qazaq qauymynyng tarihy, grammatikasy, orfografiyasy, jana әrip ýlgisi jasaldy. Esep (arifmetika), jan jýiesi (psihologiya) әlipbiyding ornyna – әlippe oqulyqtary jazyldy. Basylym danasy ósip, 1917 jylgha deyin bir jarym million kitap shyqty.

Osynyng barlyghy belgili dәrejede Qasymbektin, sol arqyly Múhtardyng ómirdegi kóz qarasynyng qalyptasuyna yqpal tiygizdi. Ayauly agha tәrbiyesining әseri me, әlde, әli buyny qatpaghan jas adamnyng alghyr seziminen be, sol bir jyldardyng alasapyrandy jantalasy Múhtar eseygennen song da úmytylmay, zaman aghysyna tez beyimdelip, betin búra almay jýrdi.

Bir mezgilde: batysqa qaray – qaraqoshqyl týtini budaqtap, otarbanyng “qara aighyry” kisinep, shyghysqa qaray – shom-shom jýk artqan keruen týiesi bozdap bara jatatyn. Ong jaghalaudaghy shirkeuding qonyrauy qaghylghanda, sol jaghalaudaghy meshitting azany estiletin Semey qalasynda jetkinshekting almaghayyp sezimge bulyghyp alabúrtuy zandy da edi. Sondyqtan da shәkirt Múhtardyng ómirindegi ózgerister de, kózqarasynyng qalyptasu baghdary da 1913-1914 jyldardyng túsyna tura keledi.

Taghdyr – baqyt úghymy siyaqty naqty anyqtamasy joq, týsindirip bolmaytyn qúbylys. Sonda da, Múhtardyng ómirindegi ózgeristerdi salystyrghanda, bir úqsas jay angharylady. Onyng peshenesine, kezekti bir qatty ruhany kýizelisten song ýlken ghúmyrlyq mәni bar betbúrysty basynan keshiru jazylghan siyaqty. Áke ólimi men qala mektebi. Kәmesh oqighasynan song “Qarakózdin” syilyq aluy, otyz ekinshi jyly aman oraluy, qyryq jetinshi jyldan song – Memlekettik, elu ýshinshi jyldardan song – Lenindik syilyqtardy aluy ispetti tolyp jatqan “kezdeysoqtyqtar” eriksiz oigha qaldyrady. Búl joly da solay boldy. Qasymbek – múghalimder seminariyasyn tәmamdap, Mәskeudegi joghary oqu ornyna týsip, uaqytsha auylgha oralghan kezinde ish sýzegine shaldyghyp, qyrkýiekte qyrshynynan qiyldy.

Endi asyl armanyn jalghap, ansaryn bólisetin Omarhan әke de, Dinәsil әje de, әke-sheshe de, asyl agha Qasymbek te joq bolatyn. Qara shanyraq Múhtargha kóshti. Al әke, agha ornyndaghy Razaq – Múhtar úly jazushy atanghan kezde de әkelik qamqorlyqtan ainymay, tarylghan tynysyn keneytip otyrdy. Razaq – úly Abaydyng da peyili týsken adam. Ol turaly:

“Omarhandy baulyp ósirgen aghasy Samarhannyng әieli Mәdiyneden – Razaq, qyzdan – Zura tughan. Omarhan aghasy Samarhan qaytys bolghannan keyin jengesi Mәdiyneni alady da, әkeden jastay qalghan Razaq pen Zurany óz balasy etip ósiredi. Razaq – Omarhannan kóp tәlim alyp, aghasy jәne bir jaghynan әkesi bolghan Omarhan qaytys bolghannan keyin Áuez qojanyng ýlken ýiine ie bolyp qalady da, endigi Omarhannan qalghan balalar Múhtar, Bilәl, Ýmiyany tәrbiyeleu boryshy-mindetin Razaq moynyna alady. Omarhan ózining pysyq, eti tiri bolghandyghynyng arqasynda ózi ortadan joghary sharuagha kelip jetken, biraq ta, 1913, aq tyshqan jyly Áuezding eki ýiindegi maly qyrylyp әlsirep qalady, kýn kórerlik qana jaghdaygha keledi. Osy kezde Razaq Omarhannan alghan tәlim-tәrbiyesimen Semeyge baryp Sәbikeyding balalarymen birge iri sauda júmysyna kirisip, bir-eki, ýsh jyldan keyin ýlken ýidi orta sharuagha, keyingi kezde ortadan joghary sharuagha jetkizdi. Razaq osynday jaghdaygha jetken song el aralap, sol kezde bas kóterer Abaydyng balalary Maghauiya, Aqylbaymen, odan keyinirek Aqylbaydyng balalary Álimqúl, Áubәkirmen qúdandaly bolghan. Osy Razaqtyng adamgershiligi moldyghyn Abay da bilgen. Birde Razaq Abay auylyna kelip balalarynyng ýiine týsedi. Sonda Abay:

                       Myna ýide otyr Razaq,

                       Elding jayyn aitar ma.

                       Shaqyryp alyp súrasaq,

                       Ýlken qoja – ortan qol,

                       Ózgeleri aty joq pen shynashaq,

depti. Sonda Razaqtyng qúrdasy, Abaydyng nemeresi Áubәkir “Omarhan she?”, degende Abay:

                               Onydaghy bayqarsyz,

                               Birazyraq synasaq,

depti.

Berdiqojanyng balalary Ýsen, Burahan, Áuezhan, Kenjehan, Samarhan odan bergi nemereleri Omarhan, Razaq, Arynbek, Smayylhan ” dep estelik jazypty, osynda aitylghan Zuradan tughan Múhtardyng jiyeni Mәjit Dihanbaev.

Ákening ornyn joqtatpaghan Razaqqa bergen Abaydyng baghasy qalay dәl shyqqan.

Ol kezdegi Semey qalasyndaghy qazaq oqyghandary mәdeniyetti ilgeri elding dәstýrin ýirenip, óz halqynyng ruhany múrasyna jana kózqaraspen qarap, әr týrli sharalar úiymdastyrady. Sonyng eng eleulisining biri – 1914 jyly qantarda Abaydyng qaytys boluynyng on jyldyghyna oray “Prikazchikter klubynda” ótken әdeby kesh. Ony úiymdastyrushy – qazaqtyng alghashqy ziyaly qyzdarynyng ishindegi últjandy aru Nәzifa Qúljanova. Búghan Semeydegi barlyq qazaq oqyghandary belsene atsalysty.

Úly adamnyng ómirine qatysty kez kelgen janama derekterding mәni zor. Ásirese, onyng kózqarasynyng qalyptasuyna qatysty jaylardyng qadiri erekshe. Armanshyl jýrek tez tútanyp, tez әserlenetin bozbalalyq dәurenning – 16-19 jastyng arasyndaghy tosyn qúbylystardyng izi kónilden óshpek emes. Osy jas mólsherindegi oqighalardyng manyzy da sheshushi salmaq jýkteydi. Sondyqtan da Múhtardyng shәkirt kezinde Semey qalasynda bolghan әrbir janalyqty biluding asa qajettiligi aitpasa da týsinikti. Biz tek Múhtardyng ómirine qatysty materialdy ózimizshe jinaqtap berudi maqsat etpey, búryndy-sondy aitylghan pikirlerdi barynsha keltire otyryp, bir izge týsirudi kózdedik. Osyghan oray, kólemining kóptigine qaramastan, asa baghaly bolghandyqtan, sol kezdegi qazaq mәdeniyetining jarshysy bolghan, alghashqy últtyq jurnal “Ayqapta” jariyalanghan Abaydyng qaytys boluyna on jyl toluyna oray ótken kesh turaly maqalany tolyq úsynudy jón kórdik. Maqalanyng sonynda “M.M.” dep qol qoyylghan. Avtory – Mústahym Maldybaev.:

“Semeydegi geograficheskiy podotdel paydasyna jasalghan kesh.

Búl aitylghan nәrse atyna qaraghanda oryssha bolsa da, keshte oinalghan, tamasha qoyylghan nәrseler bolsa da, isti bizge orystar istep berdi. Alashqa aty mәlim ataqty aqyn ham filosof Ibrahim Qúnanbaevting ólgenine on jyl tolady. Ilgeri basqan júrt múnday qadirli adamdarynyng ataghyn shygharu ýshin talay belgili ister istegen bolar edi. Bizding kóbimizge Abaydyng kim ekeni de belgisiz, onyng kim ekenin bizge orystar tanytyp jatyr. Jogharyda aitylghan kesh ótken ghinuar júldyzynyng 25-inde sobraniya zalynda bolyp edi. Bastapqyda Abaydyng oryssha jazylghan ghúmyrnamasy (biografiyasy) oqyldy. Arasyndaghy ólender qazaqsha jazylghan edi. Búl ghúmyrnamany múnan birneshe jyl búryn Álihan orysshagha kóshirgen eken. Kópke oqushy seminariya uchiyteli N. Qúljanovtyng jamaghaty Nәzifa hanym boldy. Sózding ayaghynda: “Abaydy tughyzghan qazaq dalasy, taghy da Abay sekildi, bәlky odan da artyq danyshpandar tughyzar degende tyndaushy qazaqtardyng jýikesi bosap, kózine jas alghany da boldy (Bayghús qazaq qam kónil ghoy).

Nәzifa hanymnyng oryssha taza sóileuine orystar tang qaldy.

Ekinshi – Abaydyng óz әni men óleni aityldy, bú da tәuir shyqty. Ýshinshi – ataqty bir baqsy qobyz oinap sarnady, qaruy qaytqan qartang adam eken, artyq kelistire almady, sóitse de, baqsy aqyrghanda orystardyng keybir әielderining qorqyp, oryndarynan úshyp týregelgenderi boldy.

Býrkit, qarshyghalar kórsetilip, qazaqtyng ang qúmarlyghy biraz sóz boldy. Qazaq әielderining qymyz sapyryp, qonaq syilaghandary kórsetildi. Qysqasy búl keshte kórsetilgen tamashanyng barlyghy da qazaq túrmysynan alynghan nәrseler boldy.

Abaydyng óleni aitylady, baqsy oinaydy – degen habardy estip, qaladaghy, qyrdaghy jinalghan qazaqtardyng kóbine biylet jetpey qaldy. Qazaqtyng óz tilinde esh nәrse bolmaghandyghynan tynysh jýrgen halyq ekendigi bilindi (Qazaq sauyqqoy halyq qoy). Qazaq oqyghandary bala-shaghalarymen kóterile barypty. Abaydyng qadiri halyqqa zor eken. Abaydyng óleni oqylghanda talay qazaqtyng kózinen jas móldiredi.

Búl keshti jasaushy Núrghaly Qúljanov: “Abaydyng balalary Kәkitay ham Túraghúl myrzanyng ólenge, bilimge ynghayy bar” – dep aitysady. Abay sekildi súnqardyng orny bos qalmas dep ýmit etemiz. Qazaq shejiresining negizin qúraghan, qazir de ólenmen birneshe kitap jazghan aqsaqal Shәkәrim qajy osy Abaydyng inisi bolady.

Keshten qalghan saf payda 420 som boldy. Zal keng bolyp, biylet jetkende payda eki ese artyq bolatyn edi” (Ayqap, № 4, 1914 jyl, 67-68 better).

“M.M.”-nin, yaghni, Mústahym Maldybaevting auzyna saldy ma, joq úly aqynnyng ruhany múrasynyng iyesiz qalatynyna sengisi kelmedi me, әiteuir onyng keleshekten kýtken ýmiti oryndaldy. “Abay sekildi súnqardyng orny bos qalghan joq”, ol “súnqar” – sol keshting ishinde, “Kәkitay ham Túraghúl myrzanyn” qasynda otyrghan bes klastyq orys mektebining shәkirti Múhtar bolatyn. Tek ol әli balaq jýni ketpegen tastýlek edi.

(jalghasy bar)

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