Júma, 24 Mamyr 2024
Alashorda 16050 0 pikir 24 Qyrkýiek, 2015 saghat 11:54

MAJARLAR DEGENIMIZ KIMDER?

 

Majarstan (Vengriya) Alipi, Karpat jәne Dinar taularynyng aralyghynda ornalasqan. Jerining teng jartysyn Ýlken Orta Dunay oipaty alyp jatyr. Majarstannyng basty ózeni - Dunay elding bel ortasynan basyp ótedi. Majarstan – Europanyng ortalyghynda ornalasqan, Austriya, Slovakiya, Ukraina, Rumyniya, Horvatiya memleketterimen shektesedi. Astanasy – Budapesht. Halqynyng 90%-dan astamy majarlar. Qalghandaryn alman, serb, horvat, rumyn, evrey, taghy da basqa halyq ókilderi qúraydy. Memlekettik tili – majar (madiyar) tili. Túrghyndarynyng basym kópshiligi hristian dinining katoliktik (70%) jәne protestanttyq (25%) tarmaghyn ústanady.
 Orta Dunay jazyghynda ornalasqandyqtan, jerining 60%-dan astam bóligin jazyq, qalghan bóligin tauly qyrat alyp jatyr. Jazyq jerleri auylsharuashylyghyna qolayly, tauly aimaqtary qalyng ormandy. Qazirgi Majarstan jerin bizding zamanymyzdan búrynghy 1-mynjyldyqta saqtar jәne kelit, illiriy, frakiya ýndieuropalyq taypalary qonystanghan. Keyinirek german, ghún, avar taypalary aghylyp kelip, osy jerden Batys Rim imperiyasyna shabuyldar jasaghan. Búl ónirde 430 jyly Attila (Edil) patsha bastaghan Batys Ghún memleketi qúrylyp, ol ydyraghannan keyin Bayan han bastaghan avarlar biyligi saltanat qúrdy. 895 jyly Arpad patshanyng basshylyghymen majarlardyng (majarlar) jeti taypasy kóship kelip qonystandy. Arpadtyng shóberesi Geza hristian dinin qabyldap, europalyq ýlgidegi memleket qúrdy. Shynghyshan shapqynshylyghy kezinde (1237-46) kóptegen qypshaq taypalary Majarstangha kelip, qonys teuip qaldy. 1301 jyly Arpad әuleti biylikten ketip, ókimet basyna Anju әuleti keldi. Olar 1335 jyly cheh, polyak koroliderimen birigip, sayasiy-sauda odaghyn qúrdy. 1372 jyly Pesht qalasynda uniyversiytet ashyldy. 16 ghasyrdyng bas kezinde eldegi bytyranqylyq saldary Majarstannyng әlsireuine әkep soqty. Osman súltandyghy múnda 1526-1686 jyldary óz biylikterin ornatty.
Majarstannyng túrghylyqty halqy ózderin «Madiyarlarmyz» dep ataydy. Osy majarlyq madiyarlardyng qazirgi mekendep jatqan Europa aumaghyna úly daladan kelgendigi jəne olar qaysibir zamanda sonda kóship-qonghan halyqtyng bir bóligi bolghandyghy jayynda tarihi, múraghattyq derekter men anyzdar kóp. Majar anyzdaryndaghy ghúndargha baylanysty oqighalar majarlardyng shyghyspen baylanysynyng sonau erte zamanda bastalghanyn, Majarlardyng Aziyadan Europagha 896 jyly qonys audarghanyn bayandaydy.
Madiyarlar Qazaqstandy ózderining ata-júrty dep sanaydy. IH ghasyrda qypshaq degen atpen belgili bolghan halyq HIII ghasyrdyng basynda Majarstangha qonys audarady. Kóten han (Kotyan) IV Belagha elshilerin jiberip, Majarstangha halqymen kóship barugha rúqsat súraydy. Rúqsat alghan son, 1239-40 jyldary qolastyndaghy 40 myng (keybir derekterde 60 myn) halqymen kóshedi. Erkin kóship-qonugha, eski salttary boyynsha ómir sýruge layyq aumaqtargha, jazyq dalaly jerlerge qonystanady. Týgeldey otyryqshy bolularyna jýz jyl ketedi, al tilderi, Ishtvan Mandoky Qonyrdyng aituynsha, HVII ghasyrdyng ayaghyna deyin saqtalady. Kýni býginge deyin Majarstandaghy Dunay men Tisa arasy – Kishkunshak (Kishi qypshaq jeri), shyghysy Nadikunshak (Úly qypshaq) degen ataulargha iye. Qarsaq qalasy – Úly Qypshaq jerining jýregi. Bizdegi әigili «Qarsaqbay ken orny» atauyn eske alynyz.
Madiyarlar men qazaqtardyng tuystyghy turaly alghashqy pikirler HIH ghasyrda jergilikti gazet betterinde jariyalana bastaydy. 1835 jyly Shamueli Brashshaidyng «Qyrghyz-qazaqtar» atty enbegi jaryq kóredi. Keyin de madiyar ghalymdarynyng qazaq eline, jerine baylanysty enbekteri jaryq kóre bastaydy. Solardyng arasynda Dierdi Almashiyding esimi kózge erekshe týsedi. 1900 jyly Qazaq jerine jasaghan sayahaty nətiyjesinde «Aziya jýregine sayahatym» atty enbegi jaryq kóredi. Kitabynda Orta Aziya halyqtarynyn, sonyng ishinde qazaqtardyng ómiri, túrmys-salty, sharuashylyghy, sauda-sattyghy, ədet-ghúrpy, nanym-senimderi, qolóneri, auyz ədebiyeti turaly mol maghlúmat keltiredi. HH ghasyrda belgili majar ghalymy, antropolog Tibor Tot ózining ghylymy enbekterinde eki eldegi rulardy, qazaqtar men madiyarlar (majar) arasyndaghy tuystyq baylanystardy jan-jaqty zertteudi bastaghanymen, búl ghylymy múrasyn sayasy sebepterge baylanysty jalghastyra almaydy. Al Androsh Biro múny ghylymy dərejege kóteredi. 2006 jyly Androshtyng jetekshiligimen, Qostanay oblysynda qazaq-majar birlesken antropologiyalyq ekspedisiyasy Torghay ónirinde túratyn qazaqtar men madiyar ruy ókilderi arasyndaghy geneologiyalyq derekter, antropologiyalyq ólshemder jasalady. DNK ýlgileri alynyp, ghasyrlar boyy ózgermeytin jəne genetikalyq aqparatty saqtaytyn Ý hromosomdaryna taldau jýrgiziledi. Nətiyjesinde majarlyq madiyarlar men qazaqtardyng arasyndaghy tuystyq qatynas tolyghymen dəleldenedi. Al Ishtvan Mandoky Qonyr «Kýn tilining Majarstandaghy eskertkishi» (1993) atty enbeginde majar tilindegi keybir sózder men qazaq tilindegi sózderding úqsastyghyn keltiredi. Mysaly: arqan – arkany, úntaq – ontak, sholaq – csollak, qanjygha – kangyik, pyshaq – bicska t.t. bolyp kete beredi.
Keltirilgen derekter Qazaqtyng rulyq shejiresimen de tolyqtay sәikes keledi.
MADIYaR – taza qazaqy atau. Ad, Mad, Adi, Madi, Ar (yar), Diyar degen birikken sózderden túrady. Sóz týbiri – Ad (qarashanyraghy Aday). Arghy tegi ejelgi Manghystaudyng MAD (Man Aday) patshalyghy. Al, olardyng ózderin qypshaqpyz deytinderine kelsek, Qypshaq pen Qazaq sinonim sózder bolyp tabylady. Shyndyghynda, Qypshaqtar Qazaqtyng úrpaghy. Olar ózderin Majarlar dep te ataydy. Ma (Man) jar (jary), Aj (Az), Ar degen birikken sózderden túrady.
Majar olardyng rulyq atauy. Tolyq maghynasy Manghystaulyq Jarylar degen sóz. Jary ruy Qazaqtyng Adayynyng kenjesi (qarashanyraghy) Múnaldan  taraydy (Adaydyng shejire dereginen).
Qazirgi Kaspiy men Araldyng arasyndaghy Múnaljary (Mugadjar) tauy, Shynghystaudyng (Shynghys hannyng atyna qoyylghan) eng biyik jeri Múnal shyny,  Altaydyng arghy shegindegi Múnal dalasy (qazirgi Mongholiya), kóptegen әlem elderindegi Jary atty jerler men elder (mysaly Jarkent (Jary kenti), Jarsu (Jary suy), Jarbúlaq (Jary búlaghy), Jarqúdyq (Jary qúdyghy) t.t.   solardan qaldy. 
«...Tanymadyng atandy,
Qazaqtyng úly qaghany
Shynghyshanday babandy.
Tanymasang atandy
Tanytayyn men saghan
Atamyz Múnal Jarydan
Múnaljar degen tau qalghan (Aqtóbe oblysy, oryssha Mugadjar dep atalady).
Úlytauym ardaqtym
Saryarqamnyng tósinde,
Shynghystau degen tau qalghan.
Sol Shynghystyng shynynda,
Múnal degen shyng qalghan
Altaydyng arghy sheginde
Múnal degen el qalghan (qazirgi Mongholiya).
Toqtamasang oghan da,
Sonshama milau bolmasan,
Aytqan sózge kónbesen,
Aqiqat degen auyldyn
Qonaghy bolyp «qonbasan»
Úrpaghy onyng men qalgham.
Atamyz Jary bolghan son,
Shynghystan әri bolghan son.
Toqtamys-Tabay shyghady,
Joshydan bizge qalghan jol» (Amanjol Orynbasarúly Sherkeshbay. «Aday tegi» tolghauynan ýzindi).
 Diyar arab tilinde túrghyn ýi, el degen maghyna berse, parsy tilinde «jaryq berushi nemese Qúdaydyng bergeni» dep audarylady. Diyar taza qazaq sózi – Dy jәne Ar degen eki birikken Atamyzdyng esiminen túrady. Maghynasy Dy Ardyng atasy.
Al, Diyardyng tegi kim deytin bolsaq, ony Ad qauymy dep batyl aita alamyz. Álemning kóptegen elderinde «Ad-Diyar» degen ataular kezdesedi. Sonyng biri Livannyng Búqaralyq aqparat qúralynyng atauy. Ol eldegi ortalyq baspasózding atauy «Ad-Diyar» dep atalady, yaghny Diyardyng atasy Ad qauymy delingen. Ad-tyng Diyardan búryn jazylatynynyng syry osy.
Atam Qazaqtyng ejelgi qaghidasynda qazirgiler jazyp jýrgendey, adam attary Atasy men әkesinen búryn aitylmaghan da, jazylmaghan da. Mysaly,  Áz (Az) Jәnibek, Áz Tәuke, Er (Ar, Arys) Targhyn, Er Qosay, Er Shabay, Er Tólep, Er Qarmys,  Aq Nazar (Haq Nazar han), Múnal Jary, Alshyn Jalantós,  Qara Kerey Qabanbay, Qanjyghaly Bógenbay, Shaqshaq Jәnibek, Qonyrat Alatau, Eskeldi Sýgir, Qúnanorys Shabay, Tabyn Bókenbay, Tama Eset, Janay Qojanazar, Shapyrashty Qarasay, Shapyrashty Nauryzbay, Kete Jýsip, Qaraqypshaq Qobylandy, Janys Tóle bi, Eskeldi Sanazar t. t. bolyp bәrinde de ruynyng (Atasynyn) aty birinshi jazylghan.
Búl atamyzdyng esimi Manghystauda Madiyar atty alqap pen eldi meken (Bozashy týbeginde), Diyar degen jer jәne eldi meken (Manqystau men Aqtóbe oblysynyng shekara jerinde ornalasqan, Bayghanin audanyna qaraydy) atauynda saqtalghan. Búl atau әlemning ózge de elderinde kóptep kezdesedi. Mysaly, Diyarbakyr Týrkiyanyng ontýstik-shyghysyndaghy qala men audannyng atauy, búl qala Týrkiyalyq kurdtardyng әkimshilik ortalyghy. Diyala Irak pen Iranda ózen, Irakta aimaq atauy.
Qojyrbayúly Múhambetkәrim, Manghystau
Abai.kz 

 

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Qúiylsyn kóshing

Bas gazet oralmandargha nege shýilikti?

Álimjan Áshimúly 2302
Ádebiyet

«Solay emes pe?»

Ghabbas Qabyshúly 2651
Qogham

Dos kóp pe, dúshpan kóp pe?

Ábdirashit Bәkirúly 2742
El ishi...

Últtyq biregeylenu: Qandastardyng róli qanday?

Omarәli Ádilbekúly 1742