Dýisenbi, 25 Qantar 2021
Anyq 3548 0 pikir 15 Qazan, 2014 saghat 02:00

Sovet sayasaty: Jat jerde jer jastanghandar

Kenestik sayasattyng saldarynan jat elde jantәsilim etken jerlesterimizding taghdyry turaly aqiqat әli tolyq ashylyp bitken joq.

Maqtaaral audanyndaghy Atakent kentin­de ornalasqan Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblysy maqta sharuashylyghy tarihy múra­jayy negizinen auyl sharuashylyghyn, dәlirek aitqanda, maqta sharuashylyghyn nasihattaydy desek te, múndaghy әrbir jәdiger men qújatta halyqtyng basynan keshken qiyn-qystau kezenderding óshpes izi sayrap jatyr. Áytse de, Myrzashól óniri kenes dәuirinde negizinen maqta sharuashylyghymen ainalysqanyn qordaghy derekter ainytpay aighaqtap túr. Múrajaydaghy jәdigerlerden kózimizge aldymen alty er adamnyng suretining erekshe iligui beker emes edi. Suretting janyna әlgi azamattardyng 1983 jyly 23 tamyzda Kambodjadaghy Pol Pot jasaghynyng qolynan qaza tapqandyghy turaly jazylghan. Búl oqigha bizdi beybit kezende oryn alghan jәne kenestik biylikting ashylmaghan taghy bir túnghiyghyna terendep baruymyzgha mýmkindik tughyzady.

Tarihy suret boyynsha әngimemizdi әri qaray sabaqtaytyn bolsaq, әueli jer týbindegi Kambodjagha maqtaaraldyqtar qalay baryp jýr, ondaghy Pol Pot dep otyr­ghanymyz qanday adam, beybit ómirde qaza tapqan jerlesterimizding keyingi taghdyry, olardyng ýrim-bútaghy, otbasy jayynda ne bilemiz degen súraqtargha jauap izdegenimiz abzal siyaqty. Kambodja atauyn alghash mektep oqulyqtary arqyly oqyp-bilgenimiz bolmasa, Ýndiqytay týbegindegi beytanys júrttyng mәdeniyeti men tirshilik-tynysy jayyndaghy maghlúmatymyz sabaqtaghy baghdarlamalyq kólemnen arygha asyp kete qoymaytyn. Ol talay jyldar Fransiyanyng otarynda bolghan el. Ýndiqytaydaghy ejelgi memleketterding biri sanalatyn Kambodja jerindegi túnghysh memleket I-VI ghasyrlarda Mekong ózeni boyynda saltanat qúrghan eken. Funani dep atalatyn ol memleket Qytaymen, Ontýstik Ýndistan elderimen mәdeny baylanystar ornatqan. VII-VIII ghasyrlarda iri el payda bolyp (Chenla Jer men Chenla Su), khmer jazuy dýniyege kelgen desek, al IX ghasyrda khmer jerinde Kambudjadesh memleketi qúrylyp, ol XI ghasyrda Ýndiqytay týbegindegi eng iri imperiyagha ainalghan. Tarihtyng talay shatqalynda shatqayaqtamay, sharuasyn algha sýirete alghan jergilikti halyq XV ghasyrda qayta damyp, elding jana astanasy Pnompeni (1443) túrghyzylghany mәlim. Ejelden budda dinimen egiz júrt ózderining nanym-senimderine adaldyqtary retinde zәulim ghibadathanalar, orasan ýlken әsem mýsinder qalady. Solay bola túrghanmen, XVII ghasyrdaghy siam men tay әskerleri arasyndaghy qyrghiqabaq soghystan halyqtyng túrmys-tirshiligi әlsirep, elding ósuine edәuir keri әserin tiygizgenin naqtylaytyn búltartpas aighaqtar kóptep tabylady. 1841 jyly ýkimet basyna Ang Duongtyng kelui, 1884 jyly Fransiyanyng is jýzinde ony óz otaryna ainaldyruy, ekinshi dýniyejýzilik soghys jyldarynda japondardyng jau­lap alghany, soghystan keyin qaytadan Fran­siya qarauyna ótui, eldegi últ-azattyq qoz­gha­lysynyng kýshengine baylanysty 1953 jyly Pnompenide elding tәuelsizdigi turaly resmy shartqa qol qoyyluy, 1957 jyly beytaraptyq turaly zang qabyldanghany, soghan qaramastan Vietnamdaghy soghys yqpalymen múnda 1970 jyly nauryzda әskery tónkeris bolghany, osy jyly 30 sәuirde Amerika әskerlerining beytaraptyq shartyn búzyp, elge óz әskerlerin engizui, biraq partizan qozghalysy men әlem júrtshylyghy narazylyghyna baylanysty AQSh-tyng óz әskerlerin qayta shygharyp әketuge mәjbýr boluy, 1975 jyly sәuirde taghy da qandy qaqtyghystar beleng alyp, biylik basyna kommunist Pol Pottyng kelui Kambodja tәuelsizdigining bir kýnde ornay salmaghanyn, talay qyrghiy-qabaq soghys pen qandy qaqtyghystan qan qaqsaghan halyqtyng beybit ómirge birden qol jetkize qoymaghanyn naqtylay týsetin oqighalar. Sondyqtan biz әngimemizding basynda aityp ótkenimizdey, Kambodjada qaza tapqan maqtaaraldyq azamattardyng ólimine qatysty Pol Pot degen kim jәne jerlesterimizding ózge elde ajal qúshuyna sebep bolghan búl jaghdaylar nege osy uaqytqa deyin kóp aitylmay, tarihtyng tasasynda qalyp qoyghan degenderge toqtaludy jón kórip otyrmyz. Pol Pot – “qyzyl khmerler” armiyasyna sýienip, eline “tapsyz qogham” ornatanym dep jariyalaghan kommunistik kósem. Qalalyqtardy kýshtep auyldyq jerlerge kóshirip, dәuletti adamdardy, ziyalylardy, dinbasylardy, búrynghy ýkimet sheneunikterin – jalpy 3 milliongha juyq adamnyng kózin jongmen qatar, qaraqshylaryn músylman meshitterin órtep, qiratugha ýndegen, músylmandardy qoysha bauyzdap, tipti, olardyng balalaryna deyin ayaushylyq bildirmegen, 70-shi jyldardaghy eng qaskói, halyqqa kóp qasiret әkelgen adam. Múndaghy 1975 jylghy azamat soghysy oppozisiyalyq kýshterding jenisimen ayaqtaluy el basyna, biylikke Pol Pot basqarghan «qyzyl khmerlerdin» solshyl ekstremistik tobynyng keluine jol ashyp berdi. Qysqa merzimde kommunistik qogham ornatamyz degen qyzyl kósem eldi alty әskery aimaqqa bólip, qatang diktatura ornatty. Qala túrghyndary auyldyq jerge kóshirilip, qara júmysqa jegildi, tauar-aqsha qatynastary joyyldy, al 1979 jyly Kampuchiyanyng Birtútas Últtyq azat etu kýshteri Vietnam әskerlerining qoldauymen Pol Pottyng totalitarlyq rejimin qúlatty. Kambodja Halyq Respublikasy jariya­lanyp, elde sosializm ruhy ýstemdik qúra bastady. Biraq jappay atys-shabys sayabyr tapqanday kóringenmen, ishtegi jaghday oghan mýlde keraghar edi. Alayda, múndaghy ahualdyng әli tolyq jazylyp bitpey jatqanyna qaramastan «shash al, dese, bas alatyn» kenestik kórsoqyrlyq óz bilgenin jýzege asyryp qalugha tyrysty. Artta qalghan memleketterding sosialistik damu jolyna týsuine qolúshyn beru, sayasi, ekonomikalyq jaghynan qoldau kórsetu iydeyalarynyng basy qyltidy. Ýndiqytay týbegindegi kedeylik qúrsauynda qalghan sonday memleketting biri Kambodjada sosialistik qogham ornatyp, qiraghan sharuashylyqty qalpyna keltiredi degen jeleumen attandyrylghan toghyz adamnyng ýsheui әzerbayjandyq bolsa, al qalghan altauy maqtaaraldyq azamat edi. Keyin tarihy derekterdi tauyp, tanysqanymyzda búl adamdardyng kambodjalyqtargha maqta ósirudi ýiretu ýshin eki jyl merzimge jiberilgeni mәlim boldy. Olar jerlesterimiz Nikolay Vasilievich Tikmenov, Gennadiy Alekseevich Lysenko, Yuriy Ivanovich Gribov, Hasan Akadjanov, Aleksandr Griy­gorie­vich Chernov, Taghaymúrat Fayziyev edi.

Múrajay qyzmetkerinen olardyng sapargha deyingi ómiri men týbektegi júmbaq ólimi turaly bilu maqsatynda, taghy da biraz qosymsha aqparattar súrastyrghanymyzda, múrajaygha Hasan Akadjanovtyng otbasynan onyng tughan-tuystary men bala-shaghalary kelip túratynyn bildik. «H.Akadjanovtyng kindiginen taraghan úrpaqtary men jary Toygýl apa býginde Maqtaaral audany Maqtaaral auyldyq okrugine qarasty «Qazaq KSR-ning 40 jyldyghy» auylynda túrady», – dedi osy oqighadan habary bar jerlesterining biri. Keyipkerimizding balalary túratyn auyldy izdep tapqansha, qas qarayyp qaldy. Soghan qaramastan jazdaghy tirshilik qarbalas. Diqanshylyqty kәsip etken auyl túrghyndarynyng ala jazday tókken terining zeyneti kórinetin jauapty nauqanda qauyn-qarbyzyn ótkizip, bala-shagha qamyn birinshi kezekke qoyyp jatqan halyqtyng ishinde dәl qazir kim bizge moyyn búra qoysyn degen kýdik te joq emes edi. Biraq Toygýl apa bizding ne ýshin kelgenimizdi estigennen keyin qúraq úshyp qarsy aldy. Sýiip qosylghan adal jary dýniyeden ozghaly arada qanshama jyldar ótse de, oghan degen ayauly sezimi әli kýnge sol ystyq qalpynda saqtalghanyn anghartyp qaldy. Aynalasy shýpirlegen sәbiyge toly. Úlyn úyagha, qyzyn qiyagha qondyrghan keyuananyng kónili shat, mereyi ýstem. «Balalarynyng osy qyzyghyn kóre almay ketken Hasanymdy qalay úmytayyn. Bәri kýni keshe ghana siyaqty edi» dep jýregi tolqyp әngimesin bastaghan aq samayly ananyng sózin bóluge bizding de dәtimiz shydamay, úzaq tyndadyq. Hasan Akadjanov tәjik últynyng ókili eken. Jetpis tórt jastaghy qart ananyng jýzindegi ómir syzyqtary men qyrauly aq samayy búl ómirde qiyndyqty kóp kórgendiginen syr shertedi. Kýieui Hasan qaza tapqanda artyndaghy ýsh qyzy men alty úly ayaqtanbay qalghan-dy. Ómirding auyrtpalyghyn jeke ózi kótergen ol úldary men qyzdaryn jetildirip, ýili-barandy etken, býginde olardan 30 nemere 40 shóbere sýiip otyr.

– Joldasynyz qaza tapqannan keyin kenes ýkimeti búl ýshin sizding otbasynyzgha qanday kómek kórsetti? – degen súraghyma Toygýl apa eriksiz kýlip jiberdi.

– Kóktemde jylyna bir ret bir tirkeme kók shóp týsirip beretin. Mine, osydan basqa eshkimnen eshtene alghan emespin,– deydi shiyettey bala-shaghany jalghyz ózi tәrbiyelep, er jetkizgen qayratty ana qamyghyp.

Hasan Akadjanovqa kelsek, 1927 jyly tughan qaharmanymyz qara jayau, kópting biri bolmaghan. 1951 jyly Tashkent auyl sharuashylyq tehnikumyna oqugha týsip, múny ol 1955 jyly ósimdikti qorghau maman­dyghy boyynsha qyzyl diplommen bitirip shyghady. Ári qaray taghy da kýndelikti kýibeng tirlikting jetegine erip kete barmaydy, joghary bilim alu maqsatymen 1955 jyly Tashkent auylsharuashylyq institutyna týsedi. Sóitip, 1960 jyly joghary bilimdi agronom mamandyghyn alyp shyghady. Myrzashól aimaghyndaghy «Maqtaaral» sovhozyna qaraytyn «Kazaq KSR-ning 40 jyldyghy» bólimshesinde taban audarmay 24 jyl agronom bolyp júmys istegen H.Akadjanov 1982 jyly maqta ósiruding has sheberleri «Maqtaaral» sovhozynyng bas injeneri Nikolay Tikmenov, Gennadiy Lysenko, bólimshe garajynyng injeneri Yuriy Gribov, bólimshe mehanizatory Taghaymúrat Fayziyev, mehanizator Alek­sandr Chernovtarmen birge Kambodjagha attanady. Bir jyldan keyin, 1983 jyly sәuirding ayaghynda H.Akadjanov, G.Lysenko, Yu.Gribov, A.Chernov, tórteui elge enbek demalysyn alyp keledi. Tughan jerdi saghyn­ghannan jýregi әldenege tolqyp, ózge­she kýidi bastan keshken kýieuining Toygýl apa jat jerden mýlde basqasha ózgerip kelgenin bayqaydy. Tomagha-túiyq, kóp sóilemeydi, ishki syryn ashyq aitpaydy. Áldeneni jasyryp, qúpiya saqtaytynday. Kambodjanyng jaghdayy, ondaghy ózderining júmystary jayynda jaq ashpaydy. Birde ýy sharuasyn atqaryp jýrip ol kýieuining dos­tarymen әngimesin qúlaghy shalyp qalady. Bar úqqany, Kambodjada túryp jatqan adamdardyng jaghdayy óte nashar, halqy ash-jalanash, kedeyshilik jaylaghan el. Áli kýnge soghys jýrip jatqan el. Búlargha barghan bette adamdar aldynan shyghyp: «Qaydan kelsender, tezirek sol jaqtaryna ketinder. Áytpese, óltiremiz, ayamaymyz» dep eskertu jasaghan. Olar múny estigennen keyin jalma-jan elshilikpen habarlasyp, mәn-jaydy týsindiredi. Ondaghylar: «Qoryqpandar» dep aldap-sulap qaytaryp jiberedi. «Senderdi maqta egetin alqapqa arnayy kólikpen qaruly kýzet alyp baryp, alyp kelip otyrady. Eshkimnen qoryqpandar» deydi.

– Taghy birde jadymda qalghany, – deydi Toygýl apa, – Kambodja jauyn-shashyndy jer eken. Maqta ósiruge tabighaty mýlde qolaysyz. Sol sebepti, shitti maqtany egip, kýtip-baptaghan kýnning ózinde mardymsyz ghana ónim alynghanyn kýieuimning óz auzynan estidim.

Múrajayda múny naqtylaytyn derek saqtauly. Onda: «Jerlesterimiz maqta egetin alandy arshytyp, tazalatyp sol jerding topyraq qúramyn ghylymy jolmen zertteuden ótkizip, su jýielerin tartqyzyp, maqta egip ósiredi, tabighy jaghdaylardyng qiyndyghy, ziyankesterge qarsy himikattardyng jetispeui saldarynan ónim az bolghan, sol jyly 1 gektar jerden 21 kilogramm ghana maqta ónimi jinalghan» delingen.

Eldegi enbek demalysynyng qyryq kýni ótkennen keyin, olardy Kambodjagha qaytadan jiyp alyp ketedi. 1983 jyldyng 23 tamyzynda tanerteng egistik alqapqa kólikpen bara jatqan jerlesterimizdi Pol Pottyng qaraqshylary ormanda toqtatyp, olardyng bәrin avtobustan syrtqa shygharyp atady. Sol jerde H. Akadjanov jaraqattanyp, tiri qalady, al qalghandarynyng biri qalmay qaza tabady. Biraq kóp úzamay, bir jeti ótkennen keyin onyng da mýrdesi tughan topyraqqa jetkiziledi. Osy jaghday týsiniksiz. Óitkeni, Kambodjagha kýieuimen birge erip barghan Nikolay Tikmenovtyng әieli auyldaghylargha mýlde basqasha janalyq aitady. Ol múnda kelgende, Toygýl apagha kýieuining jaraqaty onsha auyr emestigin, búiyrtsa kóp úzamay kelip qalatynyn aityp, quantady. Júmysshylardyng qaraqshylar qolyna qalay onay týsip qalghanyn bayandaydy. Onyng aituyna qaraghanda, búl kezdeysoq oqigha emes. Olardy kýzetip bara jatqan qarauyldardyng ózi qaraqshylardyng jaghyna satylyp ketken. Óitkeni, olargha eshqanday qarsylyq kórsetpegen, oq atpaghan. Ózderi tiri qalu ýshin basqalardy qúrbandyqqa shala salghan. Gospitalida emdelip jatqan H. Akadjanovty ile-shala elshilikting adamdary kelip alyp ketedi jәne onyng qanday sebepten qaza bolghandyghy júmbaq kýiinde qalady. Jaraqatyna baylanysty kóz júmdy ma, әlde qasaqana óltirildi me, búl jaghy tarihta kenes dәuirining ashylmaghan aqtandaq betining biri bolyp saqtauly.

Obalyna ne kerek, otandastarymyzdyng oqqa úshqan deneleri jer qoynauyna arulap tapsyryldy. Azamatyn ardaqtap, key qabirding basyna mýsini ornatylypty. Alty azamattyng suretining múrajaydan tabylyp jatuynyng ózi sol qúrmetting bir belgisi osy kýnge deyin jetkenin aighaqtaydy. Qaza bolghannan song jerlesterimiz «Halyqtar dostyghy» ordenimen, Kambodjanyng ordeni­men marapattalghan eken. Alayda, qansha jerden baghaly temir-tersek bolsyn búlarmen adam ómirin ólsheuge bolmaydy jәne birde-bir marapat olardyng ornyn toltyrmasy anyq. KSRO ydyrap, odaqtas respublikalar tәuelsizdikterine qol jetkizgennen keyin osy azamattardyng birazynyng balalary tarihy otandaryna qonys audarypty. Qazirgi tanda olardan «Qazaq KSR-ning 40 jyldyghy» auylynda tapjylmay, túraqtap qalghandary Hasan Akadjanov pen Taghaymúrat Fayziyevting otbasylary ghana. Áriyne, býgingi zamannyng kelbeti, ómirding ózegi keshegi kýnderge mýlde úqsamaydy. Belgisiz elde belgisiz sebeppen qaytys bolghandar turaly qazir kóp adam bile de bermeydi. Búl syr – tek olardyng keyingi kózi tiri úrpaqtarynyng ghana jan sandyqtarynda týngli kýiinde qala beretin shyndyq. Bizding keshegi kenestik kezenning kelensiz bir betin keri qaray paraqtap otyrghandaghy sebebimiz sondyqtan. Ótkensiz bolashaq qashanda búldyr bolyp qala beretinin jaqsy týsinemiz. Ólke tarihyna qatysty birde-bir iz óship qalmauy tiyis dep sanaytyn júrt osy oqighagha biyl otyz bir jyl tolyp otyrghanyn bilse deymiz. Búl oiymyzdy Toygýl apagha aitqanda, quana qúptady. Hasan aghanyng salyp ketken eski ýiinen bizdi shygharyp salghan keyuananyng janarynan keyingi úrpaqtyng basyna múnday qorghasyn búltty Qúday eshqashan sala kórmesin degen analyq tilekting shuaghy tógilip túrdy.

Rayymbek TOQSANBAEV,

tarihshy

Abai.kz

0 pikir