Beysenbi, 8 Jeltoqsan 2022
Alashorda 8279 0 pikir 28 Qazan, 2015 saghat 12:55

IX. JANA ShAPQYNShYLYQ JELEUI JÁNE OGhAN QARSYLYQ

Jazushy, tarihshy, kósemsózshi Beybit Qoyshybaevtyng "Qazaq memleketi tarihyna kózqaras" atty enbegin jalghastyryp berip otyrmyz. Basy myna siltemelerde: http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4553;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4554;  http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4579; http://abai.kz/post/view?id=4589 

 Qazaq elindegi «qoy ýstine boztorghay júmyrtqalaghan» zamanda asa elenbeytin úsaq qaqtyghystarmen shektelip kelgen qazaq-jonghar qarym-qatynasy, aqyry, 1680 jyly kýrt búzyldy.

Osy jyly qazaq taghyna Jәngir hannyng úly Tәuke otyrghany mәlim. Ákesi el biylegen shaqta elshilik qyzmetter atqarghan, alghashqy әskery erlikterimen kóringen Tәuke súltan Bolat hannyng qúzyrynda da el iygiligi ýshin enbek etip, әr salada kózge týsken, júrt yqylasyna bólengen. Ol naghyz kemeline kelgen, aqyl-oyy tolysqan, ómirlik tәjiriybesi mol, erekshe qasiyetterge ie súltan bolatyn. Aqyldylyghy men sheshendigi, kemengerligi men danyshpandyghy ony biyleushi әulet ókilderi arasynda  airyqsha bedeldi etetin. Salqam Jәngirding tikeley úrpaghy boluy, әri memlekettik isterge jastayynan aralasyp kele jatqandyghy onyng qazaq taghyn iyelenui mýmkin ekendigine kýdik qaldyrmaytyn. Bolat han dýnie salghannan keyin el aghalary ony birden aq kiyizge otyrghyzyp kókke kóterdi. Sonymen, Tәuke han biylikke keldi. Tiybettegi buddashy dinbasynyng sheshimimen «shapaghatqa bólengen taghdyr iyesi» Galdan Boshogtu «qoy ýstine boztorghay júmyrtqalaghan» qazaq eline soghys ashar qarsanda keldi. Jonghar әmirshisi búl joly qalyng әskerimen elge tútqiyldan bas salmaghan. Aldymen  qazaq elining jana hanyna qoyar shartyn elshisi arqyly jetkizgen...

Al sharty mýldem tosyn estilgen edi. Jongharlardyng jayylym ýshin jortuyldap jýretini beseneden belgili bolghanmen, búl joly Galdan qontayshynyng elshisi auzymen Tәuke hangha qoyylghan talapta ol mýldem auyzgha alynbaghan. Elshi әueli Qazaq hanynan Jonghar әmirshisining lauazymyn óitip tómendetpeuin jәne tandanbauyn súrady, sosyn Jonghariyanyng biyleushisi  qontayshy mәrtebesinen ósirilip han atanghan, qatardaghy kóp hannyng biri emes – tәnir shapaghatyna bólengen  han – Boshoktu han – ataghyn Tiybet memleketining astanasy qasiyetti Lhasa (tiybetsheden audarghanda – «Qúdaylar oryny») shaharynda otyrghan Dalay-lamadan alghan әmirshi ekenin aitty. Mine osy Galdan Boshoktu (Qaldan Boshoqtú), әlem boyynsha asa zor oqymysty Ziya-panditanyng shәkirti jәne onyng isin jalghastyrushy   Boshoktu han qazaq elining endi ghana saylanghan biyleushisi Tәuke hangha arnayy sәlem joldap otyr. Mәsele mynada. Ziya-pandita ústazdyng atsalysuymen osydan qyryq jyl búryn qabyldanghan «Iky Saadjin Bichik – Úly Zandar Kodeksi»  barlyq oirat handyqtarynyng memlekettik dini etip Budda ilanymyn bekitken. Atalmysh «Dalalyq zandar jinaghynda»  osynau qaghidatty tújyrymdaugha bas-kóz bolghan Ziya-pandita 1462 jyly dýnie salghan. Sýiegi tiyisti rәsimmen órtelgennen keyin, arnayy boyaugha aralastyrylghan kýlimen Galdan jәne ózge de monahtar qasiyetti tantra mәtinderin jazghan. Solardy ústazdyng arnayy soghylghan mýsini ishine salyp, Galdan Jonghariyagha alyp kelgen. Sodan beri barsha júrt oghan úly ústaz isin birden-bir jalghastyrushy retinde qaraghan. Mine sol ataqty Ziya-panditanyng shәkirti, kýlli oirat iyelikterining әmirshisi Galdan Boshoktu han byltyrlary Saadjin Bichikti tolyqtyrdy. Budda dinin búdan bylay tek oirattar ghana emes, Tórt oirat konfederasiyasyna kiretin barlyq ózge handyqtarda da ústanatyn bolady.  Galdan-Boshoktu han kýni keshe Mogholstandy tize býktirdi. Býginde búrynghy Mogholstan joq, ol Jonghariyanyng ajyramas bir bóligi, ondaghy biyleushiler Buddagha baqúl. Tәuke han da sol jolmen jýrsin. Buddagha syiynsyn. Sonda barshasy oirattyng aidahar beynelengen qara tuy astynda kezinde Úly Shynghys han týzgen aumaqty bayyrghy mәrtebesinde qayta janghyrtyp, jalghandy jalpaghynan basa dәuirleytin bolady...

Han ordasynda jonghar elshisin qabyldau rәsimine qatysyp otyrghan barsha el aghalary shekterin tartty. Demderin ishterine alyp, Tәuke hangha qarady. Sonda ol qazaq taghy biyiginen bәrining kókeyinen shyghatyn sóz aitty. Oirat Qaldannyng talaby Úly Shynghys hannyng jolyn búrmalaghanyn kórsetedi dedi. Elshisi oghan mynany jetkizsin – ózinen búrynghy izasharlary sekildi, qazaq handyghynyng jana әmirshisi Tәuke han, jahandy dirildetken Shynghys hannyng tikeley úrpaghy bolyp tabylady. Al onyng úly babasy  Shynghys qahan әlemning jartysyn jaulap alghanmenen, ondaghy el-júrttardyng jan-dýniyesine zorlyq jasamaghan. Ol ózi syiynatyn kók tәnirine tabynudy eshkimge  tyqpalamaghan. Sonday tәrtipti jihanger úldary men nemerelerine de ósiyet etken. Oirattar Shynghys әskerining asa erjýrek, jauynger qanaty bolghanmen, úly qahannyng kýshining syryn úqpaghan eken. Elshi qojayynyna aita barsyn, onyng qoyyp otyrghany – eshqashan oryndalmaytyn jәne sol talapkerding ózin orgha jyghatyn jónsiz shart. Qazaqqa músylmandyqty Múhammed payghambardyng alghashqy jaushylary jetkizgen. Búdan pәlen ghasyr ilgeride ony Qarahan әuleti, odan keyin Altyn Orda biyleushileri memlekettik din retinde qabyldaghan. Músylman ilanymynyng úly uaghyzshysy Qoja Ahmetting osynau bas ordadan qol sozym jerde túrghan kesenesin halyqtyng qasterlep saqtaytyny sonday, býginde onda qazaqtyng kýlli handary men iygi jaqsylary tynshyghan. Jonghar hany qisynsyz talabyn qaytyp alsyn, onday orynsyz sharttar emes, dostyq qarym-qatynastar elderimizdi dәulet pen baqytqa keneltedi...

Jonghardyng Shapaghatty  hanynyng shartyn qabyl almauy Qazaq hany tarapynan jiberilgen ýlken qatelik dep sanaydy elshi. Degenmen  onyng әli de oilanuyn, shartty qabyldamaudyng arty jaman bolaryn bajaylauyn qalaydy. Taghy bir paryqtasyn, Boshoqtú han oghan óte beybit joldy úsynyp otyr. Eger búl keri qaghu Tәuke hannyng bekem baylamy bolsa – onda amal joq, solay aityp barady. Endi qazaq hany ózine ózi ókpelesin... Alayda búl shart qazaq ýshin mýldem jat, sondyqtan da ýzildi-kesildi qabyl alynbaydy – múnday kesimdi sóz estisimen elshi attanyp ketti. Al Tәuke han qabyldaugha qatysqan súltandar, batyrlar men biylerdi jongharlardyng jana agressiyasyna qarsy túrugha ayaldamay әzirlenuge shaqyrdy. El ishinen sarbazdar shaqyryldy, әsker jasaqtalyp, qorghanysqa dayyndyq bastaldy. 

Elshisi oralghan song kóp úzatpay, Galdan Boshoktu jonghardyng qazaqqa qarsy asa auqymdy soghys qimyldaryn janghyrtty.  Arnayy dayyndyqpen joryqqa shyqqan bes qaruy say jongharlargha qazaq jasaqtary tosqauyl bola almady. Basqynshy Shu ózeninen ótti, Jetisu men ontýstik ólkege basyp kirdi.  Tarihta «Sayram soghysy» dep atalghan 1680–1684 jyldarghy shayqastar bastaldy. Qazaq әskerining jan ayamay kórsetken qatty qarsylyghyna qaramay ilgerilep, Sayramsu men Aqsu ózenderi aralyghyndaghy qorghany biyik, iri de әsem shahardy – islam dinin taratushylardyng uaghyzdaryn alys 8-shi ghasyrda-aq elty tyndaghan, keruen joldary torabynda jatqan sauda jәne qolónershiler ortalyghy Sayram qalasyn basyp aldy. Basqa da qalalargha kirdi. Basqynshylargha qarsy kóterilgen halyqty juasytu ýshin 1684 jyly jazalaushy jasaq jiberip, Sayramdy mýldem qausatty, talan-tarajgha týsirdi, birqatar túrghyndaryn Jonghariya men Shyghys Týrkistangha aidap әketti. 1686 jyly Tyani-Shani qyrghyzdaryn baghyndyryp, Ferghana alqabyna ótti. Árdayym qatty qarsylyqqa úshyraghanmen, jeniske jetip otyrdy. (Shayqastardyng birinde Tәuke hannyng úlyn qolgha týsirip, Jonghariyagha alyp ketti. Artynsha ony Lhasagha jóneltti. Ynghayy, Qaldan Boshoqtú Tәukege joldaghan alghashqy shartyn onyng balasynyng sanasyna Budda ilimin darytu arqyly oryndatqysy kelgen boluy kerek). 1688 jyly Shyghys Mongholiyany, halhalardy baghyndyrugha attandy, qazaq jerindegi basyp alghan qalalarynan garnizondaryn ala ketti. Alayda shyghysta jeniske jete almady.

Halhalar oirattardan góri manchjurlarmen odaqtasqandy artyq kórgen, sóitip, Sin imperiyasynan kómek súraghan. Halhalardy alyp Qytaydaghy sany az manchjurlardyng ýstemdigin ornyqtyra týsuge paydalanghysy kelgen boghdyhan Sin armiyasyn Shyghys Mongholiyagha kirgizdi. Sodan, Galdan Boshoktu 1890 jyly is jýzinde siyn-qytay  әskerimen soghysty. Jendi. Jenilgen qytay imperatory oirattardy Sin әuletining asa qaterli jauy sanap, jana shayqasqa әzirlendi. Osy kezde Galdan Boshoktudyng nemere inisi Jonghariyanyng ortalyq bóligin ózine qaratyp, aghasynyng jolyn kesip tastaghan. Handyghynda inisining býlik shygharghanyn estigen Boshoqtú han tez teristikke qaray shegindi. Alayda ony jýz myng jauyngeri bar manchjur armiyasy quyp jetip, Beyjiynge taqau audanda ýlken úrys saldy. Tórt kýn shayqasta eki jaq ta jenise almady. Sosyn, ózinen bes ese kóp әskermen taban tirese soghysyp, әskery ónerge әbden mashyqtanghanyn tanytqan oirattar bir týnde shepterinen kóterildi de, soltýstikke qaray  ketti. Olardyng jaujýrektigin moyyndaghan  qytay әskeri sonynan qumady. Kelesi 1691 jyly halhalar Sin imperiyasynyng bodandyghyna ótti.  Osy birikken qos ot ortasynda Galdan Boshoktu olargha qarsy taghy alty jyl soghysty. Aqyry, eng songhy zamanauy qaru-jaraqpen – artilleriyamen qarulanghan siyn-qytay  әskerinen 1696 jyly jenildi. Barar jer, basar tauy qalmaghandyqtan (aldynda – halha–manchjur–qytay, artynda, ortalyqta – is jýzinde biylikte býlikshil nemere inisi otyrghan), 1697 jylghy nauryzda u iship óldi...  

«Sayram soghysy» kezinde teristik-batystan Ayke han qalmaqtarymen shabuyldaghan bolatyn. Qazaq sarbazdary oghan oidaghyday toytarys berdi. Jaghday birshama tynshyghan shaqta jongharlardyng әskery qimyldary halha baghytyna audy. Sol kezendi Tәuke han útymdy paydalandy. Elding birligin, qorghanys qabiletin arttyratyn sharalar jasady. Qazaqtardyng «Alty-alash» atauymen belgili alty bólikten túratyn federasiyasyn (alty alash odaghyn) dýniyege әkelip, el birliginin, syrt dúshpangha júmyla qarsy túrudyng sol shaqtaghy ontayly týrin jýzege asyrdy. Federasiyagha basynda Tóle by túrghan Úly jýz, Qazybek by basqaratyn Orta jýz, Áyteke by biyleytin Kishi jýz, Qoqym by qolastyndaghy qyrghyzdar, Sasyq by basqaratyn qaraqalpaqtar men  jeke bir top retindegi qiyat, qataghan, ýz jәne basqalar kirdi. Alty alash odaghy is jýzinde jongharlardyng shabuylynan qorghanudy maqsat etken qazaq, qyrghyz, qaraqalpaq halyqtarynyng әskeriy-sayasy odaghy edi. Osy odaqtyng ókilderi – halyqtyng belgili biyleri men bas adamdary Tәuke han ordasy manyndaghy Kýltóbede bas qosyp,  әdet-ghúryp zandaryn jetildirudi qolgha aldy. Sonau Shynghys hannyng «Yasasynan» bastau alyp, Qasym hannyng «Qasqa jolymen», Esim hannyng «Eski jolymen» jalghasqan zannamalardy jetildirdi. El auzynda «Kýltóbede kýnde jiyn» degen tirkespen aishyqtalghan zangerler qúryltayy ong nәtiyjesin berip, olar jasaghan «Jeti jarghy» zandar jinaghy handyqtyng әleumettik-ekonomikalyq túrmys-tirshiligin jәne qúqyqtyq sanasyn damytty.  Halyq tatu-tәtti ghúmyr keshti. Tәuke han Áz Tәuke atandy.

(Jalghasy bar)

Beybit Qoyshybaev

Abai.kz

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