Dýisenbi, 27 Mausym 2022
Óz sózi 10513 0 pikir 6 Qazan, 2014 saghat 12:23

ShETEL QAZAQTARY. OLAR KIMDER?

Qazaqstan Respublikasy halyqaralyq arenadaghy ornyn anyqtaghan memleket. Alayda,  memleketting geografiyalyq orny, aumaghynyng kendigi jәne halqynyng azdyghy geosayasy ornymyzdy bekemdep, últtyq mýddemizding týrli qúndylyqtaryn qorghauda  keri әser etip otyrghany jasyryn emes. Qazirgidey kýrdeli sayasy jaghdayda elimiz ýshin eng basty mindet - Qazaqstannyng sayasy jәne aumaqtyq tәuelsizdigin mәngilik etu. Búl qasterli mindetti oryndaugha jergilikti halyqpen birge, alys-jaqyn shetelderdegi qandastarymyzdyng at salysuy zaman talaby. Shetel qazaqtary Qazaqstangha, Qazaqstan olargha kerek. Memleket ózining úrpaq jәne tarih aldyndaghy paryzyn oryndaugha birinshi bolyp qadam basuy tiyis. Qazaqstan qadamyn basyp ta qoyghan. Dese de, jiyrma jyldyqtyng nәtiyjesi kónil kónshiter emes. Sebebi, sayasiy-әkimshilik túrghyda kómektesu bar da, olardy qazaqtyng últtyq  mәselesining biri retinde  ghylymy túrghyda zertteu joq.

Qazirgidey órkeniyetti ómirde jasap otyrghan el ýshin aitqanda, týrli mәselelerdi ghylymy jәne diplomatiyalyq túrghyda qarastyru jәne sheshu mindetti qúbylys bolmaq. Ghylymy zertteusiz qabyldanghan sayasy sheshimder men is-sharalardyng bayandy bolmasy anyq. Osy túrghydan aitqanda, shetel qazaqtaryn jýieli týrde, arnauly ghylymiy  zertteu mekeme ayasynda qarastyrudyng kezi keldi.  Alayda, onday ghylymy mekeme de, mamandar da joq derlik.

Shetel qazaqtaryna qatysty jekelegen ghalymdardyng izdenisteri  elimiz egemendik alghannan keyin ghana bastau alghany belgili. Oghan sheteldegi qazaqtardy zertteu enbekterining derlik tәuelsizdikten song jazylyp, jaryq kórgeni dәlel bolmaq. Men ózim uniyversiytette oqytushy әri egemendikting alghashqy jyldary Otangha oralghan qazaq azamaty bolghandyqtan, sonday-aq búl taqyryptyng óz mamandyghyma say boluy sebepti, shetel qazaqtaryna baylanysty izdenisterimdi erte bastadym әri búl salagha jas mamandardy tartu maqsatynda studentter men magistranttargha ghylymy taqyryp retinde berip otyrdym. Osy izdenister barysynda, shetel qazaqtaryna baylanysty  zertteulerding jetkiliksiz tústaryn payymdadym. Olardy ashalap aitar bolsam, bastylary  tómendegidey:

- Shetel qazaqtaryn zertteuding bir izge týspeui, jýielilik pen  úiymshyldyqtyng joqtyghy;

- Arnayy zertteu instituttarynyng bolmauy jәne otandyq  ghalymdardyng ishinde búl taqyrypqa baratyndardyng sanauly  boluy;

- Jazylghan dýniyelerding kópshiligi Dýniyejýzi qazaqtar qauymdastyghy úiymdastyrghan  konferensiyalardyng materialdary bolyp, kitap nemese monografiya týrindegi júmystardyng óte az boluy;

- Jazylghan maqalalar men materialdar týgeldey  sheteldegi qazaqtardy tek, tarihi, etnografiyalyq, sayasy jәne mәdeniyettanu, estetika , óner, kóshi-qon mәseleleri boyynsha - Jaryq kórgen enbekterding kópshiligi Mongholiya, Qytay, Resey,  Ózbekstan elderindegi qandastargha  arnalghan, al Iran, Qyrghyzstan, Týrkiya qazaqtary turaly óte az, Europa qazaqtary turaly jazylghan dýniyeler  joq deuge bolady.

- Ár elden kelgen ghylymdar tek ózi biletin el jóninde, tek ózi biletin tilde ghana jazghan. Mysaly, Qytay men Mongholiyadan kelgen mamandar ózi kelgen el turaly qazaq tilinde jazsa, Reseyden kelgender orys tilinde  jazghan. Olar arasynda bir-birining enbekterin týsinisu mýmkindigi az.

- Shetel qazaqtarynyng qonystanghan aimaqtarynyn, memleketining geografiyasy, sharuashylyghynyng aumaqtyq ornalasuy, halyqtyng ekonomikalyq-әleumettik jaghdayy jәne geosayasy manyzy men róli turaly zertteu mýlde jasalmaghan.

Osy atalmysh olqylyqtardy mýmkindiginshe tezdetip qolgha alyp, shetel qazaqtary turaly keshendi baghdarlama әzirlep, jan-jaqtyly zertteu júmystaryn qolgha alu kerek.  Múndaygha kelgende  danghaza  jiyndar men paydasy shamaly konferensiyalargha  kóptep qarjy bóletin  biylik oryndary,  últtyq mýddege baylanysty taqyryptargha kelgende  "oylanyp qalatyn" әdeti bar. Tipti, búl turaly Parlament Senatynyng jalpy otyrysynda palata tóraghasy Qasym-Jomart Toqaev elimizde halyqaralyq forumdar ótkizuding jiyilep ketkenin aityp, Ýkimetke qúlaqqaghys jasamady ma. Bizdin, meyli biylik, meyli ghalymdar men sayasatkerler bolsyn, azamattar bolsyn  týsiner kez keldi. Qazaqstan Respublikasy  jer kólemi  2.724.900 sharshy shaqyrym bolyp,  dýniyejýzi boyynsha toghyzynshy orynda, әlemdegi eng ýlken ishki qúrylyqtyq el. Halyq sany 2013 jylghy birinshi qyrkýiektegi mәlimet boyynsha  17 mln 75 myng adamdy qúrap, jalpy esepte dýniyejýzi boyynsha 61- orynda túr. Halyq tyghyzdyghy 6,3 adam. Demek, 9:61 qatynasyn, teris proporsionaldy 1:6,8 qatynasyna jatqyzugha bolady. Búl alandatarlyq qatynas formasy. Onyng ýstine Qazaqstan geosayasy orny asa manyzdy el. Qazirgidey aumaly-tókpeli sayasi-ekonomikalyq jaghdayda, últtyq egemendikti saqtau men nyghaytu bәrinen de manyzy, úly is bolyp kýn tәrtibinde túr. 

 Qazaqta әli kýnge mәnin joymay kele jatqan kóp maqaldyng biri – «kóp qorqytady, tereng batyrady» degen ataly sóz. Búl sóz qashan aitylsa da, býgingi kýnde de ózining dúrystyghyn ainaladaghy kórshilerden kórsetip otyr. Sondyqtan Qazaqstan halqynyn, әsirese qazaqtyng sandyq ýlesining artuy auaday qajetti súranys. Mening ózimning esebimshe qazaq jerinde sayasy túraqtylyq, el irgesining býtindigi, ekonomikanyng kenistik túrghyda tiyimdi ornalasuy, infraqúrylymnyn, kólik joldarynyn, bilim beru men densaulyq saqtaudyng eng kemeldi kezin qalyptastyru ýshin bizding el halqy 50 mln. boluy tiyis. Ýkimet josparynda da 2050 jyly halyq sanyn 25 mln-gha jetkizu mejelenip otyr. Osy iygi bastamagha   sheteldegi qandastardyng elge oraluynyng tiygizer septigi de mol ekeni dausyz.   Álemning 40-tan asa eline taryday shashyraghan qazaq sanyna elimizdegi  11 mln 1 myng 739 qazaqty qosqanda, jalpy dýniyejýzi boyynsha 15,5-16 mln qazaq bar dep esepteuge bolady. Qazirgi qazaqstan halqynyng jyldyq ósimi 200 myng adam dep sanaghanda 1 mln adamgha ósu ýshin 5 jyl shamasynda uaqyt kerek bolady. Eger 20 jyldan beri elge oralghan qandastardyng jalpy sany osy  1 mln adam ekenin eskergende, oralman atalyp jýrgen qandastardyng keluimen Qazaqstan halqynyng 5 jyldyq tabighy ósimi oralmandar esebinen ósti deuge tolyq dәlel bar.

         Qandastardyng sandyq ósim beruden basqa, últtyq til men mәdeniyetting damuyna, ekonomika men sharuashylyqtyng órkendeuine, syrtqy sayasiy-әleumettik baylanystardyng nyghangyna tiygizer paydasy orasan zor. Alayda, osynday potensiyaldy elemeu, eskermeu nemese onyng osynshalyqty bay-quatyn mensinbeu men paydalana bilmeu eldigimizge ýlken syn.

Sheteldegi qazaqtardy tarihy otanyna oraltu, túrghan eli boyynsha jýieli týrde kómek kórsetu ol - dýniyejýzindegi qazaqtarynyng jalghyz qazyghy sanalatyn elimizding basty da, qasiyetti boryshtarynyng biri jәne biregeyi. Búl qasterli júmysty solqyldaq zandar men  qatpary qalyn, qasang qaghidalar nemese oiyn-toylar men әlde bir basqosular arqyly sheshuge kelmeydi. Ol mәseleni tek ghylymy túrghyda zertteu, zerdeleu arqyly ghana sheshuge bolady. Ol ýshin әriyne, aldymen  ghylymy zertteu instituty men mamandardy júmyldyru kerek.  Oghan últtyq ghylym akademiyasynyng qatysty instituttary men birge Dýniyejýzi qazaqtary qauymdastyghy jәne Halyqaralyq qazaq tili qoghamy degen  qoghamdyq sipat alatyn újymdardy memlekettik mekeme mәrtebesin berip, olardyng ghylymy zertteumen ainalysuyna mýmkindik jaratyluy tiyis.

Ghylymy zertteuding basynda, joghary da aityp ótkenimdey, shetel qazaqtarynyng taralu geografiyasyn, ekonomikalyq jәne әleumettik geografiyasyn basty nazargha alu tiyis.  Sebebi, olar tarihy túrghyda biraz zertteldi, dәl qazirgi jaghdayda olardy ekonomikalyq-әleumettik geografiya túrghysynan zertteuding dәuiri keldi. Sebebi,
ekonomikalyq-әleumettik geografiya ghylymdary sol elderding  tabighat jaghdayy men tabighy resurstaryn, halqy men enbek kýsh baylyghyn, 
qalalary men transportyn, óndirisining aumaqtyq ornalasuy men ekonomikalyq damu jaghdayyn, ekologiyalyq jәne әleumettik problemalaryn,
memleketting sayasy qúrylymy men basqaru formasyn t.b. ózekti mәselelerdi zertteydi. Al búl mәseleler bizding shetel qazaqtaryn zertteudegi basty da, manyzdy nysandarymyz. Sebebi, bizding ýkimet osy negizde olardy oraltudyng útymdy joly men elimizde qonystandyrudyng aumaqtyq  mәselesin  sheshuding túraqty  jolyn jәne kómek kórsetuding baghyt-baghdary men kómekting týri men sipatyn sonday-aq basqa da kerekti aqparattargha ie bolar edi.

Sonynda, taghy bir eske sala keter jaghday, shetel qazaqtaryn ekonomikalyq-әleumettik geografiya ghylymdary túrghysynan zertteude, olardy eki basty baghytta qarastyru kerek. Birinshisi óz tarihy ata-qonysynda otyrghan, alayda, keyingi kezdegi shekaralyq kelisimder negizinde Qazaqstannyng býgingi  aumaghynan tys elderde qalyp qoyghan qazaqtar. Olardy  "Ata qonysta qalghan qazaqtar" nemese qysqasha "Qonystaghylar" dep ataugha bolady. Al ekinshileri taghdyr tәlkegimen shetel asyp, qiyr jaylap ketken qazaqtar. Olardy "Qonys audarghandar" nemese "múhadjirler" dep ataugha bolady. Keyde keybir ghalymdarymyz ben basshylarymyz olardyng arasyndaghy aiyrmashylyqqa mәn bermesten bәrinde bir shybyqpen aidap "Diaspora" dep atap jýr. Diaspora úghymy qazaqshalasaq "Últ shashyrandylary" bolyp shyghady. Búl túrghydan qaraghanda diaspora múhadjirlerge keledi. Al ata qonysta qalghan qazaqtar "shashyraghandar" emes, olar "bólinip qalghandar". Eger biz olardy  diasporamen birdey qarastyrsaq,  bergisi bilimsizdik, asyra aitsaq, qylmyspen teng qatelik. Óitkeni, qazaqtyng tarihy jerleri qazaqsha shapan emes, toylarda qúda bitkenge ýlestire beretin. Ol jerler mәngi qazaqtyng qonysy bolyp qala beredi. Biz sol úghymdy úrpaqtar sanasyna qúya beruimiz tiyis. Sondyqtan da osy eki toptyng da ara jigin ashyp,  derbes  zertteu tiyis.  Al ol ýshin eng ontayly jәne qajetti ghylym salasy taghy da sol ekonomikalyq-әleumettik jәne geografiya ghylymdary bolyp tabylady.

 

Sarqytqan Qaster, ekonomikalyq-әleumettik geografiya

 ghylymdarynyng kandidaty,

Abay atyndaghy QazÚPU dosenti

 Abai.kz

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