Senbi, 3 Jeltoqsan 2022
Alashorda 14237 0 pikir 21 Qazan, 2015 saghat 10:12

QAZAQ HANDYGhY: AQIQAT PEN ANYZ

Býgingi  XXI ghasyrdaghy әlem kartasyndaghy tәuelsiz memleketter qatarynda Qazaqstannyng alar orny erekshe. Ol әlemdegi territoriyasy jaghynan alyp memleketter qatarynda alghashqy ondyqqa kiredi.

 

El territoriyasyndaghy qazba-baylyqtar da jeterlik. Múnyng barlyghy qazirgi tanda elimizding tәuelsizdigining bekip, mәngilik memleket boluyna birden-bir jaghday jasauda. Osynsha baylyq iyesining qazaq ekeni de dausyz, oghan eshkim de kýmәndanbaydy. Kóne zamannan býginge deyin qazaq halqy Edil men Altay aralyghynda kóship-qonyp, talay arpalys zamandy ótkizip, ózine mәngilik atameken jasady. Asanqayghy izdegen qazaq ýshin jerúiyq ta osy jer boldy. Áriyne, tarihta úlan-baytaq jerimizdi meken etken qanshama taypa men últtyng bolghany belgili. Áytse de, olardyng bazbireuleri óz damularynda ózge myqtylaryna qosylyp, týpki negizin joghaltty. Ózgeleri alyp imperiyalardyng qúramyna kirdi, memlekettiligi joyyldy, olardyng mәdeniyetin qabyldady, az últtyng tili, dini jәne dili joghaldy. Al qazaq últtyq ereksheligin ghana emes, sonymen birge tilin, salt-dәstýrin, atamekenin  saqtap, jana ghasyrda  tәuelsiz memleket retinde әlemdik qauymdastyq qatarynan layyqty ornyn aldy. Búl arada sóz joq, biz kórshiles alyp elderding jýrgizgen sayasatyn jii eske alyp, jýrip ótken joldarymyzdan  ýnemi taghylym alugha mindettimiz. Óitkeni, olar óz damuynda talay últty ózine sinirdi, memleketterin joq qyldy, olargha degenderin jasatty. Kóp alysqa barmay, keshegi aty alysqa jetken Qazan, Astrahan, Sibir handyqtary, Noghay ordasy, Jonghar memleketi tarihyna nazar audarsaq jetip jatyr. Olardy kórshiles alyp imperiyalyq elder ózderine týkpilikti qosyp aldy. Osynsha memlekettermen kórshiles túrghan qazaqtardy ne qútqardy? Bizdinshe, úlan-baytaq territoriyany mekendegen sonau saq, ghún, ýisin, qanly, úly iozy, alandardan bastauyn alatyn keyingi Altyn Ordanyng negizin qúraghan qypshaqtardy, olardyng jalghasy qazaqtardy qanday qiyn-qystau zamanda da ishki últtyq birlik, ózara senim, taghdyr tútastyghy saqtay bildi. Altaydan Edilge deyingi aralyqta týbi bir týrki tildes halyqtar ornyqty, olar sharuashylyq, mәdeni, tildik úqsastyqtaryn saqtap qana qoymay ony damyta týsti. Mongholdar shapqynshylyghy da ishki tútastyqqa týbegeyli betbúrys әkele almady. Joshy úlysy, Aq orda, Ózbek úlysy, sayyp kelgende, Qazaq atauymen alghash ret payda bolghan handyqtyng qúryluyna yqpalyn tiygizdi. 1465 jyly qúrylghan Qazaq handyghy úzaq jylghy tabighy damudyng zandy nәtiyjesi boldy.  Tarihshy Zardyhan Qinayatúly: «Al Qazaq memleketi, qazaq últy Joshy úly­synyng әskery sol qanaty, Aq Orda dәui­rinde «Alash Eli», biyleushisi Orys han – «Alash han» atandy. «Alash» atauy qazaq atauynyng tikeley balamasy. Búl men ash­­qan janalyq emes, ony Qadyrghaly Ja­­layyr, Sh.Uәlihanov, Mәshhýr Jýsip Kó­peevter әldeqashan aityp ketken. Búl turaly parsy, monghol, orys derekterinde jet­kilikti materialdar bar. Biraq Qazaq handyghy qazaq memlekettiligining bastauy da, son­­­ghysy da emes. Saq, Ýisin dәuirinen bas­tap, býginge deyin ósip-ónip kelgen diy­na­mikalyq qú­bylys», - dep týiindeydi (MINBER Últtyq internet gazeti. -2013. -2 nauryz). Sonymen 550 jyldyghyn atap otyrghan Qazaq handyghy qaynar bastauyn býgingi Qazaqstan territoriyasyn sonau kóne zamannan kóship qonyp, túraqty mekenge ainaldyrghan taypalardan, olar qúraghan memleketterden alady.

Jer betindegi barsha halyqtarday qazaqtar da óz damuynda tabighat syryn tereng mengeruimen qatar, onyng zandylyqtaryn iygerdi. Sodan baryp  el boludyn, ony basqarudyng ózindik erekshelikterin qalyptastyrdy. Bizdinshe, onyng bastamasy ortaghasyrlyq týrkilerding memlekettik instituttarynan,  Altyn Ordanyng әskery basqaru jýiesinen alyndy.  Úly dalany basqarudyng ghasyrlar boyy qalyptasqan jýiesin paydalana otyryp, qazaqtar búrynnan qalyptasqan  atalyq dәstýrdi janghyrtty. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde jeti atalyq basqaru ýrdisi úrpaqtar sanasyna sinirildi. Mine, osy ýrdis qazaq qoghamyndaghy memlekettik qúrylymnyng ózindik erekshelikterin qalyptastyrdy. Sayyp kelgende, basqarudyng jeti satysy – auyl, ata aimaq, ru, arys, úlys, jýz, handyq qazaq ómirine berik ornyqty. Bir kezende eng jaqyn, qandas tuystardan túratyn auyldyng jeti atagha deyingi bauyrlary qúraytyn birneshe auyldarymen qosylyp ata aimaq, sodan on ýsh, on bes ata aimaq birigip birtútas rudy, olar kóbeyip arysty qúrady. Olardy auyl basy, aqsaqal, úlys basy basqardy. Keyin ýlken rular úlysqa, birneshe úlys jýzge birikti. Arysqa súltandar, jýzge handar jauap berdi. Sonynda  barlyghy  birtútas handyqta jinaqtalyp, olardyng ókilderi qatysqan arnayy shaqyrylghan Qúryltayda Úly qaghandy nemese Úly handy saylady. El saylaghan qaghan nemese han kóne týrikterding eskertkishterinde birin-biri tolyqtyryp layyqty oryn aldy. Elbasyn kóktýrikter, úighyrlar, hazarlar, avarlar, týrgeshter qaghan, búlgharlar, kuman-qypshaqtar, peshenektar han ataghan.  Osylaysha tómennen jogharygha qaray basqaru jýiesin saqtaghan Qazaq handyghy dala demokratiyasynyng sara jolyn jalghastyrdy. Handyqtyng irge tasyn atalastar qúraghan rular, olar birikken jýzder qúrady.  Múny eskergen Qúrbanghaly Haliyd: «Qazaqiyanyng negizi – ýsh jýz» - dep anyqtaghan-dy (Halid Q. Tauarih Hamsa, 50 b.).  Qazaq shejirelerining de qazaq jýzderining negizgi bastaularyn bir atadan izdeuining ózi ishki tútastyqty bildiredi. 1876 jyly Mekkeden Qúnanbay, Myrqy, Dosjan  haziretter alyp kelgen shejirede Qazaq-Alashtan Aqarys, Janarys, Bekarystyn, Músa Shormanov jasaghan shejirede qazaqtyng týp atasy Qútannan Aqjol, Alshyn, Ýisinnin, Úly jýz shejiresindegi Alasha hannan Bayshora, Janshora, Qarashoranyn  jan-jaqqa tarauy ýsh jýzding irge tasynyng qalanu joldaryn aighaqtaydy. Býginge deyin qazaq rulary osy atalardan órbip, ósip-ónip ony úrpaqtan-úrpaqqa taratty. Belgili ghalym J.Artyqbaev: «Rulyq qatynastardyng qalypty jýiesi - qazaqtyng qoghamdyq tәrtibinin, әkimshilik jýiesinin, etno-әleumettik ómirining irge tasy. Qazaq úghymyndaghy ru - tek genealogiyalyq qatynastardyng alghy sharty ghana emes, ol - tarihy qúbylys. XVIII gh. qazaq ishinde keng taraghan anyz-әngimeler qazaq rularynyng barlyghyn bir ortaq bastaudan shygharady. Onyng bir aighaghy әr týrli derekterde qazaqtardyng «alash úlysy» atanuy», - dep qorytady (Artyqbaev J.O. Qogham jәne etnos, 157 b.).

Songhy kezende baspasóz betterinde «Taghy bir aqtandaq: qazaq tarihshylary «jýz» turaly qate pikir aityp jýr. Qazaqta ejelden «jýz»  bolmaghan, qayta «jýzdik» sarbazdar bolghan. «Jýz» atauy 1803 jyly payda bolypty. Ol kezde barlyq qazaqtyng basynda Tәuke han túrady. El atauy «Ýlken orda, Orta orda, Kishi orda» dep atalady. Yaghni, ýsheui – ýsh memleket. Biraq ýsheui de Tәuke hangha qyzmet kórsetu ýshin, jyl sayyn jýzdik әsker salyghyn berip otyrghan. Demek, «jýz» atauy osylay payda bolady. 1803 jyly Bókey ordasy qúrylyp, sheneunikter Sank-Peterburgke hat jazypty. Sonda patshagha qazaq halqyn úsaqtap kórsetu ýshin, onyng memleketin moyyndamay, «Orda» degen ataudy «jýzdikpen»   auystyryp jazady. Mine, bizge «jýz» atauy osylay kelipti. Men búl sózdi múraghattardan tapqan derekterge sýienip aityp otyrmyn» degen pikirler nasihattala bastady (Nasenov B. Qazaqta jýz bolmaghan // Nasenov B. HÝIII tom-HHHIII kitap, 11 b.).  Sonymen qazaqta jýzder bolmaghan ba, bolsa, qanday dәlelder bar?

Aldymen, tarihshy ghalymdargha tanys Qadyrghaly by 1602 jylghy enbeginde «Alash mynynyn»  ýsh iri sangha, yaghny ýsh jýzge bólinetinin jazghanyn algha tartamyz (Syzdyqova R., Qoygeldiyev M. Qadyrghaly by Qosymúly jәne onyng Jylnamalar jinaghy, 44 b.). 1910 jyly Qúrbanghaly Haliyd: «Qazaq ýsh jýzge shamamen 1300-1400 jyldary bólingeni bayqalady. Al «Mustafadul-Ahbarda» búlay bólinui 1680 jyldary dep avtor teksermey, anyghyna jetpey jazyp jibergen. Qazaq nassabshylary jýz, eki jýz jylghy isterge talasyp otyrmaydy. Uaqigha myng jyldan beri bolsa da, ishinde jýrgendey bile beredi. Ýsh jýzge bólinui mynnan ary, tipti qazaq atauynan da kóne ekenine isharat etse kerek»,  dey kele «Qazaqtyng ýsh jýz ataluy Jәnibek hannan bastalatynyn» anyqtaydy. Avtor  IH ghasyrdaghy at-Tabari, Jýsip Balasaghúnidan bastap, HH ghasyrgha deyingi aralyqtaghy enbekterge arqa sýiegen. Zertteushi «Ýsh jýzding jogharydaghy jazylghan hikayalardan bayqaghanda ýsh úldyng aty ekendigi, bolmasa olardy ýshke bólgende әkimderine berilgen mansaptyng ataluy ekendigi tarihy shyndyq. Reseyde agha súltan, Qytayda uan, kýng siyaqty, arabsha jýz degeni – bólshek, top maghanasynda aityluy aqylgha siyady», - degen toqtamgha keledi(Halid Q. Tauarih Hamsa, 66, 234 b.).   1762 jyly jazylghan Qytaydyn «Siiy tu chjiy» nemese «Batys ólke kartalary men sipattamalary» atty tarihy shygharmasynda «Bastapqyda Abylay han Chunidenagha: «Jongharlardyng tórt oirattan qúralghany siyaqty, bizding qazaqtar da óz ishinen ýsh jýzge bólinedi. Sonyng ishinde Orta jýzdi men basqaramyn. Búdan basqa Úly jýz ben Kishi jýz degen eki jýz bar, ol eldi mening tuysqan bauyrlarym biyleydi. Olarmen barys-kelis, ortaq mәmilege kelip otyramyz» dep tanystyrghan edi», - degen joldar bar  (Qazaqstan tarihy turaly Qytay derektemeleri. I t., 219 b.).  Búl pikirlerdi 1756 jyly qaytys bolghan Qazybek biyding qyzy Mәnkening joqtauyndaghy «Ýsh jýzding úly jinalsa, Aldynnan kenes tarqaghan»,  1847 jylghy Sýiinbay men Qataghannyng aitysyndaghy óleng joldary dәleldey týsedi. Sýiinbay aqyn qyrghyzdyng manaby Ormanhannyng sheshesine bergen asyndaghy Qataghanmen aitysynda tútas ýsh jýzding birligi men tirligin, olardyng qúramyn jәne territoriyalyq ornalasu jaghdayyn jete taldauy jýz atauynyng qazaqpen birge jasap kele jatqanyn dәleldeydi. Búl arada Sh.Uәlihanovtyng kezinde orys zertteushileri Ritter men Georgiyding Úly jýzdi buruttargha (qyrghyzdargha) qosyp, ony Orta jәne Kishi jýzderden bóluin syngha alyp,  «Qyrghyz-qaysaq ordasynyng Úly, Orta jәne Kishi jýzderi birtútas qazaq halqyn qúraydy» dep dәleldeuin erekshe atap ótken jón (Vostrov V.V., Mukanov M.S. Rodoplemennoy sostav y rasselenie kazahov (HIH –nachalo HHv.). 2-oe izd. dop. Astana, 2007, s.19.].

1731 jyly qazaqtarmen kelissózge kelgen A.IY.Tevkelev tabyn Bókenbay batyrdan qazaqtardyng Úly jýz, Orta jýz, Kishi jýz bolyp ýshke bólinetinin estip, jazyp alghanymen, ony Ýlken orda, Orta orda, Kishi orda dep ózgertip óz jazbasyna engizedi (KRO I, s.62.). Mine, osydan bastap orys sheneunikteri ózderi tanyghan  Qyrghyz-qaysaq ordasyn ýshke bólip, Ýlken orda, Orta orda, Kishi orda atauyn týkpilikti engizedi.

Tarihshy Zardyhan Qinayat: «Qazaq jýzderin «Áskery jýzdik» nemese «Ýsh orda» dep tarihy oidy tyghyryqqa tiregen – taghy da orys tildi әdebiyetter. Qazaq jýzderining tarihyn әskery jýzdik (sotnya) nemese qazaq shejireleri siyaqty san jetkisiz atalyqtardan izdeu - tarihty adastyratyn jol. Orystyng «sotnya» degeni – ejelgi týrkilerding «Juz» sózin orysshalaghan mehanikalyq audarmasy. Al týrkilerding «Juz», qazaqtardyng «jýz» sózderining naqty maghynasy – sifrlyq jýz (100) emes, baghyt-baghdardy bildiretin («ortaq jatqan Ýisinim, Dulatym taghy bar, ary barsaq, Qypshaghym» degen siyaqty) úghym», - dep qorytady (Anyz adam. -2012. №24, 30 b.).

Sonymen birtútas Qazaq handyghy ýsh jýzden qúraldy. Jýz úlan-baytaq territoriyany týrki zamanynan búryn qalyptasqan el basqarudaghy әleumettik-ekonomikalyq, sayasy mәselelerdi ýilestiretin, ken-baytaq jerlerin tabighiy-geografiyalyq erekshelikterine qaray ýshke bólingen birlestik boldy. Onyng әr bóligin qazaqtar «jýz» ataghan. Tabighattyng zandylyghyna sәikes, olardy shyghystan batysqa qaray sanaghan: Úly jýz, Orta jýz, Kishi jýz. Búlaysha bólinisting basty maqsaty ózara baylanysty retteu, ishki birtútastyqty saqtau jolyndaghy is-әreketterdi ýilestiru edi. Jýzder jeke handar arqyly basqarylady. Olar el senimine ie bolghan Bas hangha baghynady.

Qazaq handyghynyng negizgi tiregi sanalghan ata aimaqty, rulardyng bólimderin  aqsaqaldar basqarady. Aqsaqal degenimiz - auyldyng ýlkeni ghana emes, onyng kórgen-bilgeni kóp, ainalasyna aitary bar, kópshilikti bastay alatyn, elding danagóii. Onyng ózin de rulastary saylaytyn. Qazaq tarihynyng bilgiri H.Dosmúhamedov: «El biylegen aqsaqaldar da elding tilegin tilep, elding joqshysy boldy. Aqsaqal bolu, by boludyng ózi elding saylauynan bolghandyqtan, búlar elden bólinip kete almaytyn», - degen bolatyn (Dosmúhamedúly H. Isatay-Mahambet. Almaty, 1991, 44 b.]. «Dala uәlayaty» gazetinde jaryq kórgen maqalada «Búrynghy uaqytta qazaq arasynda kópten kele jatqan qúrmetti adamdar biylik aitady eken. Ár túqymnyn, ruynyng óz aldaryna aqsaqaldary bolady eken, aqylshy basshy bolyp jýretin» dey kele,  olardyng bilimdi, aqyldy, әdiletti, qazaqtyng әdet, rәsimderin tegis bilui, әr júmysty qara qyldy qaq jaryp, ornyna keltirui tiyistiligin alghashqy oryngha qoyady. Aqsaqaldardyng qadir-qasiyetine sheksiz sengen halyq olardy by saylady. Mine, osy aqsaqaldar men biyler qazaq rularyn basqarumen qatar, el ishindegi dau-damaylardy sheshti, olardyng sheshimine handar da qarsy kelmegen. Óitkeni «Jeti jarghy» zanynda «daudy sheshu biyler men aqsaqaldargha jýkteledi», «biylerge biylik aitqany ýshin kesilgen maldyng onnan biri tiyisili» dep anyq jazylghan. Búghan qosa,  handyq biylikti qalyng kópshilikpen aqsaqaldar men biyler baylanystyrdy. Yaghni, olardyng qolynda kýlli qara qazaqtyng taghdyry jatty. Qazaq ereksheligin eskergen «Jeti jarghy» el tútastyghyn saqtau maqsatynda «handar men súltandar, aqsaqaldar men rubasylar jyl sayyn kýzding kýni dalanyng orta kindigine qúryltaygha jinalyp, halyq mәselelerin talqylauy tiyis» degendi ornyqtyrdy. Qazaq qoghamyndaghy osynday ishki birlikti tereng sezingen Shoqan Uәlihanov: «Jýz ben jýzdin, jýz ishindegi rulardyng bir-birimen arasyndaghy qatynas naghyz tyghyz tuysqandyqqa sәikes, al rulardyng óz jýzine degen qatynasy balanyng әkege qatynasynday, al jýzding agha ruyna jiyenning naghashygha qatynasynday», - dep sipattady (Valihanov Ch.Ch. Sobr. Soch. II t., s.148.). Sayyp kelgende dala demokratiyasy joghary biylikti halyqpen sanasugha mәjbýr etti. Óz kezeginde rular ishki tәrtipti saqtaugha, ózara qarym-qatynasty jýzege asyrugha jauapty boldy. XVIII ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysynda A.IY.Tevkelev: Kishi orda (derekte solay -Á.M.) tek alshyn taypasynan túrady, al «alshyn ekige, yaghny qarakesek pen bayúlyna bólinedi», al úsaq jeti rudy Tәuke han bir topqa biriktirip, alshyngha qosqan», - dep anyqtap, olardyng bir atagha nemese ortalyqqa birikkenin dәleldegen bolatyn (KRO I, s.406.).  Qazaq tarihyndaghy Tóle, Qazybek, Áyteke biyler tútastay el tútqasyna ainalar jolda, aldymen, óz atalastary aldyndaghy tәlim-tәrbiyeden, keyin uaqyt synynan ótti. Sonyng arqasynda qazaq biyleri dala demokratiyasynyn  negizgi kindigine ainaldy. Qazaq shejiresindegi Syrym batyrdyng últ-azattyq kýres bastauynda bedeldi Kishi jýz biyleri Qarakóbek, Aldar, Shoytas, IYtemgen, Túrmambet, Baraq  biylerge kelip  aqyldasuy biyler kenesining manyzdylyghyn aighaqtaydy. Biylerding óz atalastary arasyndaghy  qadir-qasiyeti kópshilik senimine úlasty, aragha uaqyt sala el qúrmetine bólentti. XIX ghasyrdaghy orys sheneunigi d Andre biyler tarihyn zerttep, olardyng bedeli súltandargha qaraghanda joghary dey kele, biyligi baylyghynda emes, kerisinshe,   әdilettiligine sengen halyq seniminde ekenin tandana jazghan-dy. Sóitip tarihymyzda aqsaqaldar institutynan bastau alatyn biyler instituty myqtap ornyqty. Shynghys han zamanyndaghy Mayqy biyden  bastap biyler «han ataulynyng qazyghy, qara búqaranyng azyghy» bola bildi. XVII ghasyrda ómir sýrgen Mahmúd ibn Uәly ózining «Bahr әl-asrar fy manaqib әl-ahyar» atty enbeginde «Jogharghy mәrtebeli әmirler men elge syily, pendәuy tirlikten azat adamdardyn» barlyghyn by dep  anyqtaghan-dy. Qarapayym halyq ortasynan shyghyp, handardy auzyna qaratqan olar ishki tútastyq pen birlikting kepili boldy. Ejelgi týrki dәuirinen bastauyn alatyn «bek», keyin «biy» sózderi basqaru, biyleu, biylik etu úghymdaryn bildirgen. Sh.Uәlihanovtyng ózi «biy» sózining negizgi maghynasy «sotty» bildiretinin atap kórsetken-di (Orazbaeva A. Dәstýrli qazaq qoghamyna tәn biyler instituty, 55-57 b.). Attary anyzgha ainalghan Tóle, Qazybek, Áyteke biylerding tóreligine bas iygen Qazaq handyghy XVII – XVIII ghasyrlardaghy alasapyran kezende el birligin saqtady. 1753 jyly 11 nauryzda orys ýkimeti Qazybek biyding býkil Orta jýzdegi eng basty by bolyp tabylatynyn, oghan Ábilmәmbet hannyn, Abylay hannyn, basqa da úlystardyng súltandary men el aghalarynyng әrqashanda kelip, әrtýrli ke­nes­ter alatynyn, tipti Qazybek biyding keli­si­min­siz Orta jýzde birde-bir manyzdy mә­sele she­shil­meytinin anyqtaydy (KRO I, s.648]. Tarihta biyler sotynyng da atqarghan manyzdy qyzmetteri belgili. Bir ghana Ábilqayyr hannyng ólimine baylanysty úiymdastyrylghan biyler soty sheshimining ózi týbinde el birligin saqtaugha baghyttaldy. Qazaq biyleri sot isterimen qatar elding sayasiy-diplomatiyalyq, әkimshilik mәselelerin sheshude de sýbeli ról atqardy.

XVIII ghasyrdyng ereksheligi qazaq biylerining ózge eldermen tikeley baylanysqa shyghuy deuimizge bolady. 1744-1745 jyldary Qazybek by eki ret Orynbor әkimshiligine hat joldaydy (RF OROMM 3 q., 1 t., 8 is, 110-113 p.). Múnday baylanystardy kezinde Tóle biyde paydalanghan-dy. Basty maqsat jonghar shapqynshylyghynan qorghanu bolatyn. Degenmen osynday hat almasular keyinirek jappay dәstýrge ainalady. Ony orys sayasatkerleri kenirek qoldap, dәstýrli basqaru jýiesin әlsiretuge, biylerdi handargha qarsy qoiygha paydalanady.

Biylerding adamy jәne memleketaralyq qarym-qatynastaghy sheberligi qazaq elining syrtqy sayasatynda aiqyn kórinis tapty. 1755-1799 jyldary Qytay patshasyna jiberilgen 26 qazaq elshiligine 9 bedeldi biyler bas bolghan. Olar  Ómirtay, Dosay, Qúttybay, Mamyq, Baytúrghan, Otarshy, Búqar jyrau balasy Jarylghap,  Qaratoqa biyler. Solardyng ishinen Baytúrghan by 1764 jyly Qytaygha qarsy odaqtas izdegen Abylay han atynan Aughanstangha da attanghan-dy (Qazaq etnografiyasy: etnos jәne qogham. Qaraghandy, 1995, 263-266 b.). Qytaylyqtar  83 jastaghy Tóle biyding qúzyretin Jolbarys hannyng úly Ábiliz hanmen salystyryp,  «Batys bólik qazaqtar men Tashkent jerindegi basqaru isining barlyghy Tóle biyding qúzyrynda eken, ózge qolbasshylar men búqaralardyng barlyghy Tóle biyding biyligine boysúnady eken» degen qorytyndy shygharghany bar  (Qazaqstan tarihy turaly Qytay derektemeleri. III t., 56, 60 b.).

Múnyng ózi biyler institutynyng handyq basqaru jýiesinde han, súltandar tәrizdi әleumettik toptardan keyin ornalasqanymen, el ishindegi salmaghy jaghynan olardan kem týspegenin aighaqtaydy. Olar elding temir qazyghy boldy.

Qazaq qoghamynda biylermen qatar batyrlar instituty da layyqty ornyn tapty. Batyrlar óz bastauyn, bizdinshe, adam balasynyng jer betinde payda bolu kezeninen alady. Óitkeni qay zamanda da eldi bastaytyn, qorghaytyn túlgha kerek. Osynday adamdar «er», «batyr», «bahadýr» atalyp, erekshelene bastady. Kóne týrki zamanynda batyrlar institutynyng belgileri anyq kórinedi. Bilge qaghannyng memleket basshysy, әri qolbasshy, Kýltegin qaghannyn  batyr, Tonykókting batyr, sheshen, әri danagóy retinde sipattalyp, bizge jetui jogharydaghy pikirdi dәleldey týsedi. El aldyna shyqqan batyrlar әskery qolbasshylyq, jauyngerlik qyzmetpen qatar, diplomatiyalyq-bitimgershilik isterge aralasty. Olar Sh.Uәlihanov jazghanday «batyr qazaqtardaghy rubasy, súltannan keyingi birden-bir ýlken qúrmetti adamy, búl eng bedeldi adam» retinde moyyndaldy (Valihanov Ch.Ch. Sobr. Soch. T.4, s.95). Batyrlar әrbir rudyng birligining kepili bola bildi. Olardyng bastauymen qazaqtyng soghys óneri qalyptasty. XVII-XVIII ghasyrlarda el tәuelsizdigine qauip tóngen shaqta Jalantós bahadýrdin, Bókenbay Qaraúlynyn, Eset Kókiúlynyn, Jәnibek Shaqshaqúlynyn,  Bógenbay Aqshaúlynyng (Qanjyghaly Bógenbay – Á.M.), Qabanbay Qojaghúlúlynyn, Rayymbek Hangeldiúlynyn, Nauryzbay Qúttymbetúlynyn, Syrym Datúlynyn,  Abylay han erekshe qúrmettegen Malaysary men Bayannyn, XIX ghasyrdaghy Jolaman Tilenshiúlynyn, Isatay-Mahambet, Kenesary-Nauryzbay batyrlardyng attary orys múraghattarynda hattaldy. Qandy soghystargha qatysa jýrip, qazaq batyrlary biylermen qatar diplomatiyalyq elshilikterge de at salysty. Mәselen, 1687 jylghy Tәuke hannyng Tobylgha  jibergen elshiligin Tәshim, Húsyrauúly Qayyp hannyng 1713 jylghy Stambulgha elshiligin Seyitqúl,  Resey patshasyna elshiligin Arystan, Tantay, Ábilqayyr hannyng Qazan gubernatoryna elshiligin Tayqonyr, Orynborgha Tabyn Bókenbay, Shaqshaq Bógenbay, Shaqshaq Jәnibek, 1746 jylghy parsy shahyna  elshiligin Aqmyrza, Ábilmәmbet hannyng 1742 jylghy Jonghar qontayshysyna elshiligin Malaysary, 1758 jyly Qytaygha Qabanbay batyrlar bastady. Kezinde Abylay han: «Batyrlarymnyng ishinen Malaysary men Bayan batyr bәrinen de joghary túr. Malaysary baylyghy, batyrlyghy, minezi jaghynan, al Bayan aqyly men erjýrektigi jaghynan», - dep joghary baghalaghan bolatyn.   Batyrlar qazaq-orys, qazaq-qalmaq, qazaq-jonghar, qazaq-qytay, qazaq-parsy, qazaq-aughan qarym-qatynasynda el mýddesin qorghady. Qazaqtyng Bas handarynyng ishinde Jәngirding aty 1643-1644 jyldary 5 myndyq Jonghar qontayshysyna qarsy 600 sarbazben kýreste shyqsa, Ábilqayyr men Abylaydyng jonghar batyrlarymen jekpe-jekte danqy órlep, bahadýr ataghyn iyelendi.   Batyrlar instituty týbinde qazaq jerin otarlaudaghy basty kedergige ainalady. Sondyqtan orys patshasy XIX ghasyrda handar kenesin dayyndau turaly qújattarda «batyrlardyn  payda bolmauy» turaly erekshe núsqau bergen-di (Esmaghambetov K. Azat ruhtyng kýreskeri. -Almaty, 2003, 166-167 b.). XIX ghasyrdaghy qazaqtardy biyleu turaly orys erejelerimen tanysqan H.Dosmúhamedov: «Qazaqtyng o zamandaghy әleumetshiligining bir týri ru edi, Rulyqtan tughan batyrlar, biyler edi. Ýkimet rudy joiygha, batyrlardy, biylerdi joiygha qam qyldy», - dep oryndy baghalaghan-dy (Dosmúhamedúly H. Alaman. -Almaty, 1991, 77 b.). Olar jaugershilik zamanda el qorghanyna ainaldy.

Qazaq handyghynyng qalyptasyp, damuyna halqymyzdyng kóne zamannan bastau alatyn diny senim-nanymdarymen qatar músylman dini ózindik yqpal jasady. Ortalyq Aziyada músylman dini qabyldanghannan keyin  el ishinde zor bedelge ie bolghan saydtar nemese seyitter, qojalar aq sýiekter qataryna engiziledi. Qazaq dalasynda tóreler tәrizdi endogamiyalyq topty qúraghan olar sayd-qojalar atalady.  Múraghat qújattary Ábilqayyr han janynda ýsh jýzding piri sanalghan sayd Múhammed qojanyn, Abylay hanmen Sarghaldaq,  Syrym batyrmen «býkil qazaq júrtynyng piri» Ábdijәlel qojanyng jýrgenin dәleldeydi. Shoqannyng әjesi Ayghanym hanymnyng ózi Sarghaldaq qojanyng qyzy bolatyn.  Sarghaldaq qoja Búharada oqyp, Abylay hangha Shyghys Qazaqstannan erip kelgen. Orys derekteri ony Sarghaldaq Óteshov dep jazyp qaldyrghan (KRO II). Saydtar óz bastaularyn Múhammed payghambardyng nemere bauyry, qyzy Fatimanyng joldasy, 4-shi halif Ály b. Ály Talibten (661 jyly q.b.) alsa, qojalar  Múhammed payghambardyng tórt joldasynan nemese Qazaqstangha din taratugha kelgen arabtardan taraghan delinedi. I.IY.Grodekovting anyqtauynsha, seyitter, saydtar «qojalar ishindegi eng betke ústarlary». Qojalar Shynghys han әuletinen taraytyn tóreler, Múhammed payghambardan taraytyn saydtar dәrejesine jetpegenimen, músylman dinin taratushylar retinde zor qúrmetke bólenip, tóreler men saydtargha berilgen qúqyqtar men artyqshylyqtargha ie boldy. Orys zertteushisi A.IY.Dobrosmyslov qojalardyng erekshe jarty ay tәrizdi tanbasy bolghanyn, keyde óz qújattaryn súltandar tanbasymen de bekitkenin atap ótken-di (Erofeeva IY.V. Rodoslovnye kazahskih hanov y koja, s.23,31).

Olardyng әleumettik qyzmeti zeket jinau, din taratu, oqytu, diny senimder men dәstýrlerdi, emdik sharalardy jýzege asyrumen erekshelendi. Degenmen Orta Aziyadaghy ózge elderdegidey qojalar Qazaqstanda arnayy memlekettik dәrejedegi qyzmet atqarmaghanymen, múraghat qújattary olardyng qoghamdyq – sayasy ómirde ózindik ról atqarghanyn aighaqtaydy. 1719 jyly orys patshasyna F.Jilin arqyly jetken Sopy Áziz hatynan «Qazaq Ordasy handary aitqanymnan shyqpaydy. Qazaq Ordasy men Resey arasynda sauda búryn jii jýretin. Músylman kópesteri qinalmay Resey jerine jetetin. Endi sol bayandy beybitshilikti qalpyna keltirip, eki Ordanyng (búl arada Qazaq eli men Resey memleketteri turaly aitylyp otyr – Á.M.) basyn qaytadan qosu kerek», - degen joldardy oqugha bolady. 1731 jyly mausymda sayd Múhammed qojanyng Ábilqayyr atynan Ufagha, 1734 jyly Batyr súltan atynan Peterburgke barghanyn tarih biledi (KRO I, s.46). XIX ghasyrdyng 1 jartysynda Arynghazy, Kenesary handar da qalyng kópshilikti óz tóniregine jinaqtauda músylman dinining atalghan ókilderine arqa sýiedi. Múnyng ózi qojalardyng sayasy belsendiligi men el ishindegi bedelin aiqyndaydy.

Qazaq qoghamyndaghy jogharydaghyday manyzdy  basqaru instituttary jylda ótetin Halyq kenesi nemese Qúryltayda memlekettik mәselelerdi sheshuge jinaldy.  «Jeti jarghyda» halyq jiynynyng ýsh jýz balasyna birdey ynghayly jerde, kýz ailarynda ótetini naqtylanghan. Halyq jadynda Mәrtóbe, Kýltóbe, Qaraqúm, Qaraqorym, Ordabasy jәne ózge de jerlerde ótken jiyndar saqtalghan. Múraghatqa týsken jiyndardyng biri 1710 jyly Aral tenizi manyndaghy ótken Qaraqúm kenesi. Osy jerde 1803 jyly bolghan Ya.Gaverdovskiy el auzynan kenesting jongharlargha qarsy kýreste ýsh jýzding jinalyp, tabyn Bókenbay batyr úsynysymen ortaq sheshim qabyldanghanyn jazyp alady. Múnday manyzdy mәseleler talqylanghan kenester 1730, 1733, 1736 jyldary da úiymdastyrylyp, negizinen qazaq-orys qarym-qatynasyn talqygha salady. Keyin 1752 jyly ýsh jýzding iygi-jaqsylary Úlytauda jinalyp, qazaq-jonghar mәselesin saralaghan. Aragha uaqyt sala qytaylyqtar da: «Olardyng el ómirinde bolyp jatatyn kýrdeli mәselelerdi sheshu ýshin dәiim bas qosyp, týrli jinalystar ótkizip otyratyn jerining aty Esil dep atalady», - dep tolyqtyra týsedi(Qazaqstan tarihy turaly Qytay derektemeleri. I t., 211 b.). Ýsh jýz qazaghynyng ortalyghy Týrkistan qalasynda da talay jiyndar ótken. Sonyng múraghatqa týskenderining biri Abylay hannyng Bas han saylanghan jiyny. Ol turasynda hannyng ózi orys ýkimetine: «Mening atalas tuystarym Ábilqayyr men Ábilmәmbet handar dýniyeden ótti. Olardyng izin basqan maghan handyq kezek keldi. Olar qaytys bolghannan keyin qazaqtyng ýsh Jýzi – Úly jýz, Orta jýz jәne Kishi jýzding handary men súltandary, Tashkent pen Týrkistan aimaghynyng ýlken-kishisi tilek qosyp, 1771 jyly Týrkistan qalasynda... meni ýsh Alashynyng hany etip, aq kiyizge kóterdi», - dep habarlaydy (Abylay han. Ómiri men qyzmetine qatysty qújattar men materialdardyng jinaghy (Qúrast., Z.S.Tayshybay), 424 b.).

Qúryltay sheshetin basty mәselening biri Qazaq handyghyndaghy Bas handy saylau bolatyn. Bas han elding atynan sóileytin, ortaq memlekettik basqarudy jýzege asyrghan Elbasy boldy. Ol Halyq kenesi bergen qúzyret boyynsha memleket aldyndaghy manyzdy mәselelerdi memleketti qorghaudy úiymdastyrdy,  onyng ishki-syrtqy sayasatyn anyqtady, diplomatiyalyq qatynastardy damytty, joghary sot biyligin  ornatty. Bas handar biyligi Abylay hannyng qaytys boluymen daghdarysqa úshyrady deuimizge bolady. Sodan 1781 jyldan bastap birtútas Qazaq handyghynyn  irgesi sógile bastady, qazaq jýzderi arasyndaghy qalypty jýie búzyldy, tútastay Reseyding otarlau aumaghyna alyndy. Búl arada býginge deyin tarih ghylymynda orys zertteushileri qalyptastyrghan 1715 jyly Tәuke han qaytys bolghan song birtútas Qazaq handyghy jik-jikke bólindi degen tújyrymyn qayta qaraytyn uaqyt jetkenin atap ótemin.

Qazaq handyghy qúrylghan kýnnen bastap úly dalada qalyptasqan dәstýrli handyq basqaru jýiesimen ýilesimin tapty. Qytaylyqtar «Olardyng biyleushileri «Han» dep atalady. Jekelengen rulardy han túqymynan taraghan «súltandar» basqarady» (Qazaqstan tarihy turaly Qytay derektemeleri. I t., 211 b.) dese, 1759 jyly A.IY.Tevkelev pen P.IY.Rychkovtar qazaqtarda «han múragerlik tәrtippen saylanbaydy. Ru basylary kimdi tandasa, sol han bolady, onyng biyligi men abyroyy han taghyna baylanysty emes, el isin atqara alatyn shiraqtyghy men aqylyna baylanysty. Ábilqayyr qyrdaghy belgili handardyng túqymynan emes, tek jas kezinde erlik qúryp, top bastap, kósemdik kórsetip el tizginine ie bolyp han saylanghan», - dep tolyqtyra týsedi. Orys sheneunikteri qazaqtarda eki-ýsh han bolatynyn da, degenmen elding qay uaqytta da olardyng ishinen kópshilik ýshin qyzmet etetin hangha baghynatynyn da atap ótedi (KRO I, s.579-580).  Orynbor sayasatkerlerining búl arada «kópshilik ýshin qyzmet etetin han» degenining ózi barsha qazaqtyng moyyndaghan Bas nemese Agha hany emes pe?! 1767 jyly 14 jeltoqsanda Abylay han Omby әkimshiligine joldaghan hatynda qazaqty basqarghan Bas handar turaly tolyq jazyp, «mening ata-babalarym Baraq han, Jәnibek han, Jәdik han, Shyghay han, Esim han, Jәngir han, Tәuke han, Bolat han, Qayyp han, Ábilqayyr han, Ábilmәmbet han, olardan song endi men Abylay hanmyn» dep habarlaghan bolatyn (RISSM 122 q., 122/2 t., 1766-1769, 18 is, 189 p.). Áriyne, tizimde Qazaq handyghynyng qúrylu, qalyptasu kezenindegi Kerey, Qasym, Tәuekel handar atalmaghanymen olardyng tarihymyzdaghy sinirgen enbekteri halqymyz jadynda tolyqqandy hattalghan. Biz ýshin osy derekting manyzdylyghy alghash ret Bas handardyng retimen tizbektelip, onyng Abylay han atynan jazyluy der edik. Yaghny tarihymyzda Bas handarmen qatar olargha baghynghan kishi handardyng bolghany anyq. Bir ghana XVIII ghasyrdaghy aty tarihta qalghan Úly jýzdegi Jolbarys han, Orta jýzdegi Sәmeke han, Kýshik han (Kóshek dep te jazylady –Á.M.), Kishi jýzdegi Núraly han, Batyr han, Qayyp han jәne ózge de handar sóz joq Bas hangha baghynghan. Qytay múraghatynan tabylghan Qayyp, Batyr, Núraly handar hatyn jariyalap saralaghan Baqyt Ejenhanúly: «Biyleushilerding danyshpandyghy men patriottyghyna tiyisti baghasyn beruimiz kerek. Olardyng diplomatiyalyq joldau hattary «biz, qazaq biyleushileri óz bastauymyzdy Shynghys hannan alamyz»; «qazaq halqy ýsh jýzge bólingenine qaramastan, biz barlyq quanysh pen qiyndyqty birge bólisemiz» degen jalghyz ghana joghary iydeyamen sugharylghan edi.  Handar men súltandar óz kýshterining bir ghana nәrsede – qazaq elining birliginde ekenin óte jaqsy týsindi»,-degen pikirler bizding memlekettik týsinigimizdi sózsiz keneyte týsedi. Búl hattar, taghy da eskertemin, 1762 jyldary jazyldy. Múnyng ózi tarihtaghy sanamyzgha sinirilgen «1731 jyly qazaq orys bodany boldy» degen pikirdi janasha saralaugha shygharady. Qazaq halqy qalyptasqan qiyn zamanda eldi saqtaudyng joldaryn izdestiru ýstinde boldy. Onyng sony ýzilmegen últ-azattyq qozghalystargha úlasty.

Bas han  jýzderdi handar, rulardyng jiyntyghy - arystardy súltandar arqyly basqardy. 1762 jylghy Qytay patshasyna joldaghan hatynda Kishi jýz hany  Núraly: «Qazaqtarda ýsh jýz jәne olardy basqaratyn ýsh han bar. Biz Ábilpeyiz súltan arqyly onyng jәne Ábilmәmbet, Abylay handardyng Sizdermen ózara senimge qúrylghan qarym-qatynasyn estidik. Biz, Núraly han, Erәli, Dosaly, Qaraghay (Ábilqayyr hannyng balasy. Zertteushiler ony Qaratay dep atap jýr – Á.M.) súltandar Kishi jýzdi basqaramyz. Biz ýsh jýzge bólinsek te jaugha qarsy soghysta bolsyn, beybit ómirde bolsyn әrqashan da birgemiz. Sondyqtan biz de, ózge jýzderdey Sizdermen qarym-qatynasymyzdy bekitkimiz keledi»,- dep elshilerin jibergen. Múnday elshilikti Kishi jýzdegi Batyr, Qayyp handar da úiymdastyryp, qazaq biyleushileri arasynda «Shynghys zamanynan beri eshqanday ishki talas-tartys joqtyghyn» algha tartyp, ózara baylanys jasaudy úsynady (Ejenhanuly B. Zapisky syanilunskogo chinovnika // Kazahstanskaya pravda. -2013. 17 maya). Kishi jýz biyleushileri hattarynan bayqaghanymyzday olardyng qay-qaysysy da Ábilpeyiz súltan arqyly Ábilmәmbet pen Abylay handardyng syrtqy sayasatyn qoldaytynyn jәne ýnemi olarmen habardar bolyp otyrghanyn anghartady.

Handyq biylik eldi basqaruda súltandar institutyn qalyptastyrady. Ábilqayyr han zamanynda Núraly súltan 12 ata Bayúlyn, Ayshuaq súltan Bókenbay, Eset batyrlarmen birge Jetirudy, Batyr, Qayyp súltandar Álimúlyn,  Erәli súltan kerey ruyn, Abylay, Baraq jәne ózge de súltandardyng qazaq rularynyng ýlken birlestigin basqarghany belgili. Olardyng barlyghy qajetti jaghdayda bir ortalyqqa jinalady. Mәselen, 1742 jylghy qazaq-qalmaq kelissózine Ábilqayyr han, Ábilmәmbet han, Kýshik han, Baraq jәne ózge de súltandar, biy-batyrlar qatysqan (KRO I, s. 201). Bizdinshe, súltandar tóre túqymy retinde han senimine ie bolyp, eldegi qazaq rularymen baylanysyn ornyqtyryp, әkimshilik basqarudy jýzege asyrghan. Han-súltandardyng úrandary «arqar» bolsa, al tulary bólek-bólek bolatyn. Mәselen, Ábilmәmbet han úrpaqtary qyzyl tu, Kýshik, Baraq súltandarda aq tu, Abylay handa kók nemese ala tu bolghan.

Han manynda arnayy tapsyrma oryndaushy jasauyldar instituty júmys jasady. Monghol zamanynda «jasauyl – monghol әsker tәrtibin baqylaushy, soghysta týsken oljany esepke alyp, biyleushi adam» degendi bildirgen. 1736 jyly Ábilqayyr handa bolghan Dj.Kestli Qalybek jasauyldy adiutantqa tenep, «sózi prussiyalyqtardyng ejelden kele jatqan ólshemine layyq әsker tәrtibine say qysqa bolsa, dene bitimi jaghynan sol qayran zamannyng naghyz ýlgisi edi; býkil tyrtighan boyy sýiek pen teri; tartylghan terisi auzyn jabugha jetpey, tisteri yrsiyp túratyn, epti jәne shapshang qimyldy jasauyl», - dep sipattaydy. Tarihta Ábilqayyr janynda bolghan Alybay, Kiyikbay jәne Jәnibek batyr tapsyrmasyn oryndaghan Qayyp, 1736-1740 jyldary Orta jýzden Bashqortastangha jiberilgen 40 jasauyl belgili. Olar elshilik qataryna da qosylghan. Ol turasynda tarihshy A.Sabyrhanov 1789 jyly Peterburgke elshilikke jiberilgen Egizghaly súltanmen birge attanghan jasauyldy jaza otyra, «búryn elshilik materialdarynda kezdespegen «jasauyl» termiyni búl jerde birinshi ret úshyrap otyr. Olardyng әleumettik ornyn anyqtau qiyn», - degen-di (Sabyrhanov A. Úly betbúrys, 157 b.). Jasauyldar lauazymyn Syrym batyr, Arynghazy han, Jәngir han, Kenesary han da paydalanyp, olargha senimdi adamdaryn bekitken-di. XIX ghasyrdyng birinshi shiyreginde Arynghazy han qazaq rularynyng bytyranqylyghyn joyyp, әr rubasylarynyng biyligin shektep bir ortalyqqa jinaqtau ýshin jasauyldar lauazymyn qayta engizgen bolatyn. Han olargha jalaqy tólep otyrghan. Ataqty E.Bekmahanov Kenesary hangha arnaghan monografiyasynda «Jasauyl qyrghan» dastanyn paydalanyp, Nauryzbay batyrdyng 90 jasauylynyng 1844 jyly qyrylghanyn atap ótedi. Múnyng ózi jasauyldardyng hannyng erekshe tapsyrmalaryn oryndaushy ghana emes, sonymen birge salyq jinaushylar qyzmetin atqarghanyn aighaqtaydy.

Handyq basqaru jýiesinde tólengitter instituty da óz ornyn tapty. Qazaq qoghamynda tólengitterding payda boluy turaly ghylymda birjaqty kózqaras joq. Shyghystanushy V.Radlov, N.Aristovtar «tólengit» sózining etimologiyasyn negizinen tútqyngha týsken nemese taghdyr tәlkeginen qazaq jerine ótken altay halyqtarynyng teles, teleuit taypalarymen baylanystyryp «teleuit» sózinen izdese,  Bókey ordasy hany Jәngir: «Tólengitter erte zamanda qúlgha ainaldyrylghan jәne aqsýiekterge qyzmet etudi bilgen adamdardyng úrpaqtary», - dep týsindiredi (QROMA 4 q., 1 t., 1587 is, 4 p.). Qalay bolghanda da  tólengitter qazaq dalasyna qonys audarghan nemese kóship kelgenderden, qolgha týskenderden jәne el ishinen qosylghandardan qúraldy. Q.Haliyd: «Kim bolsa da tórege ergen «tólengit» atalady. Biraq «tólengit» ne degen sóz ekenin dәl bile almadym», - dep moyyndasa (Halid Q. Tauarih Hamsa, 174 b.), Sh.Qúdayberdiúly: «Orys zertteushileri olardy Altaydaghy Tolet (Tulet) ózeni manyndaghy  qalmaqtardan, al qazaqtar arghyn ruynyng atasy Orta jýz – Dayyrqojanyng qúldarynan taratady. Yaghni, olar - qazaq-qalmaq soghysynan qolgha týsken tútqyndar. Ábilghazy da tólengitterdi  oirat-qalmaqtar, han tólengitteri dep esepteydi. Han tólengitteri naghyz tólengitter emes, olar hannyng nókerleri», - degen qorytyndy jasaydy (Kudayberdyuly Sh. Rodoslovnaya turkov... , s.75-76). Olar Qazaq handyghyndaghy jana әleumettik topty qúrap, tóre túqymdarynyng tóniregine toptasty, handar men súltandardyng airyqsha senimine ie boldy. Tólengitter handyq sayasy biylikti nyghaytudyng erekshe qúraly retinde  han-súltandardyng arnayy jasaqtary, әskeri, senimdi ókili qyzmetin atqardy, key jaghdayda elshilik qúramyna da qosyldy. Ábilqayyr hannyn, keyin Núraly hannyng tólengiti, «han sarayynyng qyzmetshisi» bolghan Baybekti kórgen Dj. Kestli onyng mindeti han tapsyrmasyn oryndau ekendigin atap ótedi.  Aghylshyn suretshisi: «Qaraqúrym halyqtyng kózinshe Baybek pen taghy bir kisi ekeui eki jaqtan qoltyqtap, jetelep meni hangha alyp ketti» dep sipattaghan-dy (Kestli Djon 1736 jyly Kishi jýz hany Ábilqayyrgha baryp qaytqan sapary turaly, 20 b.). Han - súltandar senimine әbden engen Baybek keyin atalyq dengeyine jetken. Atalyq– han ordasynda taq múragerine әskery tәrbie beretin jәne oqytatyn joghary mәrtebeli adam sanaldy. Ol ózi tәrbiyelegen hanzada biylikke jetken son, onyng kenesshisi qyzmetin atqarghan. Q.Halidting mәlimetine qaraghanda, onyng biylik qúzyry qatardaghy uәzirden joghary bolghan. Demek, atalyq hannyng asa yqpaldy jaqyn kenesshilerining biri bolsa kerek. Tarihshy M.P.Vyatkin XVIII ghasyrdaghy qazaqtarmen jaqsy tanys P.IY.Rychkovtyng «kinәli adamdardy jazalaytyn han janyndaghy erekshe qyzmetkerlerdi tólengit dep ataydy» dep anyqtaghanyn jaza otyryp, tólengitterding barlyghy birdey qazaq bolmaghanyn eskertedi. Ghalym tólengitter óz bastauy tarihynda mongholdardyng nókerler institutyna úqsas boldy jәne biyleushilerge óte jaqyn adamdardy qúrady degen toqtamgha keledi. Sonymen birge  XIX ghasyrdyng 30-shy jyldarynda tólengitter jaghdayynyng tereng ózgeriske úshyraghanyn atap ótedi. Tólengitter turaly anyq derekti 1762 jyly Orynbor gubernatory general-mayor A.R.Davydovqa joldanghan hattan tabamyz. Hatta Abylay han: «Men óz tólengitterimdi qazaqtardan kem kórmeymin, sebebi olar mening basybayly jalshylarym emes. Olardy jaqsy kórgendikten óz qasymda ústaymyn, birge kóship jýremin», - dep jazghan-dy (Vyatkin M.P. Politicheskiy kriziys...,  s.8-10].

XVIII ghasyrda Resey, Sin patshalyghy qazaqtardyng dәstýrli basqaru jýiesine yqpal jasaugha kýsh sala bastady.  Olar qazaqtar arasyna jik salyp, óz qoldaushylaryn kóbeytu maqsatynda ataq-lauazymdaryn óz gramotalarymen taratudy qolgha alady.

Aldymen osy ghasyrdyng ekinshi shiyreginde Qazaq handyghynda tarhandar instituty Resey sayasatymen qayta engiziledi. Búl kezende Resey imperiyasy orta ghasyrlarda qazaqtar arasynda kóp bayqala qoymaghan, biraq týrki júrtyna jat emes qúrmetti ataqty óz mýddesine paydalanudy kózdep, bashqúrttardy otarlauda paydalanghan «tarhandyq ataqty ýlestiru» tәjiriybesin qolgha alady. Tarhandyq tarihyn arnayy zerttegen bashqúrt tarihshysy A.Z.Asfandiyarov  tarhandyqtyng skiyf, iran, týrki, monghol, búlghar, Altyn Orda, bashqúrttargha ortaqtyghyn dәleldedi (Asfandiarov A.Z. Bashkirskie tarhany, s.17]. Týrkiler zamanynda tarhandar saray qyzmetkeleri sanatyna enip, salyq jinaushy, keyin ózi de salyq tóleuden bosatylyp, eldegi bedeldi әleumettik toptar qataryna enedi. Ábilghazy  Shynghys hannyng tarhandyqty eng senimdi adamdaryna bergenin algha tartyp, «tarhannyng mәnisi mynada. Búl ataqty alghan kisiden eshbir alym-salyq alynbaydy, hangha kirgisi kelse, esikte ony eshkim teksermeydi, ózi kirip, ózi shyghady. Eger ol kisi kinәli is jasasa, toghyzgha sheyin keshiriledi, toghyzdan keyin ghana súralady. Búl artyqshylyq odan taraghan toghyz úrpaqqa deyin saqtalady» dep anyqtaghan-dy (Ábilghazy. Týrik shejiresi. -42-43 b.). Osynday erekshelikti qoldan jasaudyng imperiya ýshin tiyimdiligin eskergen Orynbor ekspedisiyasynyng 1734-1737 jyldardaghy basshysy IY.K.Kirilov  qazaq batyrlaryn Resey sayasatyna tartu maqsatynda tarhan taghayyndau qajettigin kóterip, odan ýkimet qazynasyna salmaq týspeytinin patshagha habarlaghan bolatyn (Dobrosmyslov A.I. Materialy po istoriy Rossii. T.1, s.21). Orys tarapynan tarhan ataghy Jәnibek batyrgha 1742 jyly 30 tamyzda, Eset Kókiúlyna 1743 jyly 3 shildede beriledi. Múnday ózgeristi bayqaghan Jonghar qontayshysy da ózderine elshilikke kelgen Malaysarygha 1743 jyly tarhandyq ataq beredi. Tarhandardyng qúqyqtary turaly Ishki ordany basqaru jónindegi uaqytsha Kenes: «Olar eger qoldarynda hannyng gramotalary bolsa, súltandarmen jәne qojalarmen qatar tek alym-salyqtardy tóleuden ghana bosatylady, basqa artyqshylyqtary joq»,- dep anyqtaghan bolatyn (Bekmahanov E. Qazaqstan HIH ghasyrdyng 20-40 jyldarynda, 103 b.]. Qazaq tarhandary patsha ýkimeti tarapynan tek qana alym-salyqtan bosatylghan jenildik qana aldy, bashqúrt tarhandarynday әskery qyzmet atqarmady, patsha ýkimetining qyzmetindegi adamdary  sanatyna kirmedi. Ataqtyng әskery shenmen eshqanday qatysy bolmady.

XVIII ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysynda Sin patshalyghy súltandargha gýn, dinliyn, tayji ataq-lauazymdaryn taratqan. Ol turasynda tarihshy B.Ejenhanúly: «Rasynda, Sin imperatory әu basta qazaqtardyng isine aralaspaudy jón kórgen. Syanilunnyng orda esteligi «Sin Gaozun shiluge» jәne sol kezdegi Sin patshalyq múraghat qújattaryna qaraghanda, Syanilun ózining Abylay han syndy qazaq kósemderine jibergen hatynda qazaqtargha: [biyleushilerinin] kiyimderin ózgertpeymin, lauazym-titul taghayyndamaymyn, alym-salyq almaymyn», [Sin patshalyghyna baghynghan Monghol siyaqty elderge jýrgizgen] «chjasake» biylik jýiesin jýrgizbeymin», «ózderining búrynghy әdet-ghúryptaryndy tútyp ómir sýre berinder» degen sayasat jýrgizgendigin jәne Qazaq elin «patsha qúzyrynan tys, shalghaydaghy el» dep qaraytyndyghyn mәlimdegen. Alayda, Jonghariyanyng tynyshtanuyna baylanysty Sin patshalyghy búl sayasatyn әri qaray jalghastyrmaghan. Kóp úzamay-aq olar Abylay, Ábilmәmbet siyaqty qazaq túlghalarynyng elshileri men úrpaqtaryna syilyq retinde qúr lauazym-ataqtar men torghyn-torqa beru arqyly qazaqtardy ózderine tartyp, ózderining biylik jýiesine birte-birte boylaryn ýirete bastaghan. Syanilun jylnamasynyng 25-jylghy 5-ayynyng «geng u» kýngi (1760 jylghy shilde aiynyng 9-júldyzyndaghy) orda esteliginde («Shilu»-da) Syanilunnyng Ábilmәmbet, Abylay jәne Ábilpeyiz, Hanbaba qatarly qazaq biyleushilerine jazghan bir haty saqtalghan. Onda atalmysh qazaq biyleushilerining jer mәselesi, sauda mәselesi jәne shekara dau-damayyna qatysty talaptaryna jauap berumen qosa, Sin patshasy Syanilun ózining búrynyraq aitqan «[biyleushilerinin] kiyimderin ózgertpeymin, lauazym-titul taghayyndamaymyn» degen sózin úmytyp, qazaq elshilerine torghyn-torqa, kýmis aqsha jәne basqa búiymdarymen qosa sin sheneunikterining kiyetin arnauly kiyim-keshekterin jәne olardyng lauazymdaryn belgileytin «hualiyn», «chjaoju» siyaqty әshekey búiymdardy syilaghan. Sin patshalyq qytay derektemesi – «Siniszyan shiluenin» «Qazaq shejiresi» atty taraushasynda berilgen maghúlmattargha sýiensek, sin patshasy Syanilun «asyl tas taghylghan, qos kózdi hualiyn» әshekey belgisin 1768 jyly elshi bolyp Pekinge baryp, ózimen kezdesken Ábilpeyizding ekinshi úly Joshygha, 1769 jyly elshi bolyp barghan Abylaydyng úly Uәly súltangha berip ýlgergen. Al qazaqtyng aqsýiekteri bolsa, ne ózderining eldegi biylik ornyn nyghaytu maqsatynda, ne basqalarmen bәsekelesu maqsatynda Sin patshalyghynan ózderin «han» dep moyyndaghan gramotasyn súraghan. Olardyng keybireuleri «han» lauazymyna ie bola almasa da, sol Sin patshalyghynyng «van», «gun» degen qúr ataqtaryn alugha tyrysqan» - dep oryndy atap ótedi. Múnyng barlyghy sayyp kelgende qazaqtyng dәstýrli basqaru jýiesin ishten ydyratu maqsatynan tuyndaghan aila-sharghylar ekeni dausyz. Degenmen ghalymdar qytaylyq ataqtardyng is jýzinde Qazaq handyghynyng ishki iyerarhiyasyna eshqanday yqpaly bolmaghanyn jaza kele, el biyleushileri ózderin әrdayym dәstýrli biyliktegi ataqtarymen ataghanyn eskertedi. Mәselen, Ábilpeyiz Sin patshasyna joldaghan hattarynda olargha jaqynyraq bolu ýshin ózin «Ábilpeyiz van» dep ataghanymen, hat sonynda resmy týrde «Ábilpeyiz bahadýr súltan» dep ataghan (Qazaqstan tarihy turaly Qytay derektemeleri. III t., 15-16 b.).

Qoryta kelgende, qazaq halqynyng eldigin saqtauda halqymyzdyng dәstýrli basqaru jýiesi  zamana synynan ótti. Óz tarihyn ejelden alatyn tómennen jogharygha qaray basqaru jýiesin qalyptastyrghan aqsaqaldar, biyler, batyrlar, jasauyldar, tólengitter, súltandar instituttary elimizding irgesining saqtaluyna qyzmet jasady. Olardyng barlyghy tútastay Qazaq handyghynyng dәstýrli basqaru qúrylymyn qúrady. Degenmen Reseyding otarlau zamanynda óz sayasatyna basty kedergi bolghan basqaru  instituttary týbegeyli ózgeriske úshyrap, orystyq jýiemen auystyryldy. Aragha uaqyt sala kýshtep  joyylyp, tarih qoynauyna ketti.

Ábilseyit Múqtar tarih ghylymdarynyng doktory, professor

Abai.kz

0 pikir

Ýzdik materialdar

Qúiylsyn kóshing

Qandastar qazaqqa, Qazaqstangha ne berdi?

Rayys Áripjanúly 2145
Alashorda

Týrkilik tek jәne týrki-moghol birligi

Jәdy Shәkenúly 942
Qauip etkennen aitamyn

Gazdyng geosayasy «gemorroyy»

Ámirjan Qosan 1139