Jeksenbi, 23 Mausym 2024
Alashorda 27365 0 pikir 3 Shilde, 2015 saghat 17:16

MAGhJANNYNG JANAShYLDYGhY

Ghasyrlar qoynauynan tartqan bay tarihy, san-salaly dәstýri, aluan stilidik tarmaghy bar әdebiyetting damu jolyna tynnan soqpaq qosu – kez-kelgen daryndy degen qalamgerlerding de ontayyna kele bermes zor is. Aqyn-jazushynyng barshasy daryndy bola bermeytini sekildi, әr daryn halyqtyng sóz ónerine aitarlyqtay sony sýrleu qosa almasy haq. Ádebiyettegi janashyldyq – jana taqyrypqa qalam tartu, bolmasa 1920-30 jyldardaghy qazaq aqyndarynyng eliktep satylay óleng jaza bastaytyn talabymen emes, sol últ әdebiyetining tabighy qasiyetine sinisip, mazmún men pishinning ózara ýndestigimen ólshenip, ózinen keyingi әdebiyet ókilderine ýlgi bolarlyq dәrejeden tabylyp jatsa, últtyq bolmysty tanyta alsa ghana sol últtyng ruhany qazynasyna qosylghan ómirsheng janalyq bolmaq. Talapty shynayy talaptan aiyrugha qúlyqsyzdau әdetimizge salyp, tórt ayaghyn teng basqan naghyz óner tuyndysynan góri iydeyasy betinde qalqyp túratyn shygharmalardy asyra baghalanqyrap, osynday keybir shygharmalardyng avtorlaryna janashyl degen ataqty bere salghanymyz jasyryn emes. Kimning janashyl, kimning jalghan janashyl ekendigin zaman aighaqtap jatyr. Janashyldyq ómirsheng bolmaytyn ba edi, halyqtyng oi-sanasy damyp, kórkemóneri jana beleske kóterilgende jazylghan kezeni óresinen asa almay qalatyn shygharmany kezendik tuyndy demeushi me edi degen oy keledi. Sonyna izbasa ertip, ónege bola almaghan, dәstýr jalghastyghyn tappaghan iydeyashylyq pen týrikshildik janashyldyq bola almasy belgili. Al, jalpy kórkemónerdegi, onyng ishinde әdebiyettegi janashyldyq, bizdinshe, ómir shyndyghyn molynan qamtuy men qoghamdyq sananyng búryn-sondy kórsetilmegen jaqtaryn ashu mýmkinshiligin arttyrumen, iygi imandy iydeyalardy asa kórkem, kesteli tәsildermen jetkizumen, jana mazmúngha say jana formalar qalyptastyrumen, sonyng nәtiyjesinde janasha әdeby dәstýrdi, stilidik arnany qalyptastyrumen, sonday-aq últtyq tilding beyneleu mýmkindikterin bayytumen tyghyz baylanysty bolsa qajetti. Osynday sipatty Abaydan tauyp, danyshpan qalamgerding qazaq әdebiyetine әkelgen janalyqtaryn sóz etip jýrmiz. Abaydan keyin qazaq ólenine, jalpy últ әdebiyetine janalyq әkelgen Maghjan Júmabaev ekendigi úly aqynnyng kózi tirisinde ony jaqtaushylar tarapynan da, iydeyasyn jeleu etip dattaushylar tarapynan da aitylghan. Maghjannyng әdeby múrasyna tiym salynyp, halqynan ajyratylmaghanda, shygharmalary eng bolmasa 1950 jyldar ishinde bolghan aqtau túsynda oqyrmangha jol ashylghanda qazaq poeziyasyna onyng yqpaly aitarlyqtay bolyp, býgingi tanda aqyn dәstýri jayynda keleli sóz aitar edik. Ókinishke oray, әdebiyetimizding damu prosesi Shәkәrimnen, Ahmetten, Mirjaqyptan, Jýsipbekten, t.b. kóptegen daryndardan qol ýzip qalghany siyaqty tamasha aqynnan da kóz jazyp qaldyq. Ádette, búl әdebiyetimizding damu dengeyine keri әser etkeni kýmәn tudyrmaydy. Sol sebepti M. Júmabaevtyng әdeby dәstýri turasyndaghy meylinshe tolymdy bolarlyq әngimeni keyinge qaldyryp, búl maqalamyzda «ayauly aqyn» әkelgen janalyqtardy Maghjannyng óz shygharmalary negizinde kórsetudi niyet etti. Alayda, aqynnyng kenes qúrsauyna týsken múrasy ainalysyna órken jaigha ýlgere almay ketti deuden aulaqpyz. J.Aymauytovtyn:«Osy ólenshilerding kóbi Maghjan ólenining ne syrtqy týrine, ne ishki mazmúnyna eliktemey jaza almaydy» /1, 427/ degenin jәne R.Núrghalidyn: «Qansha qiyamet tughanymen, bir keremet nәrse, Maghjan ólenderi, poemalary el arasyna foliklor shygharmalary sekildi tez tarap, halyq jýregine, júrttyng oi-sanasyna, elding aqyl zerdesinde qalyp qoyghan edi... Sondyqtan Maghjanmen qatar jasasqan agha buyn, onyng aldyn kórip sabaq alghan shәkirtterin bylay qoyghanda, keyingi úrpaq qalamgerlerde aqyn múrasynan habardar edi» - degen pikirin /2, 105/ jadymyzdan shygharmay Maghjan shygharmalarynyng janashyl sipatyn aldymen onyng ózinen izdegendi jón sanadyq.

 

Janashyl qalamgerdi tughyzatyn, aldymen, qoghamdyq orta. Qoghamdaghy aluan sayasi, әleumettik ózgerister, әdebiyetke jana iydeyalar, tyng taqyryptar әkeldi, yaghny janasha mazmún darytty. Osy túrghydan shamalaghanda, Júmabaev shygharmashylyghyndaghy mazmún janalyghy jayly bastapqy sóz bolugha layyq. Aqynnyng alghashqy shygharmalary, shamamen 1915-16 jyldargha deyingi jazghandary mazmún jaghynan kelgende synshyl, aghartushylyq realizm arnasynda boldy. Ybyray, Abaydan bastalatyn keng arnadan tabylyp jatatyn múnday shygharmalardan avtordyng ózindik daralyghynan góri, sol tústaghy әdeby ortanyng shygharmashylyq prinsipterin berik ústanghan jas aqyndy kóremiz. Alayda eren poetikalyq daryn, subektivti aqyndyq túlgha shәkirttik kezende qalyp qoya almaydy. Qalamy tóselip, dýniyetanymy qalyptasqan aqyn kóp keshikpey pikir jýzinde de, beyneleu әdisi túrghysynan da eshkimdi qaytalamaytyn jana jol tabady. Ózine deyingi aqyndar, óz tústary qoghamdy beyneleude, negizinen, aghartushylyq, synshyldyq realizmdi ústansa, Maghjan jogharyda atalghan jyldardan bastap romantizmge týsedi. Búl onyng júrttan ózgeshe bola qoyayyn dep tapqan joly emes, zamana shyndyghyn qabyldaudaghy dýniyetanymyn, aqynnyng subektivti minezimen baylanysty, solar aiqyndaghan jol. Aqynnyng osynday ereksheligi ómirdi beyneleu, baghalaudyng ózindik sipatyn qalyptastyrady. Maghjangha deyingi qazaq poeziyasyna qoghamdyq qúbylystardy oimen baghalau, el múnyn aitqanda eldi oqu-bilimge, óner ýirenuge, enbek etuge shaqyru, moralidik-estetikalyq mәselelerdi kóbirek qozghau tәn bolyp kelse, Maghjan ólenderinde avtordan tys damityn oqighalardyng ózi aqynnyng óz syrynday aitylyp, mazmún avtordyng subektivti oi-pikirining mazmúnynan tuyndap jatty. Qazaq ólenine Maghjan әkelgen syrshyldyq jóninde, jalpy onyng poeziyasynyng basty ereksheligi syrshyldyghynda ekendigin әigili maqalasynda J. Aymauytov bilgirlikpen aityp ketkeni ayan.

 

M. Júmabaevtyng әdebiyetimizge әkelgen eng basty, eng kýrdeli janalyghy búrynnan bar romantizmdi ornyqtyrdy. Ózine deyin әrtýrli qyrda, azdy-kópti kórip kelgen әdeby baghytta bar boyauymen әdebiyetimizge әkelip, ony әrlendire týsti, bayyta týsti. Realizmnen ózgeni moyynday qoymay, ony keritartpa dep, ghylymy tanym eleginen ótkizgennen góri jyly jauyp qoyyp, ýrke qaraytyn әdetimizden arylyp, ómirdi beyneleuding romantikalyq әdisi әdebiyetting ishki mazmúnyna birsypyra ilgerindi erekshelikter әkelgenin saralauymyz qajet. Maghjan romantizmi әdebiyetke adamnyng ishki әlemining aluan qyrlary tereng beyneleudi әkeldi. Ásirese, ol emosionaldy, sezimi úshqyr adamnyng jan dýniyesin alghash bolyp kórkem kesteledi. Áriyne, búl arada Abay tәjiriybesinen zerde kókjiyeginen tysqary qaldyryp otyrghanymyz joq. Abaydyng syrshyldyghy onyng úly múrasynyng bir arnasy ispetti edi. Endi osynday sipat Júmabaev shygharmashylyghynyng jalpy bet-baghdaryna ainaldy. Realizm negizinen, ómirding saralanghan shynayy bolmysyn qamtysa, romantizm әdebiyeti adamnyng ishki jan-dýniyesine, sezim syrlaryna ýnildi. Osy jaghynan kelgende romantizm tolyqqandy realizmdi әzirledi. Osyghan oray tolyqtyrsaq, ol adamnyng ishki әlemin barsha iyirimderimen, jýregin attay tulatqan quanyshymen, múng jenip, sher basqan sәtterimen kórsetip romantikalyq keyipker beynesin jasady. Maghjan romantizmning alghashqy betinde onyng keyipkeri – meylinshe jigerli, ór túlghaly últtyng tәuelsizdigi ýshin kýresti, erlikti ansaushy jәne ol qasiyetti paryzdy abyroymen oryndaugha senimi mol kýresker keypinde bolushy edi:

Jer jýzine ar ataghym jayylghan,

Jan emespin ottan, sudan tayynghan.

Qayraty mol qandybalaq qyranmen

Kýn bolghan joq jaudan jýrek shayylghan

nemese:

Tirilteyin alyp atam aruaghyn

Tazartayyn Saryarqanyng topyraghyn

Jan-jaghyna tegis biylik jýrgizip,

Kemeline kelsin keyingi úrpaghym.

Múnday kýshti keyipker, otarshyldyqqa qarsy eng ekpindi oqqa tatityn pәrmendi sóz búryn-sondy әdebiyette aitylmap edi. Birinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys túsynda jazylghan asqaq pafostaghy ólender mazmúny jaghynan alghanda poeziyamyzdyng mazmún auqymyn keneytk týsken dýniyeler. «Ot», «Payghambar», «Kýnshyghys», «Tez baram», «Jer jýzine» ólenderindegi romantikalyq pafos, erlikti ansaushy lirikalyq keyipker, zor senim – HIH ghasyrda otarshyldyqty synaghan, el múnyn jetkizgen zar zaman aqyndarynyng da, odan keyingi aghartushy realizm dәstýri ókilderining de poeziyasynda bolmaghan tyng serpilis. Onyng romantizmning alghashqy tauarlaryndaghy optimistik mazmún-otarshyldyqqa qarsy kýres dәuiri bolghan oyanu jyldarynyng jalyndy jyry. Qazaq qoghamy Kenesary siyaqty jaugha shapqan erdi kórgen edi, qazaq qoghamy «kәpir búzghan» elding siqyn ólenge qosqan Dulatty, Shortanbaydy, Múratty kórgen edi, qazaq qoghamy halyqtyng irgeli el boluyn óner-bilim, mәdeniyetpen baylanystyrylghan Ybyraydy, Abaydy, Shәkәrimdi de kórgen edi, alayda elding azattyghy ýshin kýresti sayasat jýzine kóshirgen «Qazaq» sekildi gazet ashqan, «Alash» siyaqty partiya qúrghan ziyaly qauymdy kórmegen edi. M. Júmabaev senimi – qiyalshyl túlghanyng kóktegi armany emes, bas kóterer azamattardyng osy iygi is-әreketterden quat alghan, sodan baryp bostandyq tanyna asyqqan aqyndyq sózi. Jana zamannyng ruhyn jýregimen qabyldaghan Maghjan siyaqty asa iri tabighy daryn jana dәuir keskinin jana poetikalyq mazmúngha ainaldyrdy. Endigi jerde aghartushylyqtan góri halyq sanasyn oyatu ýshin jalyndy sóz, kýreskerlik ruhtaghy jyr meyilinshe qogham qajetin ótuge tiyis boldy.

 

Maghjan joly tól әdebiyetimizde arnaly baghytqa ainaluy tiyis edi. Basty baghyt bolmasa da, realizmmen selbesip әdebiyetimizding qogham ómirin adamnyng jan-dýniyesin jan-jaqty beyneleu mýmkinshiligin arttyrugha eleuli ýles qosar edi. Alayda, kenes diktaturasynyng núsqaumen, mejeleumen jýretin әdebiyetti ókimet pen partiyanyng pәrmendi qolymen jana әdebiyetting barsha kenistigin jaylap aldy. Jiyrmasynshy jyldardyng ortasyna deyin kóringen romantizm /M.Júmabaev, M. Áuezovting alghashqy әngimeleri, B. Kýllev t.b. /QazAPP-tyng qúryluymen. 1926-27 jyldardaghy әdeby aitysta kenesshil aqyn-jazushylardyng «jeniske»/ әriyne, resmy iydeologiyanyng oiynan shyqqany ýshin /jetuimen, últtyq sanadaghy qalamgerlerding qudalanuymen, keyinirek sosrealizmning birden-bir baghyty retinde qalyptasuymen әdeby prosesten ysyrylyp tastaldy. Sosrealizmning M. Gorikiy, A.V. Lunacharskiy sekildi bedeldi teoretikteri tarapynan romantizm tek tónkerilisshil, әri sosializmmen, proletariat ómirimen tyghyz baylanysta boluy qajet dep týsinidirilip, búl әdeby baghyttyng ózge aghymdaryn, ózge formalaryn reaksiyalyq, jeke basty kýitteytin darashyldyq degenderimen úshtasyp kenestik әdebiyetshilerding búljymas erejesine ainaldy. Álgindey, әdebiyetke jasalghan túrpayy әleumetshilik nauqandardyng birqataryn bastan keshirgen M. Júmabaev shygharmashylyghy negizinen romantizmnen ainyghan joq. Aldymen, optimistik, keyinnen elegiyalyq, pessimistik, individualistik, konservativti saryndy jat kórmegen úly aqyn romantizmin – әdeby damudyng qol jetken ýlken jetistigi ómirdi shynayy, bar boyauymen kórsetetin realizmnen arashalau nemese asyra dәripteu niyetimen maqsatymyz oraylaspaydy, búl aradaghy bizding mindetke alghanymyz - bir ghana taptyng tilegine júmsalugha mindetti bolghan, ómirdi tek partiyagha únaytyn qyrynan ghana kórsetuge mýddeli bolghan realizm sosialistik tәrbiyege qyzmet etpey, shygharmashylyq erkindigin, tabighatyn saqtap, sonyng nәtiyjesinde ýgit-nasihattyq emes, naghyz kórkemóner tuyndysyn tudyrghan qalamgerding sol tústaghy qazaq әdebiyeti ýshin baghytty ústanuyn, oghan óz tarapynan janasha mazmún, tyng sipattaghy týr әkelgendigin bayandauda. Al, onyng qanshalyqty jemisti, әri dúrys bolghanyn kesheli-býgin tanyp jatqan Júmabaev poeziyasynyng asyra maqtaugha tipten múqtaj emes asyl da, aishyqty betteri aighaqtap otyr. Endi Maghjan romantizmining janashyl sipaty nede? Kórkemóner tap qúraly, partiya qúraly, partiya qaruyna ainalghan kezende qanday qúndy sipatymen әdebiyet auasyna tyng samal jelpidi degen saual tóniregine jeteyik. Bizdinshe, aqyn romantizmining kenes túsyndaghy baghalyghy, әri ózgelerge úqsamaytyn sonylyghy – qarumen, dýrliktirumen, ashtyqpen býtin últtardy bir qoghamdyq formasiyadan, ekinshi bir qoghamdyq bir satygha tónkeris arqyly ótkizip «jasandy baqyt» jasamaq bolghan әmirshil ókimetke óz iydeyasyn ghana dúrys dep sanaytyn demokratiyadan júrday partiyagha ishtarta qoymauy, últtyq tamyrdy jýregine myqtap ústanyp, tilegine, armanyna, tipti keyde shyndyq bolmyspen sanaspay qiyalyna ainaldyruy.

Qúrbynyng kóbi tez týlep,

Topyrlap topqa shapqanda,

Japanda jalghyz kýnirenip

Men oiyma ergemin, -

deui jogharydaghy pikirimizge dәlel bola alsa kerek. Mine, osynday últtyq dýniyetanymynan tughan romantizm – búl әdeby baghyt últ sanasynyng ósuimen, bostandyq iydeyasymen tikeley baylanysty – aqyn әkelgen birneshe ýlken janalyqqa menzeydi. Birinshiden, sóz ónerimizde búl әdeby baghytty ayaqtandyrady. Búl úghymgha osy baghytty jan-jaqty jәne ózine deyin bolghan tәjiriybelerdi meylinshe tolymdy týrde ornyqtyrdy degen mәsele syisa qajet-ti. Ómir shyndyghyn beyneleuding osy tәsilin jetildiru, jana suretter salu, jana beyneler somdau kórkemdik saladaghy az olja bolmasy haq. Ekinshiden, poeziyamyzdyng iydeyalyq-taqyryptyq kókjiyegin keneytti. Búryndary da bar mahabbat, kónil-kýi, sayasiy-әleumettik, tarihy t.b. – ómirlik jayttardy jana mazmúnmen baytty. Sonyng barysynda qazaq poeziyasy Maghjan arqyly qazaq qoghamynyng búryn aitylsa da tereng kórine bermegen tústaryna barlau jasady, keybir jalpylama aitylghandardy kórkem kestemen naqtylay týsti. Ýshinshiden, aqyn romantizmi ózine etene jaqyn elegiya, liro-epikalyq poema, miftik-foliklorlyq mazmúndaghy poema, intimdik lirika, ballada sekildi janrlardy janasha qyrynan tanytty nemese tynnan qosty, yaghny jana mazmún jana týrdi qajet etti, әri tapty da.

 

Ádebiyetimizdegi romantizm tarihyna kóz jibersek jazylghan mekeni men merzimi este qalmaghan foliklor ýlgilerine baryp tireldi, al, әdebiyetimizding tarihynda onyng kórinui – HIH gh. alghashqy jartysy. Mahambet, zar zaman aqyndary, odan beri de Aqylbay me Maghauiya shygharmalary. Osy atalghan aqyndardyng romantizmnining týrin /aghymyn/ ajyratar bolsaq, onda Mahambetting sharualar kóterilisine deyingi optimistik – tónkerisshil jәne kóterilisten songhy elegiyalyq romantizmi, Dulattyn, Shortanbaydyn, Múrattyn, Ábubәkir Kerderining ótkendi iydeyalandyru sarynyndaghy konservativti, otarshyldyqqa qarsylyqqa toly romantizmi, kemenger aqyn úldarynyng adamnyng jeke basynyng mýmkinshilikterin kórsetu ýshin әdettegiden tys oqigha alyp jeke adamdar minezderining airyqsha qasiyetterin beyneleytin / «Medghat-Qasym», «Daghytan» /individualistik romantizmi dep jalpylay sipattama jasaugha bolar edi. Oghan HH gh. basyndaghy Shәngereyde kezdesetin elegiyalyq kýilerdi, B.Kýleevting intimdik әuenderin qosayyq. Osy atalghan mazmúndaghy romantizm aghymdaryn M. Júmabaevtan molynan úshyratamyz. Búl Maghjan poeziyasynda qazaq romantizmine tәn barlyq belgiler kórindi degen týsinikti qalyptastyrady. Jogharyda aitylghan ishki aghymdargha qosa ol romantizmge, miftik-foliklorlyq, demokrattyq, subiektivtik belgilerdi darytty.

 

Kórkemónerdegi, onyng ishindegi әdebiyettegi jana mazmún qalamger ómir sýrgen dәuirding tarihy, qoghamdyq-әleumettik sharttarynan baryp tuady desek jana sóz aitqan bolmaymyz. Tek aitylghan zandylyqty óz maqsatymyzgha oraylastyrghan boamyz. Tónkeris qarsanyndaghy Júmabaev poeziyasy otarshyldyqqa qarsylyq iydeyasyna toly boldy. Zerdeli oqyrman: «Múnyng nesi janalyq, HIH gh. poeziyasynda búl iydeya molynan kórinis berdi» - der. Mәsele, Maghjannyng әdebiyetimige әlgindey iydeyany әkeluinde emes, ony óz dәuirining súranysyna oray janasha mazmúnda jyrlauynda. Onyng jyry Shortanbaydyn:

Aghashty taugha ýy salyp,

Aldy kәpir aqyldap.

Eldi erkine qoymady,

Buyrshynday taqymdap

nemese Dulattyn:

Erkinshe ósken qayran el,

Dәuletting beyne shalqar kól,

Aydynnyng beyne asqar bel

Botaday búla ósken tel,

Endi kelip qamaldyn

Orys salghan qu tamgha...

degenderindey óz erkindiginen aiyrylghan bodan elding sharasyz hәli emes, Alash jerining jyldan-jylgha Resey uysyna kirip bara jatqanyn, el basqaryp otyrghan «iygi jaqsylardyn» oqaly týimeli orystargha jaltaqtap otyrghanyn, Kenesary siyaqty azattyq úranyn salghandardyng jenilgenin kórgen Shortanbay, Dulat zamanynda әlgindey joldardyng jazyluy, әriyne, zandy qúbylys. Orys әbden jaylaghan, ondy-soldy qanqúily sayasat jýrgize bastaghan tústa, qazaqtyng bolashaghynan oqu-bilim, mәdeniyet órinen kórip, aghartushylyq oidy damytqan Ybyray, Abay, Shәkәrim de óz dәuirleri ýshin qisyndy sóz. Maghjannyng otarshyldyqqa qarsylyghy meyilinshe jigerli. Búl HIH ghasyrdan týbirli aiyrmasy bar, qoghamda ziyaly qauym qalyptasyp, onyng sayasi, mәdeny is-әreketteri elge otarshylyqtyng ezgisin kórsetip berumen ghana, halyqty oqu-bilimge shaqyrumen shektelmeytin jana dәuirding M. Júmabaev siyaqty jana aqyny qazaq ólenine jana sayasiy-qoghamdyq mazmún әkeldi. Ol alghashqy shygharmalarynda dәstýrli aghartushylyq-demokrattyq arnada bolyp kelgenimen, asa zor aqyndyq tabighat oghan HIH ghasyrdan da, tipti HH ghasyrdyng alghashqy jyldarynan da aiyrmashylyghy bar qoghamnyng jyryn aitqyzdy. Endigi jerde zar zamandyq saryn, aghartushylyq joldaghy ýgit-nasihat emes, halyqtyng oiyn sayasy jayttargha audaru, ensesi týsken eldi erkindikke ýndeu erligi eresen, dәuleti shalqyghan alashtyng ótkenin beyneleu meylinshe tiyimdi edi. Úly úrystarda daryndy qolbasshy, jaujýrek batyr tuatyny sekildi, tarihy qajettilik Maghjan siyaqty aqyndy berdi. Batyr tudyrghan zaman – aqyndy da tudyrdy. Basylghan elding ensesin kóterude, mәdeniyet, oqu-bilim qalay qajet bolsa, jigerli jyr da sonshalyq qajet boldy. Osy orayda, Maghjannyng «Tez baram», «Jer jýzinde», «Kýnshyghys», «Payghambar», «Ot»,jyrlary óz zamandastary arasynda jana mazmúndaghy poeziyanyng alghashqy, sony ýlgileri boldy. Tónkerisshil, asqaq pafostaghy jyrlar Mahambet poeziyasynda da bolatyn. Onyng lirikalyq keyipkerleri sharualar kóterilisin kórsetetin de sonyng maqsat-mýdessinen tuyp jatatyn. Mahambet romantizmin Isatay Taymanov bastaghan belgili kóterilis dýniyege әkelse, Maghjan romantizmin jalpyúlttyq azattyq iydeyasy tudyrdy. Mine, osy jogharyda aitylghan jayttardy saraptay kelgende, aqyn romantizmining janashyldyghy turasynda sóz etuge әbden bolady. Ilgeride keltirilgen ólender, olargha qosa jana mazmúndaghy taghy da birsypyra tuyndylary qazaq sayasiy-әleumettik lirikasyn iydeyalyq jaghynan da, kórkemdik sharty jaghynan da edәuir baytqan, oghan tynnan tynys әkelgen dýniyeler. Júmabaev janashyldyghynyng әri bederli, әri beyneli tarauy-syrshyldyghymen sabaqtas. Onyng әdeby múrasynda molynan kezdesetin múnday ólenderde ózindik syrgha toly, tez jaralanghysh, tez júbanghysh aqyn jýregi, kónilin de tolqytsa, sonyng quanyshy jan múnyna berilgish aqyn jany poeziya tiline kemel de kelisti kórkemdikpen kóshirilip, qazaq poeziyasynda sezim jyrynyng jana betin ashty. «Ómirdi ólenmen ghana emes, ózining ómirimen surettey bilu iri jandy adamnyng ghana qolynan kelmek» - deydi aqyn Aqan Seri ómirine sýisine otyryp /1,340/. Osy yqylasty sózderdi avtordyng ózine arnaugha bolarldyq. Mahambette, Abayda, Shәkәrimde, Súltanmahmútta jýrekterin biylep, jandaryn tolqytqan iydeyany ghana poetikalyq iydeyagha, yaghny shygharmalarynyng pafosyna ainaldyrmap pa edi. Asyly, shynayy daryndargha tәn búl qasiyet olardyng poeziyasynyng ómirsheng sipaty bolsa kerek. Subektivtitiligi basym, lirika janrynyng aqyn psihologiyasymen, biografiyalyq jaqtarymen tyghyz baylanysta bolatynyn bilgenimizben , osy aqiqat túnghan qarapayym aksiomany keyde qaperimizge almay aqynnyng ómiri men ólenining arasynda qoghamdyq, әleumettik jayttardy jeleu etip, poeziya tuyndysyn baghalau, tanu ýstinde onyng qanshalyqty shynayy aqyn sózi bola alatynan góri, onyng iydeyalyq jaghyna, qoghamdyq manyzyna, sayasy nomalarymyzgha sәikestik túrghysyna sonshalyqty mәn berip kórkemónerge ólsheusiz ziyan keltirdik. Dýniyening obektivtiqúbylystaryn jýreginen ótkizip baryp ghana óleng tudyratyn kemenger Abay ýlgisi Maghjannan izbasar, daryndy shәkirt tapty. Sóitip, Maghjan túsynda qazaq óleninde de subektivtilik terendey týsti. Ishki syrdyng moldyghy, poeziyanyng sezim kýiine ainaluy, ómirge jýrek múnarasynan bagha beru – romantizmning belgileri. Búl belgiler eng shynshyl kórkemdik әdis realizmge de qatysty. Alayda, búl onyng romantizmdegi siyaqty basty qasiyeti emes, san aluan qyrlarynyng bir tarauy ghana. Mine, Maghjan poeziyamyzda osy qyrdy úshtap damytty. Aqynnyng kónil-kýi, mahabbat lirikasy tipti sayasiy-әleumettik baghdardaghy lirikasynyng ózi onyng elgezek sezimimen órilip jatady. Kónili qúlaghan nәrsege barynsha berilip, ony syrshyl ólenge týsirdi. Ólenge týsirgende de sheber suretker sezimning ózindey nәzik ýnine, әuezdi yrghaghyna týsirdi. Aqyn syrshyldyghy ólenge eki ýlken ilgerindi yqpal әkeldi. Birinshiden, qazaq óleni ol arqyly adam janynyng tereng qatparyna bardy, yaghny ólenning adamtanudaghy shekarasyn keneytti. Adam sezimining terendigi men adam oiynyng sheksizdigin kórsetudegi Maghjan enbegining baghalanuy tiyisti jaqtary mol. Ekinshiden, sol tereng syrlardy berude aqynnyng sheber tili tilimizding beyneleu – stilistikalyq mýmkindikterin arttyruda tabysty jetistikterine jetti, yaghny әdebiyetimizding mәdeny dengeyining ósuine ýles qosty.

Jalpy, әdebiy-tarihy damuda iri suretkerler shygharmalarynda bederlene bayqalatyn janashyldyq qyrlarynyng týp-tórkini olardyng zamanynan da ilgeri kezenderde jasaghan aqyn-jazushylardyng tuyndylarynan angharyla bastaydy. Búl bir jaghynan – tarihiy-әleumettik qatynastardyng ornyghu evolusiyasymen, soghan sәikes qoghamdyq pikirding qalyptasa bastauymen baylanysty bolsa, ekinshi jaghynan әdeby dәstýr jalghastyghymen de týsindirilse kerekti. Qoghmdyq sananyng bir týri bolyp tabylatyn kórkemdik sananyng osynday zandylyghy sóz ónerimizding san ghasyrlyq tarihynda birneshe tústa meyilinshe erekshelene kózge týsedi.

 

Qazaq handyghy túsyndaghy dep atalynyp jýrgen tórt ghasyrlyq tarihy bar jyraular poeziyasynda jauyngerlik pafostyng orny airyqsha. Degenmen, Aqtamberdi, Ýmbetey, Maghasqa tolghaularyndaghy әlgindey iydeyany búl dәuir poeziyasynyng eng basty mazmúny dey almaymyz, oghan qosa el birligi, ósiyettik-ghibrattyq mazmúndaghy tolghaulardy da ataugha bolady. Al, jauyngerlik-kýreskerlik poeziya degende sanamyzgha Isatay bastaghan kóterilis, Kenesary bastaghan últ-azattyq qozghalys tóniregende tughan әdebiyet eske týsedi. Osy taraptaghy aqyndardyng beyneleu arsenalynda jyraular dәstýrining birqatar kórkemdik komponentterin kóruge bolardyq. Synshyldyq, synay otyryp ónege aitu dәstýri Abaygha deyingi dәuirde arysy-jyraular poeziyasynda, berisi – Dulet pen Shortanbay zamandarynda molynan kóringeni mәlim. Alayda, qoghamdyq qarym-qatynastardaghy kelensizdikterdi synau, jeke adam bolmysyndaghy kemshilikterdi mineu, olardan qorytyndy shyghara otyryp, iygi, izgi, imandy qasiyetterge qaray beyimdeu, baghyttau qazaq әdebiyetinde Abay shygharmashylyghynda tolymdy sipatqa ainalghany belgili. Sonday-aq, qazaq poeziyasynda erteden kele jatqan filosofiyalyq saryndar ózining úly qorytyndysyn Abaydan tapty. Asyly, bastapqyda әdebiyetke engen iydeya bolsyn, taqyryp bolsyn pikir, aldymen, oitýrtki retinde tuady da, ózindik kórkemdik qorytyndysyn kelesi dәuirlerde tapsa kerek. Búl әlgi iydeyalardyng qogha ómirine keng oryn aluymen jәne kórkem týrding jetiluimen baylanysty bolady dep oilaymyz. Mine, osynday zandylyqty Maghjan Júmabaevtyng shygharmalarynan da kóremiz. Otarshyldyqqa qarsylyq sonau Búhar jyrau zamanynan odan, beride zar zaman aqyndarynan qúnarly orta tauyp, HIH ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysynda Dulat, Múrat, Shortanbay t.b. aqyndardyng shygharmalarynda keninen aityldy. Dulat pen Múrattaghy, Shortanbay men Núrmanbettegi otarshyldyqqa degenge syn – dәstýrding búzyluy, jerding taruy, dinning әlsireui siyaqty keri ózgeristerdi beyneleu arqyly, býginge ótkendi qarama-qarsylyqty kórsetu arqyly kórinse, ghasyr sonynda múnday qarsylyq aghartushylyq iydeyalarmen sabaqtastyryla bastady. HH ghasyr basyndaghy últty oyatu, ruhany janghyrugha ýndeu baghytyndaghy A. Baytúrsynov, M. Dulatov ólenderindegi aghartushylyq pen synshyldyqta Abaydyng dәstýri sezilip túratyn. Degenmen ol qazaq qoghamyndaghy Abay zamanynan týbegeyli airmashylyghy bar jana kezeng edi. Jana kezenning jana sózin dәstýr saltyndaghy qoltanbasy qalyptasqan qalamgen emes, jana kezenning tarihy -qoghamdyq jaghdayynda tәrbiyelengen, qalyptasqan qalamgen aituy tiyis edi. Últ-azattyq qozghalystyng iydeyalary Ahmet, Mirjaqyp, Ghúmar t.b. shygharmalarynan kórinis tapqanymen, onyng kórkemdigi kemel kórinisi Maghjan shygharmashylyghyna tәn. A. Baytúrsynov pen M. Dulatov sanaly ghúmyrlaryn aghartushylyq, qayretkerlik jolgha arnady. Gh. qarashtyng aqyndyq betinde jyraulardy ýlgi tútqan konservativti baghyt basym body. Ony kezinde M. Áuezov pen J. Aymauytov jazghan edi /3/. Al, M. Júmabaevtyng aqyndyq qabileti últ-azattyq iydeyany kórkem kesteleuge beyim túratyn. Onyng birneshe sebebi bar. Birinshiden, Maghjannyng tabighy darynynda aghartushylyq rasionalizmnen góri, sezimshildik, aghymdaghy oghighany jyldam qabyldaytyn úshqyrlyq basym jatatyn. Ekinshiden, aqyn ólendi ýgit-nasihat qúraly dep týsinbegen, oghan qalamger shygharmalaryndaghy әdebi-estetikalyq tanymnyng terendigi dәlel. Ýshinshiden, onyng bolmysynda ómirdi romantikalyq túrghydan beyneleu qabileti ózgelerden de tereng bolatyn. Jalpy әlemdik әdebiyet tarihynyng tәjiriybesi dәleldep otyrghanynday últ-azattyq qozghalys, últtyq sananyng oyanu dәuirinde, әdette romantizm órken jayatynyn belgili. Tórtinshiden, jana dәuir ózining jana iydeyalaryn ala kelse, kórkem әdebiyet olardy tabighatyna say sony formada beyneleui zandylyq. Osy oraydan kelgende Maghjan shygharmashylyghynyng janrlyq bolsyn, tildik-stilidik bolsyn qyrlaryndaghy janalyqty angharmau mýmkin emes. Besinshiden,Maghjannyng últ-ahzattyq taqyrybyndaghy shygharmalary uaqyt jaghynan, kenstik jaghynan alghanda qazaqtyng qay aqynynyng bolsa da shygharmalarynan ken. Ruhany bostandyq, últ bostandyghy sonau Qorqyt, odan beridegi Abylay, Kenesary zamandarynan óz dәuirine deyin jeli tartyp jatyr. Altynshydan, jalpy bostandyq, erik azattyq mәseleleri – Maghjan shygharmashylyghynyng altyn arqauy. Osynsha kólemde osynday irgeli taqyryptardy jyrlaghan aqyn oghan deyin de, onyng zamanynda da bolghan emes.

 

Ilgeride aitylghan jaylardan shyghatyn týiin – әdebiyettegi taqyryp pen iydeya bir kezenning ghana jemisi emes, ýlken әdeby prosesting óneboyynda bayqalatyn, auqymdy, bay dәstýrli qúbylys. Alayda, ómir shyndyghynyng әdebiyetke kóshui, avtordyng oghan bergen estetikalyq tújyrymy uaqyt óte kele basqa avtorlar tarapynan ózgere, óndele, damytyla beredi. Múnday prosess iydeyanyng pikir júzinde tuuynan bastap kórkemdikke qaray jetile týsedi. Kezinde tikeley aitylghan oilar beyneli baylamdargha ainalady. Mine, osynday kórkemdik sapanyng artuy kezinde Búhardan, Dulattan bir bayqalsa, Abayda iri kórkemdik dengeyde kórindi. Al, HH ghasyr әdebiyetinde Maghjan Júmabaevtyng shygharmashylyghy әlgindey kórkemdik ósuding alghashqy tolyqqandy ýlgisi boldy. Búl jalpy alghanda qazaq әdebiyetining sony kórkemdik oljasy edi.

 

Jalpy, kórkemónerdegi siyaqty, sóz ónerindegi jana bastamanyng ornyghuy adamdy, adam men qogham arasyndaghy kýrdeli de, әrqily qarym-qatynasty jana qyrynan beyneleumen baylanysty. Mine, osy bir arnaly tústan ómir shyndyghyn kórkemdik shyndyqqa ainaldyru, qoghamdyq ortada bolyp jatqan ózgeristerdi tanytu, avtordyng surettep otyrghan obektisine qatysty, adamgershilik, izgilik kózqarastary, suretkerlik sheberligi men dýniyetanymy aiqyndala kórinedi. Jyraular poeziyasynda olar ómir sýrgen tarihy dәuirding eng kórneki ókilderi, negizinen handar, batyrlar beynelese, odan beridegi zar zaman aqyndarynda da batyrlar, biyleushi tap ókilderi kórinis tapty. Ony Dulattyn, Shortanbaydyn, Múrattyng taghy basqalardyng shygharmalarynan kóruge bolady. HIH ghasyrdyng birinshi jartysyndaghy dәstýrli poeziya ókilderinen de osyny kóruge bolady. Yaghni, jazba әdebiyetke deyingi qazaqtyng dәstýrli sóz ónerinde halyqqa belgili degen adamdardyng beynesi jasaldy. Múnday shygharmalarda birde syn, birde madaq aralasyp qaharman jasauda dәstýrli poeziya ókilderi jazba әdebiyettegidey tolyqqandy obraz jasau biyigine jete qoyghan joq-ty. Búl әdebiyetting әli de halyq ómirin jan-jaqty iygermegenin, sol kezdegi sóz óneri aldynda múnday mindetting túra qoymaghandyghyn anghartady. Sóitip, qarastyrylyp otyrghan kezendegi әdebiyetke demokratiyalyq jәne gumanistik iydeyalardyng terendey qoymaghanyn angharamyz.

 

Abay shygharmalaryndaghy adamnyng әdebi-estetikalyq jәne qoghmdyq-әleumettik, filosofiyalyq bolmysy ózine deyingi әdebiyetke qaraghanda edәuir jan-jaqty boldy. Abay arqyly qazaq óleni ómirdegi adamgha, onyng realdy tirshilik ayasyna boylady. Úly aqyn kórnekti túlghalardan góri qatardaghy adamgha juyq túryp, ólenderinde ony barsha qarama-qayshylyghymen beyneledi. Oishyl aqynnyng synynda, aghartushylyghynda, olardan tuyndaytyn joghary talaptarynda adam sýigishtik, adamgha degen janashyrlyq, izgilikke ýndeu basym týsip jatady, sonysymen de ol әdebiyetimizde demokratiyalyq sipat pen gumanistik mazmúndy terendetti. Aqyn adam boyyndaghy qayshylyqtardyng syryna boylay otyryp, ózining bay ishki әlemi arqyly izgilik múrattardy nasihattady jәne múnday nasihat keshegi didaktikalyq poeziyadaghyday tikeley emes, obraz arqyly, adamnyng jandy beynesi arqyly berilip, әdebi-estetikalyq angharda kórindi. Sóitip, Abay arqyly qazaq óleni jalang sózden adamnyng sezimin bauraytyn jandy sózge, asyl sózge auysty. Sol sebepti de M. Áuezov: «Abay qazaq oqushysynyng oiymen qatar sezimin de tәrbiyelegen» - dese /4,350/, Q. Júbanov: «Onyng sezimi oishyl sezim. Onyng oiy da sezimshil oi» - deydi /5, 36/. Búl Abay shygharmashylyghyna dәl aitylghan tereng sózderden aqynnyng nasihatshy emes, gumanist suretker bolghanyn angharamyz. Abay ómir sýrgen uaqyt – otarshyldyqtyng eng bir asyqynghan túsy, el ishining sonyng zardaptarynan ruhany ydyraugha týsken kezi desek, onda Abaydyng ashy synyn, qatal talabyn úghynugha bolady. Desek te, Abay jasaghan әdeby beyneler sol dәuirding shyndyghymen oraylasyp, aqynnyng aghartushylyghyn, synshyldyghyn kórsetetin de, jeke-jeke biyleuge týsip, otarshyldar mýddesinen basy birikpey otyrghan halyqtyng ruhany oi-ansaryn, qoghamdyq-әleumettik әleuetin beyneley almaytyn edi. Búl óz zamanynyng realdy bolmysynan shyghyp otyrghan suretker ýshin ýlken kemshilik emes te shyghar. Alayda, Abay nazarynan otarshyldyq siyaqty zor nәubәtting tys qaluy bir jaghynan tanqalarlyq, ekinshi jaghynan týsindiruge de bolarlyq jayt. Búl mәsele abaytanuda sanaly týrde qarastyrylmay jýrgenimen, Múhtar Áuezov onyng sebebin ózine tәn terendikpen kórsetip bergen. Y. Altynsarin men Abay shygharmalarynyng sipaty turaly oy qoryta otyryp ol: «Biraq búlardyng toby sayasiy-әleumettik qúrylysta patsha ýkimetinen qysym kórmeydi. Qayta sodan sybagha alyp, sonyng ózine qonsy qonghan tap. Sondyqtan ol tap aqyndary tónkerisshil qarsylyq taqyryby men tónkerisshil saryn siyaqtynyng eshbirine jolamaydy. Qazaq ólkesining olar kezinde otar bop jatuy da búlardyng sana-sezimine әser etpegendey bolady» - deydi /6, 278-279/.

 

Búghan qosa Abay zamanynda otarshyldyq sayasat búrynghyday ashyq joyqyn týrde emes jymysqy renk alyp, josparly týrge kóshken. Halyq búrynghyday kýshpen emes, әrtýrli formadaghy jarlyqtar men reformalar arqyly jýzege asyrylyp halyqtyng túrmysy otarshylar tarapynan tanylghan ózgeristerge birte-birte beyimdele bastaghan. Sonday-aq otarshyldyq ókimetting onday sharalaryna qarsy bolghandar jazalanyp halyq sanasyn ýreyde ústap otyrghan. HIH ghasyrdyng alghashqy jartysyndaghy irili-úsaqty kóterilister basylyp, janshylyp endigi jerde elding úiymdasyp bas kóteruge amaly qalmaghanda edi. Al, ghasyrdyng ekinshi jartysyndaghy kóterilister jalpyhalyqtyq, tipti jalpyaymaqtyq sipatqa ie bola almady. Halyq arasyndaghy otarshyldar tarapynan ydyraugha úshyraghan birlik, sonyng nәtiyjesinde qalyptasqan bytyranqylyq Abay poeziyasynan kórinis tapty. MAghjan «altyn hakim» izindegi gumanizmdi arqau ete otyryp, aghartushylyq arnada «Qaraghym», «Óner-bilim qaytse tabylar», «Men sorly», synshyldyq arnada «Sorly qazaq», «Jatyr», «Qazaghym» t.b ólender jazghanymen búl baghytta kóp ayaldaghan joq. «Sholpan» jinaghynan da jana ónirlerdi barlady. Abaydan keyingi әdeby dәuirde Ahmet, Mirjaqyp, Spandiyar, Súltanmahmút, Múhametjan taraptarynan biraz shiyrlanghan tendikten aiyrylghan qazaq qyzynyng beynesin jasaghan Maghjannyng sentiymentalistik obrazdaryn aitpaghanda, aqyn qazaq әdebiyetine jana iydeyalyq-estetikalyq sapadaghy tyng beyneler әkeldi. A.Baytúrsynúly men M. Dulatov shygharmalarynda aghartushylyq, publisistikalyq sarynda kóringen azattyqqa asyqqan qaharman Maghjan poeziyasynda meylinshe kórkem beynege ainaldy. Tútas kezenning ruhany kósemi bolghan qayratker, aqyn aghalarynyng bastamasyn Maghjan kórkemdik kestemen әdiptep asyl sózge ainaldyrdy. Onyng aqyndyq «meninen» tuyndap halqy men aqynnyng ansarynan somdalghan búl beyne kórkemdik dengeyi joghary bolghan sebepti – últ-azattyq kezenning shynayy qaharmany boldy. Sóitip, Maghjan óz zamanynyng eng ilgerindi iydeyasyn beyneledi. Dәl osy tústa Ahmet Baytúrsynúlynyn: «...elde joq ruh aqyn sózinde de bolmaydy. Elde bar ruhty aqyn yqtimal dәriptep, kýsheytip, kópirtip, kórkeytip aitady. Biraq júrtta joq ruhty ózinen shygharyp aita almaydy. Aqyn sózine júrt ruhynyng sәulesi týspey túrmaydy» - degen sózderin eske týsirgen abzal /7, 238/.

 

Aqynnyng múnday qaharmanynda jekelep alghanda Mahambetting kegi, Dulat pen Múrattyng nalasy, Abaydyng talapshyldyghy men danalyghy erekshelenip kózge shalynbaghanymen, múnda solardyng barlyghy ansaghan, solardyng barlyghynyng joqshysy, halqynyng azattyghyna sengen kýreskerding tútas túlghasy bar. Búl aqyn keshken oyanu dәuirining ózine deyingilerden uaqyt artyqshylyghy, búl ózine deyingilerding dengeyinde qalmaghan aqynnyng daryn artyqshylyghy. Búl pikirding dәleli men dәiegi – «Jer jýzine», «Tez baram», «Esimde... tek tang atsyn», «Ot», «Payghambar», «Kýnshyghys», «Alystaghy bauyryma» t.b. jyrlarynda. Sonyng nәtiyjesinde dәuirding eng jetekshi iydeyasy Maghjan lirikasynda kórkem obrazgha ainalyp, ózining әdeby qorytyndysyn tapty. Aqynnyng kemel daryny bir mәselening ózin әr týrli iydeyalyq jәne kórkemdik qyrlarynan kórsete alu qabiletimen de baylanysty desek, onda Maghjannyng tútas lirikalyq múrasyn aitpaghannyng ózinde bir ortaq taqyryp tóniregindegi ólenderinen suretkerlik kórkem oidyng aluan jaqtaryn iygergenine kuә bolamyz. Búl ýlken aqyndargha tәn ishki poetikalyq әleuetting quattylyghy, sonymen birge qalamgerding dýniyetanymynyng kendigi. Aytalyq, «Ot» ólenderining ózinde, olarda beyneli sipat tapqan mәselelerding san qyrlylyghy birden kózge týsedi. Múnda Maghjannyng aqyndyq әlemining sheksizdigi, sonday-aq tereng bilimdarlyghy, logikasynyng myghymdylyghy tanqaldyrmay qoymaydy. Sóitip, qazaq ólenining bir Maghjan shygharmashylyghynda jedel ósu jolyn aighaqtaydy.

 

Aytuly janalyq retinde aqynnyng tól әdebiyetimizge týrki, shyghys taqyryptaryn alyp kelgeni de aitylyp jýr. Ol Maghjannyng san qatparly, tereng tarihymyzdy tútas týsinuimen, suretkerlik tanymynyng úshqyrlyghymen týsindirilse qajetti. Múndaghy mәselening syry – aqynnyng ghalamdyq oilauymen de baylanysty qaraluy tiyis. Suretkerding kóne men janany, baghzy men býgingini qosatyn, sóitip adamzattyng ótken-ketkenin kórkemdik kórikten ótkizer eren túlgha ekenin aqynnyng ózi de jýregimen sezingen. Maghjannyng kókeyinen shyghyp, qolymen jazylghan «Alqa» aiqyndamasyndaghy myna keng tolgham soghan kuәlik etedi: «aqynnyng aldynda ótken, býgin, keleshek – ýsheui de túrugha tiyisti. Aqyn osy ýsheuining arasynda kópir salugha mindetti» /8,269/. Býgingi men kesheginin, Shyghys pen Batystyn, mәngilik pen ótkinshilikting kókeytesti, ómirsheng qyrlaryn jyrlau-aqynnyng ózin de әlemdik dengeyge kóterdi. Álemdik dengey deu, әste, Maghjandy dýniyejýzi kórkem oiynyng alyptary janyna qoyp jasandy dengeylestiru emes, aqiqaty solay. Nege deseniz – Maghjan siyaqty ýlken suretkerdi býgingi kýnmen ólsheu qiyanat. Mәsele – aqyn shygharmalarynyng aghylshyn, fransuz, nemis bolmasa qytay, ýndi t.b. keng taralaghan tilderge audarylghan-audarylmaghandyghymen baylanysty qarastyrylmauy tiyis. Álemdik kórkemónerding qalybyn europalyq, orystyq ýlgilerge shaqtap qúng – jalpy óner adamynyng erkin qiyaly men kórkem tanymynyng jemisi ekendigine, tabighy darynnyng daralyq túrpatyna, әrbir últqa tәn erekshe oilau qabiletine kýmәn keltirumen barabar. Qazaq mәdeniyetining óz betimen tanyla bastauy kesheli, býgin ghana derbes qadam endi ghana jasalyp jatyr. Negizgi ólshem aqyn kótergen mәselelerding auqymdylyghynda, solardy kórkem kesteleuinde. Osy basty baghdarlardan kelgende, Maghjan qanday aqynmen bolsa da óreles, dengeyles. Álemdik mәdeniyet pen kórkemónerdi jasaytyn jýzdegen halyqtardyng mәdeniyeti men kórkemóneri desek, onda ol dәstýrge bay qazaqtyng kórkem oiy arqyly tek qana útady, jana qyrymen tolyghady. Búl tarapta Maghjan syndy tútas últtyng úly suretkerlerining manyzy alabóten.

 

Týr, poetikalyq pishin sonylyghy túrghysynan kelgende Maghjan ólenining ózeginde qazaq tilining mol mýmkinshilikteri órkendetile damytylady. Janashyldyqtyng bayandylyghy men ómirshendigi sony taqyryptyq-iydeyalyq mazmúnnyng soghan say kórkemdik týrge bólinuinde desek, oghan orayly mysaldardy Maghjan ólenderinen molynan tabugha da, olardy kórsetuge de әbden bolarlyq. Aqynnyng kórkemdik týr salasyndaghy jemis izdenisteri – arnayy әngimening arqauy.

 

Búl әdeby baghyt túsynda qanday elding bolmasyn sóz ónerinde lirikanyng qatty damyghany – ilgeride aitylghan beyneleu әdisining erekshelikterine baylauly. Lirikalyq janr ýshin asa tabysty bolghan romantizmning múnday qyrlary, romantikalyq eposqa kelgende, povesti pen romangha qaraghanda poema ýshin asa ontayly boldy. Poema janryndaghy romantizm ýlgileri dәstýrli epikalyq poemadan góri lirika men epostyng sintezin týzilgen liro-epikalyq poemanyng qalyptasuyna әkeldi. Sol sebepti de Europa, orys әdebiyetinde klassizm men aghartushylyq әdebiyettegi poemalardan keyin, qazaq әdebiyeti ýshin dastandardan song liro-epikalyq poema janalyq retinde qarastyryldy. Batys әdebiyetterindegidey qazaqtyng әdeby ortasynda eski men jananyng arasyndaghy iydeyalyq kýres qarqyndy jýrmegenimen, әdeby synnyng әdeby proseske aralasyp yqpal jasamaghanymen, últtyq mazmúndaghy qazaq liro-epikalyq poemasynyng ómirge kelui sol kezdegi qalam iyelerin bey-jay qaldyrghan joq. M. Áuezov romantizmning syrshyl-subektivti sipatyna erekshe toqtalyp: «Jazba әdebiyetining Abaydan bergi dәuirin alghanda, jolyn ózgertetin janalyq songhy jyldarda tuyp keledi. Ol janalyq jana bastalyp kele jatqan sezimshildik, syrshyldyq romantizm dәuiri. Búrynghy auyzsha әdebiyetten, odan bergi Abay zamanynan beri realizm saryny kóbinese qúrghaq oi, jadaghay sóz kýii osy kýnde ishki tereng sezim, nәzik syr kýiinde ainalyp keledi. Búnyn: M. Júmabaevtyng songhy «Ertegi», «Qorqyt» siyaqty ólenderinde bar» - dep jazsa /4/, J. Aymauytov: «Bayan» - qazaq әdebiyetinde bola bermegen tabys. Ásirese, «Bayannyn» basqy bóliminde suret, sheshendik tolghau, kýy tógilip ketken» - deydi / 1,427/.

 

Lirikalyq bastau men epikalyq qúlash múnday poemalardyng erekshe bayandau mәnerin qalyptastyrdy. Avtordyng keyipkerler әreketin, oqigha barysyn subektivti mәnde beyneleui, sodan óris alatyn tereng syrshyldyq, emosionaldy renk, sezim tasqyny, keyipkerlerding ishki әlemining aiqaryla, ashyla surettelui – erekshe estetikalyq jaghday tudyryp, oqyrman qabyldauyndaghy belsendilikti ýdetti. Liro-epikalyq poemada dastandargha, ózining aldyndaghy poema týrlerine qaraghanda tabighat kórinisteri de aitarlyqtay oryn aldy. Maghjan poemalaryndaghy Kókshe, Burabay, Jetisu suretteri shygharmanyng iydeyalyq mazmúnynyng asa kórkem sheshimge ie boluyna az әser etken joq. Peyzajdyq suretter oqighagha fon ghana bolmay, jalpy suretkerding aitpaq oiyn, múratyn da bildiredi.

Men de oidy aghytamyn qalamyma,

Arqanyng kóz jibersem alabyna:

Saryarqa-sary dariya, qiyry joq

Kóz bolsyn, qanday qyran, talady da.

Ishinde sary dariya kóz toqtatar

Kókshetau – Saryarqanyng araly da.

Kókshede kýni keshe qoyday órgen

Týrli an: bóri, búghy, maraly da.

Ayrylyp asau, erke andarynan

Kókshening tas jýregi jaraly da!

degen joldar romantikalyq iydeal men romantikalyq narazylyqtyng týptórkini ishara jasaydy.

 

Shygharmanyng sezim baylyghy men aluandyghyna qúrylghan mazmúny – tildik boyauynyng qanyq boluyn qamtamasyz etedi. Romantikalyq tanym troptyng әldeneshe týrlerining mәtininde orayly, әri talghampazdyqpen júmsauyna jol ashqan. Metaforalyq, metonimiyalyq, siynekdohalyq tirkester qúbylysty, obrazdy beyneleude, sonymen qatar tabighat kórkin qúbylta kesteleytin keyipteuler liro-epikalyq poemanyng stilidik qabatyn kórkem kemeldendirdi. Mәsele, aishyqty sóz nemese sóz tirkesterin molynan qoldanuda da emes, olardy oqighanyn, qúbylystyng syryn ashatynday orayymen júmsauda bolsa kerek. Sózge maghyna jýkteude jәne osy baghytta ózining aiqyn kórkemdik qoltanbasyn týsirude bolsa kerek. Jalpy, shygharma stiyli degenimiz – keybir zertteushiler tarapynan әdetke ainaldyryp jýrgendey beyneli sózderding tizbegi emes, qalamgerding sóz tandauy, ózining sózdik әlemin qalyptastyruy, sózderdi tirkestiru daghdysy men sóilem qúru ereksheligi men sheberligi. Osynday maqsatty jaqtan kelgende, qazaq tilining bay mýmkindikterin ashuda, ana tilimizding jana qabattaryn iygerude Maghjannyng tapqany mol.

 

Avtordyng keyipkerlerine, olardyng әreketine subektivti ynghay bildirui – liro-epikalyq poemanyng novellalyq sipaiyn qalyptastyrdy. Oqighanyng shiraq bayandaluy, bayandaudyng bayyrghy jyrlary men dastandardaghyday bir izben birte-birte damytylmay birneshe sujettik bólikter arqyly mólsherli berilui, sodan baryp fragmentarly sipat aluy, lirikalyq sheginisterding ónimdik qoldanystary – romantikalyq poemanyng kompozisiyalyq bitimining jinaqy da, shymyr boluyn, artyq túrmauyn qamtamasyz etti. Búl jana pishindi qúrylym avtordyng sheberlikti qajet ete otyryp, jalpy poema janrynyng pishindi kórkemdik ynghayda kýrdeli satygha kóterilgenin, shygharmanyng estetikalyq mәdeniyetining óskenin bayqatady. Sóitip, aqynnyng da epik suretker retinde qalyptasqanyn da tanytty. «Ertegi» men «Oqjetpesting qiyasynda» poemalarynan bastalghan liro-epikalyq janrdy iygerui «Qorqyt» pen «Batyr Bayan» túsynda ózining apogeyine jetti. Osy arada Makghjannyng epos janryna lirik aqyn aqyn retinde eseyip kelgenin, endigi jolda ol Abaydyng da, ózgelerding de yqpalynan shyqqanyn, ózining sara baghytyn tapqanyn, ony jemisti iygergenin atap ótemiz. Búl tústaghy Maghjannyng jayy Pushkin men Lermontovtan bólek bolatyn. Orys aqyndarynyng Bayrondy ústaz tútuy – olardyng sol kezde ýlken әdebiyetke jas daryn bolyp endi attaghan sebepti ýirenu kezeninde bolghanyn naqtylap ketuding artyqtyghy joq. Sonymen birge, 1820 jyldary Europa әdebiyeti ýshin Bayron esimi asa tanymal, tipti erkindik pen bostandyqtyng simvolynday qabyldanghanyn, al ,múnyng ózi sol tústaghy jas qalam iyelerine zor túlghalyq әser etkenin da qosa aitamyz. Al, bir ghasyrgha juyq keyingi qazaq әdebiyetining damu prosesi ýshin onyng asa kókteytesti bola qoyy qiyn. Liro-epikalyq janrdaghy nәtiyjeli iydeyalyq-kórkemdik izdenisteri degende qazaq romantiygining jәne bir janalyqty bastamasyn oidan shygharugha bolmaydy. Oghangha deyin qazaq poemalary, romandary jәne birdi-ekili bolsa da jazylyp qalghan dramalyq shygharmalarda әli kóterile qoymaghan óz elining ótkenine boylady.

 

Daryny kemel әrbir qalamgerding naqty tuyndylarymen qosa, onyng jalpy shygharmashylyghy arqyly taghy da bir iri maqsat jýzege asyrylyp jatady. Ol suretkerding jeke ýlgisi, yaghny ol ómir shyndyghynyng búryn kórkem iygerilmegen aluan qyrlaryna bara otyryp, izbasar qalamgerlerge jana ónirlerdi núsqaydy. Sonday-aq, sóz ónerining erkindigi men sheksiz mýmkindikterin bayqatady. Búghan suretkerding últ tilining kórkemdik-stilidik әleueti men baylyghynyng ýlgisin kórsetkenin qossaq, onda daryny zor qalamgerler shygharmashylyq jolynyng manyzdylyghy eselene týsedi. Asyly, aqyn-jazushy әdeby synnan góri, osynday kórkem ýlgilerden ýlken sabaq alsa kerek. Maghjannyng ónegesi keshegi әdebiyetimizding boyyna shygharmashalaq qan men iman bolyp qútylmaghanymen, býgingi bolashaqta әdebiyet әlemining ókilderine júghysty bolary haq. Bir nauqanshylyqtan kelesi nauqanshylyqqa soqtyghyp jýrgenderdi kóre túra, soghan ilanghymyz keledi.

 

Ádebiyetting esengining bir parasy – әdeby synnyng qalyptasuynan bayqalady. HH ghasyrdyng ekinshi onjyldyghynda tughan qazaqtyng әdeby synshyl oiy kelesi onjyldyqta ózining tanystyrushylyq – sholushylyq sipatynan arylyp, sóz ónerining qanday bolmaghy siyaqty eresek oilargha bara bastady. Ádebiyettin, erkin shygharmashylyq sapanyng ýzdik ýlgisin kórkemdik sapa jýzinde dәleldeuge Maghjan әdebitting pikir salasynda da qazaq qalamgerlerining ishinde alghashqylardyng biri bolyp әdebiyetting tabighy bolmysy turasynda saliqaly oi, keng pishilgen pikir aitty. Onyng Aqan seri, Bazar jyrau, B. Kýleev turaly jazghan maqalalary «Maghjan synshy da bolghan» degen derektik mәnnen de joghary dýniyeler. Aqyn-jyraular jayynda aita otyryp, jazylghan shaghy túrmaq, әdebiyetting býgingi tarihshylarynyng qapetine kelmegen qanshama oy tudyrarlyq óristi pikirler sabaqtaghanyna tang bolmasqa lajyng qalmaydy. Múnda úshqyr oy men tereng til qiysa, órelese kelip, oqulyqtardyng siresken stiylinen sanamyzdy arshyp, oiymyzdy ýiire jóneldi. Synshyldyqtyng oiy men qyryn iygergeni, problemagha kelui men ony sheshui tabighy últtyq tanymnyng artyqshylyqtaryn pash etedi. Ásirese, «Alqa» aiqyndamasyndaghy әdebiyet pen qogham, әdeby daryn, әdebiyetting ishki zandylyqtary haqyndaghy óreli oilarynyng baghdarlamalyq sipaty alabóten. Sóz ónerining tabighy bolmysynyng shygharmashylyq prosestegi baspatqylyghy, aqyn qiyalynyng daralyghy men erkindigi turaly aitqan qadau-qadau pikirlerinen alar ghibrat, sinirer ónege jeterlik. «... Súlu, tereng suretter arqyly, qanday bolsa onday bolsyn, әiteuir tereng sezim oyata alsa – aqyn. Oyata almasa – aqyn emes» nemese «Aqynnyng mindeti – bilim beru emes, tereng sezim, asqar pikir oyatu» - degenderi mәngilik qaghidalar /8,264-265/. Sýisinerliligi – Maghjannyng kóp darynnan biyik túrghandaghy osy aitqandary men ónerining bir joldyng boyynan tabylatyndyghy.

 

Maghjan Júmabaevtyng qazaq sóz ónerine ornyqtyrghan taqyryptyq-iydeyalyq jәne kórkemdik arnadaghy janalyqty izdenisteri – suretkerding әdebiyet tarihyndaghy manyzyn ghana aiqyndap qoymaydy, sonday-aq, eng bastysy últtyng kórkemdik oilau jýiesining ýlken satygha kóterilgenin pash etedi.

 

 

 

 

Ádebiyetter

1. J.Aymauytov Maghjannyng aqyndyghy turaly // M. Júmabaev shygharmalary. Almaty, 1989

2. R. Núrghaly Áuezov jәne alash. Ádebiyettegi últtyq ruh. Almaty, 1997

3. J. Aymauytov M. Áuezov Abaydan songhy aqyndar // «Abay» jurnaly, № 2, 1992

4. M. Áuezov Tandamaly. Almaty, 1997

5. Q. Júbanov Qazaq әdebiyetining klassiygi // Abay taghlymy, Almaty, 1986

6. M. Áuezov 20 tomdyq shygh. Jinagha, 15 tom. Almaty, 1984

7. A. Baytúrsynov Shygharmalary. Almaty, 1989

8. Alqa // D. Qamzabekúly Ruhaniyat. Almaty, 1997

9. P.N: Sakulin Filologiya y kuliturologiya. Moskva, 1990.   

 

Erbol Tileshov

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