Beysenbi, 30 Mamyr 2024
Qogham 8991 0 pikir 2 Mausym, 2014 saghat 12:16

Jaqsybay SAMRAT. QazÚPU QAShAN QÚRYLGhAN?

Alash arystaryna qatysty bolghany sebepti kenestik tarihnamada búrmalanghan tarihymyzdyng keybir betteri, ókinishke oray, әli kýnge týzetilmey keledi. Sonyng biri qazaqtyng aituly oqu oryndarynyng biri, eng alghashqy JOO, býgingi Qazaqtyng Abay atyndaghy Últtyq pedagogikalyq uniyversiytetining (bir kezdegi QazPI, odan AlMU) tughan jylyn әli kýnge dúrys kórsete almauy bolyp otyr. 

Patshalyq Reseyding otarlauynan arylyp, bolishevikter ókimet basyna kelgen tústaghy qazaq qoghamynyng sayasy arenadaghy belsendi is-әreketi negizinen Tәshkent pen Omby qalalarynda, artynan Orynborda ótkeni mәlim. Qazir búl qalalardyng bәri de bizding elimizding shekarasynan tys, kórshi elderde qaldy. Ókinishtisi sol, olardyng arhivterindegi bay múraghattar tolyghymen zerttelgen joq. Elimiz birtútas odaqtyng qolastynda bolghanda tam-túmdap jazylghanymen, HH ghasyrdyng basyndaghy qazaq ómirinen syr shertetin múralar kóbinese shang basqan kýiinde qalyp jatyr. Onyng basty sebebi – halqymyzdy irgeli el qylamyz dep shu degennen atqa mingen Alash arystarynyng bәrin de Kenes ókimetining jau kórip, kóp úzatpay qúbyjyq qylyp, halyqtan alastap shygharghandyghy. Al ol kezdegi tarihtyng bәri solardyng esimderimen tyghyz baylanysty edi. Sóitip, olardyng basyn joyyp, istegen әreketterining bәrin de halyqqa jetkizbey, jasyryp tastaghan. Sondyqtan Alash arystarynyng esimderi aralasqan tarihty qozghaugha eshkim de bata almaytyn. Al gorbachevtik jylymyq bolyp, Alash arystary aqtalghan tústa balapan basyna, túrymtay túsyna ketken almaghayyp zaman boldy, artynan olardyng bәri shet elding arhivterinde qaldy.  Sayyp kelgende arystardyng enbekterin kórshi elderding arhivterinen izdegen adamdar kóp bola qoyghan joq.

   Bizding ghalymdarymyzdyng sol olqylyqtaryn jaqyn shet elderde túratyn keybir izdengish aghayyndarymyz toltyryp jatqangha úqsaydy. Sonyng ishinde qazaqy qaymaghy búzylmay otyrghan tәshkenttik qazaq ghalymdarynyng enbegi zor. Osydan biraz jyl búryn Ózbekstan Respublikasyna barghan saparymyzda bizge solardyng biri, qazaq tarihy ýshin jankeshti enbek etip jýrgen aghamyz, tarih ghylymynyng doktory, 30 jyl boyy Tәshkentting Nizamy atyndaghy memlekettik pedagogikalyq uniyversiytetining tarih fakulitetining dekany bolghan, professor Seyduәli Tileuqúlov aqsaqalmen úzaq әngimelesuding sәti týsti. Mening Qazaqstangha qonys audaruyma «kedergi» bolyp jýrgen osy qalanyng bay arhiyvi dedi ol ekeuara әngimemiz shu dep bastalghan sәtten. Jasym 80-ge tayap qalsa da múraghat materialdaryna batyp ketkende jas jigittey sergip qalamyn. Mening tariyhqa degen qúshtarlyghym sonday, shyraghym, dedi  qart tarihshy.

   Mine, osy kisi bas bolyp qúrastyrghan orys tilindegi «Pervyy kazahskiy institut v Tashkente» degen jinaqta Qazaqtyng alghashqy joghary oqu orny 1918 jyly Tәshkentte ashylyp, 1928-shi jyly ol Almatygha kóshirilgendigi arhivtik qújattarmen taygha tanba basqanday etip dәleldengen. Búl qazirgi aituly oqu ornymyz – Abay atyndaghy Qazaqtyng Últtyq pedagogikalyq uniyversiyteti. Ony ashyp, joghary bilimdi alghashqy qazaq pedagog kadrlaryn dayyndaghan alashordashy aghalarymyz edi.  

   Biraq, jogharyda aitylghanday, alashordashylardyng ózderinen de, isterinen de qashyp, oqu oryny ózining qúrylghan jylyn әli de 1928 jyl dep kórsetude. QazÚPU-ding Tәshkent pedagogikalyq institutynyng negizinde qúrylghany Qazaq ensiklopediyasynda da atalyp ótken. (QSE., 6 tom., 247 b, A-ty, 1975 j.). Biraq keyingi, «Qazaqstan» Últtyq ensiklopediyasynda belgisiz sebeppen oqu ornynyng alghash ret Tәshkentte qúrylghany aitylmaghan. («Qazaqstan» ÚE, 1 tom, 286 b., A-ty, 1998 j). 

 Búl oqu oryny ózining 75 jyldyq, odan 2008 jyly 80 jyldyq mereytoylaryn da 1928 jyly tughandyghymen sanap, ótkizdi. Osynyng ózi tariyhqa qiyanat. Bireuler qazaqtyng JOO ózbek astanasy Tәshkentte qúrylghanyna namystanatyn da shyghar. Biraq ol kezde Tәshkent shahary ózbekten góri qazaqqa jaqyn bolghandyghyn, al oqu orynyn qazaqtyng alashshyl aimanday azamattary ashqanyn úmytugha qaqymyz joq.  

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1917 jylghy tónkerisshiler (aghy da qyzyly da) qarapayym halyqty qaytse de óz jaghyna shygharu maqsatymen shu degennen olardyng eng zәru degen mәselelerin sheship berudi qolgha aldy. Mәselen, orys sharualaryna jer, júmysshylaryna fabriyk-zauytty tegin beremiz dep jar saldy. Al qazaqtyng eng birinshi kezektegi zәru mәselesi - oqu edi. Sondyqtan da tónkeristen keyin qazaq dalasynyng jer-jerlerinde oqu oryndary ashyldy. Mәselen, Ombyda 1918 jyly Kolchak ókimeti Alashordanyng ótinishimen múghalimdik kurs ashty. Onyng alghashqy diyrektory aqyn Maghjan Júmabaev boldy. Jazushy Sәbit Múqanovtyng sol kursta oqyghany belgili. Artynan búl oqu oryny Qyzyljargha kóshirildi. Qazirgi M.Júmabaev atyndaghy pedagogikalyq kolledjding sýiegi sol oqu ornynan.

   Sol sekildi Tәshkentte de qyzyldar 1918 jyldyng 5 jeltoqsanynda qazaq balalary ýshin ólkelik pedagogikalyq kurstar ashypty. Onyng mengerushisi  IY.Toqtybaev,  múghalimderi H.Bolghanbaev, S.Qojanov, Q.Hodjikov, F.Qúltasov jәne E.Tabynbaev bolghan. Osy aghalarymyzdyng bәri de artynan «alashordashylar» atalyp, Qyzyl imperiyanyng qandy qasaptaryna úshyrady. Qazirgi oqyrmandar bile bermeytin keybireulerin ghana atap keter bolsaq, kurstyng mengerushisi qyzylordalyq Isa Toqtybaev 1933 jyly Mәskeudegi әskery akademiyada múghalimdik qyzmet atqaryp jýrgen jerinde ústalghan. Alash ziyalylaryn zerttep jýrgen Mәmbet Qoygeldining aituyna qaraghanda kóp jyl qughyn kórse de osy kisi әiteuir ajaldan aman qalypty. (M.Qoygeldi, «Ayqyn» gaz, 31.05.2013 j).

Aqmolalyq Hayretdin Bolghanbaev ta eki ret repressiyagha úshyrap, sonyng 1937-shi jyly bolghan ekinshisinde atylghan. («Baq.kz», «Bolghanbaev kim bolghan?», 26.09.2012 j., avt. D.Asauov).

Al basqa aghalarymyz turaly kóp jazylghandyqtan olardyng jarqyn esimderin oqyrmandar jaqsy biledi ghoy dep oilaymyz. Jogharyda atalghan, tәshkenttik qazaq ziyalylary qúrastyrghan jinaqtyng 15 betinde keltirilgen qújatqa qaraghanda osy kurs aldymen uchiliyshege, artynan institutqa ainalghan eken. Qújatty tolyghyraq keltirsek:

«1. Postanovleniyem Musulimanskogo komiyteta ot 7-15 oktyabrya 1918 goda, utverjdennym Sovetom Narodnogo Obrazovaniya 20 oktyabrya 1918 goda № 34, p.1-y, pry russkom Pedagogicheskom uchiliyshe otkryto Kirgizskoe pedagogicheskoe otdeleniye.

2. S 1-go iilya 1919 goda pedagogicheskoe otdelenie vydeleno v samostoyatelinoe pedagogicheskoe uchiliyshe, kotoroe s 1-go oktyabrya 1920 goda reorganizovano v Kraevoy Kirgizskiy (kazahskiy J.S.) Institut Prosvesheniya s 4-mya osnovnymi, 3-mya podgotoviytelinymy klassamy y Obrazsovoy shkoloy pry nem. (SGA RUz, f.372, op.1, d.60, l.5)».

   Taghy bir qújatta onda kimderding sabaq bergenine deyin kórsetilgen. Qújattyng atauy: «Kratkie svedeniya o vozniknoveniy Kazinprosa v Tashkente».  «V nem prepodavali: M.Tynyshpaev, H.Dosmuhamedov, S.Hodjanov, IY.Tohtybaev, M.Jumabaev, K.Jalenov, H.Bolganbaev, K.Hodjikov, F.Kultasov, E.Tabynbaev, S.Utegenov, A.Baytursynov, J.Aymauytov, D.Adilov, D.Sarsenov y dr». (Atalmysh kitaptyng 18 beti).

   Kórip otyrghanymyzday Álihan Bókeyhanov pen Mirjaqyp Dulatovtan basqa Alashtyng arystary tórt kózi týgel osy institutqa sabaq bergen eken. Áriyne, bir kezde «alashordashy» aghalarymyzdyng attaryn ataudyng ózi aiypqa búiyrylyp túrghan zamandarda QazPIY-ding óz tarihyn olardyng ashyp, sabaq bergen institutynan bastauy mýmkin de emes edi. Sondyqtan, búl ýshin, QazPIY-ding tarihyn 1928-shi jyldan bastaghan aghalarymyzgha kinә da tagha almaymyz.

Biraq qazir zaman basqa, zang basqa ghoy. Qúdaygha shýkir, óz qolymyz óz auzymyzgha jetken tәuelsiz elmiz. Sondyqtan tarihy әdilettikti ornatyp, oqu ornynyng 1918 jyldan ashylghanyn aitatyn bolsaq, onyng qanday aiyby bar? Ázirge, QazÚPU-ding jasaghan «әdilettigi», oqu ornynyng tarihy turaly anyqtamagha alghashqy ústazdardyng qataryna A.Baytúrsynovtyng esimin qosypty. Al qalghan arystar qayda sonda? Olardyng qanday jazyghy bar? 

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 Biz ýshin sony derekter túnyp túrghan jogharyda atalghan «Pervyy kazahskiy institut v Tashkente» atty jinaqqa orala berging keledi. Onyng 25 betinde keltirilgen qújatta sol kezdegi studentter men oqytushylardyng sanyna deyin kórsetilipti: «Zanyatiya nachalisi s 1 oktyabrya 1920 g. (Búl institut bolghan uaqyty J.S.)  Kolichestvo uchashihsya k nachalu 1920 uchebnogo  goda –224, k konsu 1920 uchebnogo goda –202. K nachalu 1921 uchebnogo goda –221, K konsu uchebnogo 1921 goda –178. Obshee kolichestvo prepodavateliskogo sostava 1920 g –33, 1921g.–33».

   Jinaqtyng 48 betinde institut múghalimderining qazaq tilinde jazghan ghylymy enbekteri men avtorlarynyng tizimi berilgen. Sonyng ishinde A.Baytúrsynovtyng qazaq әlippesin, eki bólimnen túratyn qazaq tilining grammatikasyn, M.Dulatovtyng qazaq hrestomatiyasyn (Jaqang da osynda jetken eken), M.Júmabaevtyng qazaq tili sózdigi teoriyasyn jәne t.b. jazghany turaly qújat keltirilgen. Maghjannyng «Pedagogika» atty oqushylar men múghalimderge arnalghan ataqty enbegi de osynda qyzmet etken jyldary jaryq kórgen. Alash ardaqtylardyng sosrealizmning qúrsauynsyz, últtyq bolmysty eskere otyryp, keng tynyspen jazylghan sol enbekterine kýni býginge deyin bagha jetpeydi. Sol enbekterdi terendetip oqyghan, zerttegen adamnyng әli kýnge kózqarasy da keneyip, tynysy da ashylyp qalady emes pe?     

Jinaqtyng 53 betinde oqytushylar men qyzmetshilerding tolyq tizimi jәne alghan enbekaqylary da kórsetilgen. Al 55 bette 1923 jylghy 1 qazandaghy nómiri birinshi búiryqpen Maghjan Júmabaevtyng Mәskeuge oqugha ketuine baylanysty qyzmetten bosatylghany turaly da derek túr.

   1925 jylghy 20 mamyrdaghy búiryqpen KazInPros-tyng sol kezdegi diyrektory Segizbay Ayúzynov qyzmetinen bosatylady da onyng ornyna Dәlel Sәrsenov taghayyndalady. 1925 jyldan Qazaq ýkimeti janadan qazaq JOO ashu mәselesin qolgha alady. Ony әuelde polittehnikalyq institut qylamyz dep bilikti adamdargha hattar jazylghan eken (onyng mәtini de osynda jýr), biraq artynan pedagogikalyq institut qylugha toqtaghan sekildi. 79 bette osy pedagogikalyq institut turaly uaqytsha, al 83 bette týpkilikti ereje jariyalanghan. 1926 jylghy 2 mamyrda QAKSR Halyq komissarlar kenesining otyrysynda Tәshkentttegi Kazinprosty Pedagogikalyq jogharghy oqu ornyna ainaldyru turaly mәsele qaralady: «Byvshiy Kazinpros v g.Tashkente schitati preobrazovannym v PedVUZ pod nazvaniyem «Kazahskiy Pedagogicheskiy Institut» degen qauly alynady. Jәne osy qaulyda onyng barlyq mýlki jana institutqa kóshetini aitylghan. 1926 jylghy 13 shildede búrynghy rektor Dәlel Sәrsenov qyzmetinen bosatylyp, onyng ornyna Temirbek Jýrgenov taghayyndalady.

Sóitip, qazaq jastary arasynan alty jyl boyy múghalimder dayyndap kelgen alghashqy aghartushy institut endi pedagogikalyq oqu ornyna ainalady. 1926 jylghy 29 qazanda, instituttyng ashylu saltanatynda Qazaqstannyng Halyq aghartu komissary Smaghúl Sәduaqasov úzaq sóz sóilegen eken. Búl qújatty alghash ret «Smaghúl Sәduaqasov» atty qos tomdyq jinaq qúrastyrghan professor Dihan Qamzabekov jariyalaghan edi. Smaghúl Sәduaqasov sondaghy sózining bir jerinde: «Ya ubejden, chto budushiy istorik Kazahstana, bezuslovno posvyatit osobui glavu v svoey kniyge – otkrytii pervogo kazahskogo VUZ-a» depti. Ókinishke qaray olay bolmay shyqty. Sol JOO Qazaqstannyng jana astanasy bolghan Almatygha 1928 jyly kóshirilgende Tәshkenttegi barlyq kezeni úmytylyp, dәlirek aitsaq úmyttyrylyp, «budushiy istorikterdin» bәri ony auyzgha da almaytyn boldy. Tughan jylyn da 1928 dep kórsetip, Alash arystary qyzmet etken 10 jyl jadymyzdan óshirildi. Ókinishti-aq...

Mine, QazPIY-din, qazirgi Abay atyndaghy Últtyq pedagogikalyq uniyversiytetting tuu tarihy osynday. Ony Tәshkent arhiyvin aqtaryp jýrgen ózbekstandyq qazaq ghalymdary jaryqqa shygharyp otyr. Endi, tәuelsiz elde, Alash arystary aqtalghan zamanda ómir sýrip otyrghan Abay atyndaghy QazÚPU ózining shyn tughan kýnin kórsetetin uaqyt jetti.

Áriyne, búl derekti jalghyz biz ghana bilip otyrghan joqpyz. Talay tarihshylardyng da habary baryna kәmilmiz. Tәshkenttik ghalymdardyng jogharyda atalghan jinaghyn da talaylar biletin boluy kerek. Tipti, ózimiz de dәl osy derekti alghash ret «Egemenge» 2007 jyly jariyalaghan edik. («Qazaqtyng túnghysh JOO» «EQ»., 29.08.2007 j.). Biraq qyms etip qoldaghan, dúrys eken dep belsenip shyqqan bir adam bolghan joq. Bәri de sol salghyrt, jabuly qazan jabuly kýiinde qalghanyn qalaytyn siyaqty. Tipti, «onda túrghan ne bar, 5-10 jyldyng әrisi ne, berisi ne» deytin bayaghy qazaqy enjarlyq pen boykýiezdikke salatyndar da bar ekeni sezilip túr. Au, sonda ardaqty aghalarymyzdyng ruhyn syilaghanymyz kәne? Olardyng enbegine obal jasap otyr emespiz be? Barynsha qiyn kezende olar basqa júrtpen talasyp jýrip, ózderining kýnkórisi ýshin JOO ashqan joq, qazaqtyng balasy oqysynshy, kózi ashylsynshy dep jatpay-túrmay enbek etti emes pe? Tipti sol ýshin bastaryn da bәigege tigip, tabandarynan tozyp, qaytsem qazaqty kózi ashyq el qylamyn dedi emes pe? Endeshe, olardyng enbegin qalay úmytamyz? Tek býgingini maqtap, býgingige mәz bolyp otyra bersek, biz Mәngilik el bola almaymyz.

Osy, JOO-nyng jasyn 10 jylgha úzartu tipti qiyn da sharua emes, oghan qazirgi rektor Serik Pirәliyevtin-aq qúzyreti jetedi. Negiz bolatyn qújattar da jetkilikti. Sonda, bes jyldan keyin qazaq halqy ózining alghashqy joghary oqu ornynyng 100 jyldyq mereytoyyn da atap óter edi. Eng bastysy búl JOO bizding ardaqty aghalarymyzdyn, últtyq ruhty boylaryna sinirip ósken jәne onyng ozyq ýlgilerin jastardyng janyna eguge tyrysqan asyl Arystarymyzdyng bastaghan isi ekenin býgingi úrpaq biler edi. Biraq, birneshe ret jazylsa da sony qoldaugha eshkimning baspay jýrgeni meni shoshyntady.

ASTANA

Abai.kz        

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