Seysenbi, 21 Qyrkýiek 2021
Janalyqtar 2711 0 pikir 9 Mamyr, 2009 saghat 10:40

Qazaq qanty әlemdi qashan jaulaydy?

Álqissa, әngimeni sәl sheginisten bastayyq.

Álqissa, әngimeni sәl sheginisten bastayyq. Kenes Odaghynyn túsynda Qazaqstanda jergilikti shiykizattan dayyndalatyn alyqsharuashylyghy ónerkәsibinin ónimi sanauly ghana edi. Qazaq topyraghynda óngen qyzylshadan qant shygharu isi sonyn biregeyi bolatyn. Hәm Odaq kýiregennen keyingi auyr kezennen aman ótken otandyq ónerkәsip týrlerinin arasynan da qant óndirisi aldymen atalady.

Ekonomikanyn birneshe salasyna tikeley әseri bar óndiristin damuy tiyisinshe auyl sharuashylyghynyn, ónerkәsiptin jәne dayyn tauar aynalymynyn ózara baylanysyn qamtityn jeke klasterlik jýie retinde de manyzgha iye. Endi osy salanyng dәl qazirgi kýndegi syrtqy jәne ishki naryqtaghy ýles salmaghy turaly az-kem aityp kórsek.

Ayta keteyik, әlemning damyghan elderi qant óndirisine ishki rynoktyng manyzdy bólshegi retinde qarap, strategiyalyq sipat beredi. Ókinishke qaray, Qazaqstanda búl naryq tiyisti dengeyde qorghalmaghan jәne ony jeke kәsipkerding biznesi retinde baghalau kózqarasy qalyptasqan. Mysalgha jýgineyik, bizge irgeles Ontýstik - Shyghys Aziya elderi men Japoniya, arghy beldeuden Europa men AQSh memleketteri qant rynogyna ýkimet tarapynan monitoring jýrgizip otyrghan elder. Qant óndirushiler ýshin arnayy salyqtyq jenildikter men kedendik basymdyqtar belgilengen.

Búl jerde taghy bir jәittyng astyn syzyp qarau kerek. Atalmysh elderding derliginde óndiriletin qant ónimi negizinen qant qúraghynan dayyndalady. Al, qant qyzylshasy men qant qúraghynan óndirilgen ónimning sapalyq qúramy men azyqtyq qúndylyghynyng arasy jer men kóktey. Osy sebepten Qazaqstanda óndirilip jatqan shekerding әlemdik súranysqa ie bolatyn jóni әbden bar. Biraq, elimizdegi qant óndirisi syrt eldi bylay qoyghanda otandyq naryqty jergilikti ónimmen qamtamasyz etuge qauqarsyz bolyp otyr. Nege? Onyng ózimizge belgili birneshe faktorlaryna toqtalayyq: birinshiden, qant óndirisining ónimdiligi jyldan jylgha azayyp keledi. Salystyrmaly túrghydan alayyq, ótken ghasyrdyng sekseninshi jyldary Qazaqstanda 2 million tonnagha deyin qant qyzylshasy jinalsa, toqsanynshy jyldardyng sonyna qaray búl kórsetkish 100 myng tonnagha әupirimmen jetken. Dәl osy kezde qant zauyttarynyng basyna qara búlt ýiirilip ketti. Aytalyq, Kenes ýkimeti kezeninde elimizde segiz qant zauyty jyl on eki ay boyyna toqtausyz júmys jasap túrghan bolsa, 1997 jyldary qant naryghyna tek eki zauyt qana ónim shyghara aldy. Áriyne, ishki óndiristegi ónimning azangynan adamdar qantty az jeuge daghdylanghan joq. Kerisinshe, naryqty syrttan engen arzan tauarlar jaulap jatty. Mәselen, toqsanynshy jyldary dýken sórelerine enteley engen reseylik, qytaylyq, ukraindyq, arysy braziliyalyq qant qazaqstandyqtardyng qaltasyn qaqshyp jatty.

Búl ýrdis qazirde bәsendemey otyr. Qazaqstandyq qant biznesi bәsekege barynsha qabilettiligine qaramastan syrtqy naryqqa tótep bere almay otyr. Búl jerde naryqtyng atalghan týrin damytudy myqtap qolgha alghan eldermen aradaghy sauda-yntymaqtastyq baylanystarynyng da әseri az bolmay túr. Yaghni, Ýkimet syrtqy sauda sayasatyna qarasty ústanymdargha barghan kezde otandyq qant óndirisining mýddesin esten shygharmauy kerek siyaqty. Mysal ýshin aitayyq, Qazaqstanmen aradaghy sauda yntymaqtastyghyna sәikes 2008 jyly bir ghana Belorussiya bizding naryqqa baghyttalghan qant eksportyn 3 esege úlghaytty. Nәtiyjesinde, elimizding sauda nýktelerinde satylatyn belorustyq tәtti shekerding kólemi 30 myng tonnagha deyin jetken. Biraq, qant saudasyndaghy dayyn ónimning kóbeygenine qaramastan onyng baghasy da artyp keledi. Mәselen, 2005 jyly elimizdegi qant baghasy 11,9 payyzgha qymbattasa, 2006 jyldyng qantary men aqpanynda ol birden 23,3 payyzgha kóterilgen. Al, byltyrghy jyldyng qara kýzinde kelisi 90 tengeden satylyp jatqan qanttyng bir kýnde 300 tengege qymbattap shygha kelui ishki naryqty jusatyp - órgizip otyrghan monopolisterding eshteneden tayynbaytynyn sezdirgendey. Álbette, el ýkimeti halyqqa qyrghiday tiygen qoldan qymbattatudyng ekpinin qaytara aldy. Biraq, búl naryqtyng týrli salalaryna týbegeyli tosqauyl bola almaytyndyghy jәne aqiqat.

Jogharyda aittyq, otandyq qant óndirisi syrtty qoyghanda ishki naryqty tolyq qamtamasyz ete almay otyr dep. Sony indeteyik, ekinshiden, el ishindegi qant óndirisine qajetti shiykizat kólemi anaghúrlym azayyp barady. Arydan aitsaq, óndiristi shiykizatpen qamtyp kelgen iri eki oblystyng biri Jambylda 1992-2001 jyldar aralyghynda qant qyzylshasyn ósiru mýldem toqtap qalghan. Al, 2005 jyly tәtti týbir egilgen alqap nebәri 1,4 gektar bolyp, odan 164,9 sentnerden ónim alynghan. Bir qyzyghy, kelesi jyly jambyldyq qyzylshashylardyng ekken tәtti týbiri aldynghy kórsetkishten anaghúrlym azayyp shygha kelgen. Barlyq paydalanylghan alqap 0,29 gektar, alynghan ónim 127,4 sentner...

Ótken shaqtyng deregin sózge ózek etip otyryp aitpaghymyz mynau: shiykizat óndirushilerding sharuasy shayqalghan tústa ónim óndirushilerding de ózegi talyp týsti. Al onyng sony sauda naryghyndaghy tapshylyq pen enbek naryghyndaghy júmyssyzdyqqa jәne syrttan keletin tauar eksportyna jol ashty. Al, tәtti týbir tanaptarynyng sany jaghynan elimizdegi birinshi orynnan kórinetin Almaty oblysynda qyzylsha egistigi songhy eki jylda 20 payyzgha kemip ketken. Osynyng bәri otandyq naryqtaghy qant tapshylyghyn tuyndatugha sebep. Onyng ýstine býginde býkil әlem osy bir tәtti úntaqtyng tapshylyghyn sezine bastaghan. Halyqaralyq «International Sugar Organization» úiymynyng deregine jýginsek, 2006 jyldyng nauryz aiynyng basynda dýniyejýzindegi qantqa degen zәrulik 2,225 million tonnagha deyin jetken.

Endi otandyq qant óndirushilerdi qoldau turasynda birer sóz. Jogharyda aittyq, bizding qyzylsha ósirushiler de, qant óndirushiler de damyghan elderdegidey qoldaugha ie emes. Búl jerde biz zandyq túrghyny ghana menzep túrghan joqpyz. Mәselen, Qazaqstandyq qant kórshiles Resey naryghyna ene almaydy. TMD aralyq kelisim bolsa da orys eli shartqa baghynbay keledi. Esesine, Resey qant óndirisinde tranzittik sayasat ústanyp otyr. Olarda kedendik alymdardyng tollingtik syzbanúsqasy júmys jasaydy. Yaghni, kez kelgen shet elding qant ónimi reseylik sertifikatqa ie bolghannan keyin ekinshi elge, búl jerge bizge noldik salyq stavkasymen jóneltiledi. Múnan keyingisi parodoks, qazaqstandyq qant óndirushiler ýshin múnday jenildikter joqqa tәn. Kerisinshe, bizding qant zauyttarynyng ónimi tolyq kedendik tazalaudan ótedi. Ásirese, teniz ailaghymen ónim men shiykizatty tasymaldauda otandyq kompaniyalar reseylikterge qaraghanda kóp aqsha tóleydi...

Qalmahanbet MÚQAMETQALIY

AQ BARYS AYDAHARDYNG TEGEURININE TÓTEP BERE ALA MA?

Qaytalap aitudan sharshamaytyn shyndyq bar: Qazaqstan múnayly memleket. Al qara jer qoynauyndaghy qúndy qazynasy mol elderding әlemdegi sayasy jәne ekonomikalyq ýstemdikke ie bolyp otyrghandyghyn taghy bayqaugha bolady. Biraq egemen el atanghanyna on segiz jyldyng ghana jýzi bolghan Qazaqstan jer asty baylyghyn iygeru arqyly dýniyejýzine yqpal ete alatynday dengeyge qol jetkize alghan joq. Sol sebepten de el ekonomikasyna syrtqy elderding investisiyasyn tartugha mәjbýrmiz. Ásirese múnay óndiru men óndeu salasynda sheteldik kompaniyalardyng ýlken ýleske ie bolyp otyrghandyghyn moyyndaugha tiyispiz.

ÁLEM NEGE ALANDAULY?

Aydahar rәmizdi Qytay elining damu qarqyny әlemning men degen memleketterining ózin alandatqaly kóp bolghan. Shyghystaghy kórshimiz ónim óndiru jaghynan da, dayyn ónimdi tútynushy retinde de aldyna jan salmaytyn ashqaraqtyghymen erekshelenip keledi. óitkeni Qytaydaghy demografiyalyq óskelendik ekonomikalyq qarqyngha da qatty әser etip otyr. Aspan astyndaghy eldegi adam sanynyng ósu dengeyin anyqtaudyng bir әdisi bylay deydi. Mysalgha,1996 jyly Qytaydaghy úyaly telefon tútynushylardyng sany 7 million ghana bolsa, búl kórsetkish 2003 jyly 269 milliongha jetip ýlgergen. Al dayyn ónimdi tútynushy retindegi kórsetkishter de kónildi emes. Derekke jýginsek, Qytay 2004 jyly dýniyejýzi boyynsha balqytylghan bolattyng 26 payyzyn, maqtanyng 37 payyzyn, kýrishting 32 payyzyn jәne sementting 47 payyzyn kәdege jaratqan. Demek, Qytayda tirshilik daghdarysy bastaludyng qaupi mýmkin degen sóz.

Búdan kelip ekonomikalyq qana emes, geosayasy jәne әleumettik baghyttaghy mýddelerding tuyndaytyny taghy anyq. Mysalgha, Qytay ainalasyndaghy memleketterge qaray ishkerley enuding ontayly sәtin qalt jibermeudi kózdeydi. Ásirese qajetti shiykizat kózine bay, halqynyng sany az, jerining kóp bóligi iygerilmegen Qazaqstan siyaqty endi qalyptasyp kele jetqan elge shengeldi mol salghysy keledi. Onyng kórinisin Qazaqstangha baghyttaghan investisiya men júmys kýshining kóleminen anyq angharugha bolady.
Derekter boyynsha Qazaqstannyng «qara altyn» óndirisindegi qytaylyqtardyng ýlesi 30,4 payyz shamasynda. Yaghni, qazaq jerining qoynauyndaghy múnay qorynyng Qytay kompaniyalary óndiretin kólemi 235 million tonnagha deyin jetedi. Búl Qazaqstandaghy múnay óndirisining tórtten bir bóligi degen sóz. Al Qytaydyng ishki óndirisindegi múnaygha degen súranysy tipti ghajap. Biylghy jyly әlem boyynsha múnay eksporttaushy elderde óndirilgen «qara altynnyn» 66 payyzyn jәne Orta Aziya elderinde óndirilgen múnaydyng 20 payyzyn aspan astyndaghy el qajetine jaratqan degen aqparat bar. Endigi jerde Qazaqstan ghana emes, әlemning múnayly memleketteri de qytaylyq ekspansiyadan qorquy kerek siyaqty.

QYTAY KOMPANIYaLARY QALAY KELDI?

Toqsanynshy jyldardyng basynda Qytaydyng últtyq múnay kompaniyasy /QÚMK/ Qazaqstangha alghashqy qadamyn jasady. Jer astynda 121 million tonnagha juyq múnay qory bar Kenqiyaq pen Janajol kenishterin iygeru qúqyghyna ie bolghan alghashqy sheteldik kompaniyalardyng biri de osy edi. Búdan song 2000 jyly Qytay tarapy aksiya paketining 85,3 payyzyna qojayyndyq etetin «SNPS-Aqtóbemúnaygaz» kompaniyasyn qúrugha qol jetkizdi.
Búl qazaq múnayyn iygeruding kólemin 8,8 payyzdan 15,7 payyzgha arttyrdy. Kele-kele Soltýstik Bozashy kenishin iygerip jatqan taghy bir qytaylyq kәsiporyn óndiru qúqyghyna 100 payyzdyq iyelik etuge rúqsat alady. Bozashydaghy múnay qory 45 pen 65 million tonnagha jetedi degen boljam bolghan. Al óndirilgen múnaydy satu men óndeuden týsetin paydanyng salyqtan tys mólsherine tolyqtay Qytay jaghy ie bolyp otyrdy. Nәtiyjesinde QÚMK elimizdegi «Shevronnan» keyingi múnay óndirushi alpauytqa ainaldy.

ELGE BELGILI EKONOMIKALYQ EKSPANSIYa

Jogharydaghy mәlimetter Qazaqstan ekonomikasyna Qytay tarapynan bastalghan ekspansiyanyng da basy sol kez bolghandyghyn kórsetedi. Biraq ol kezde qauip oilaudan góri әriptestik jayyna kóbirek ýmit artylghan bolatyn. Endi ol qaterding tamyrlanyp alghandyghyn el bilip qaldy. Mәselen, osydan eki jyl búryn Qytay Qazaqstandaghy iri múnay kompaniyasynyng biri bolyp sanalatyn «PetroQazaqstandy» satyp aldy. O basta kanadalyq qojayyndardyng iyeliginde bolghan kompaniya qúnynyng qymbat bolghandyghyna qaramastan QÚMK memlekettik qazynadan 4,18 milliard AQSh dollaryn shyghyndady.

Yaghni, Qytay býgingi shyqqan shyghyndy emes, keleshektegi ýlken jobalardyng bastauy bolatyn jobadan qúr qalmaugha baryn salyp baqty. óitkeni, «PetroQazaqstan» elimizdegi múnay óndirisi jaghynan ýshinshi oryn alatyn. Ári búl kompaniya Qazaqstandaghy ýsh múnay óndeu zauytynyng arasyndaghy ozyq túrghan «ShNOS-qa» da qojayyndyq etetin. Endi qytaylyqtardyng qolyna iri múnay óndirushi kompaniya ghana emes, elimizding qomaqty bóligin janar-jagharmaymen qamtamasyz etetin Shymkent múnay óndeu zauyty da kóshti. Al osymen birge «CITIC Grup» kompaniyasy Qazaqstandaghy múnay óndirushi taghy bir kәsiporyn - kanadalyq «Nations Energy» kompaniyasyn satyp alghan bolatyn. Qúny 2,2 milliard dollar bolatyn jobany Qytay ýkimeti qol-ayaghyn birdey kóterip qoldaghan kórinedi.
Búdan shyghatyn qorytyndy: Qytay Qazaqstandaghy shiyki múnay óndirudi tolyqtay monopoliyalau arqyly әlemge azu tisin kórsetpek. óitkeni, Qytay dýniyejýzine tek múnay óndirushi memleket retinde ghana yqpal ete almay keledi. Ol eldegi qazirgidey tútynu dengeyine qaraghanda búl mýmkin de emes. Ári Qytaydaghy jer asty qazba baylyqtary sarqyludyng az-aq aldynda túr degen de boljam aitylghan. Endeshe shyghystaghy úly derjavanyng OPEK pen AQSh siyaqty múnay monopolisterimen betpe-bet kelude jiberip jýrgen úpayyn qazaq múnayyn óndiru men eksporttau arqyly týgendemekke úmtyluy zandy. Biraq, Qazaqstan óz alanyndaghy oiynshynyng oiyna kelgenin isteuine jol bere me? Mamandar Qytay kompaniyalarynyng әreketine qarap qorqynysh aitady. Yaghni, Qazaqstan jaghy Qytaydyng ekonomikalyq jәne geosayasy mýddelerining búdan әri terendeuine jol bermeui tiyis. Bolmaghan jaghdayda ekonomikalyq ekspansiya degen sózding ornyna memlekettik agressiya degen terminning aityla bastauy ghajap emes.

TÝITKILDI TÚSTAR

Áu basta iske qosylghan investisiyamen birge qanshama әleumettik jәne migrasiyalyq mýddelerding de Qazaqstan shekarasyna engeni týsinikti. Qytay jaghy óndiriske óz mamandary men júmys kýshin shekteusiz mólsherde alyp kelip jatty. Búl jergilikti jerlerdegi әleumettik ahualdy tensizdik jaghdayyna jetkizetindigi belgili. Mysalgha, Aqtóbe, Ontýstik Qazaqstan jәne Qyzylorda oblystarynyng aumaghynda týrli júmystar jýrgizip jatqan qytaylyq kәsiporyndarda osynday problemanyng oryn alghany jasyryn emes.
Tipti olardyng iyeligindegi «SNPS-Aqtóbemúnaygaz» kompaniyasynda Qazaqstannyng Konstitusiyasynyng baptary óreskel búzylghandyghy anyqtalghan bolatyn. Mәselen, jergilikti júmysshylargha qytay tilin mәjbýrlep oqytu, Qytay elining әnúranymen júmys kýnin bastau siyaqty zang búzushylyqtarmen tiyisti oryndar ainalysqan bolatyn. Nәtiyjesi ne bolghandyghy bizge kómeski. Sonday-aq, qytaylyq kompaniyalar ekologiyalyq talaptargha pysqyrmaytyn bolghan. Múnay óndeuden shyghatyn ilespe gazdyng auagha taraluy shekteuli mólsherden 5-6 esege artyp ketken. Al «SNPS-Aqtóbemúnaygazdyn» 2006 jyly ghana tóleuge tiyisti salyqtyng 6 milliard tengesin tólemegen.

Qazaqstandaghy Qytay problemasyndaghy taghy bir týitkil, osy elge tasymaldanatyn múnaydyng baghasynda bolyp túr. Mysalgha, 2007 jyldary Qytaygha qazaq múnayynyng әr barelii 48,4 dollardan satylghan. Al búl kezde әlemdegi «qara altyn» qúny 55 dollargha juyq bolatyn. Endi oilanyp kóriniz, Qazaqstan ekonomikasy qansha ziyan shekkenin. Jәne bir týitkil: mana aittyq, «PetroQazaqstan» kompaniyasy qytaylyqtardyng qolynda. Oghan qarasty Shymkent múnay óndeu zauytynan Qazaqstan naryghyna shygharylatyn benzin qúnynyng qymbattap otyrghany belgili.

TÝIIN
Osydan kelip Qazaqstannyng ekonomikasyna Qytay eli tarapynan tónip otyrghan ekspansiyanyng qaupin baghamdaugha bolady. Al onyng ong baghytta sheshilui aidaњar basty jalau kótergen júrt pen tayau bolashaqta Orta Aziyanyng aq barysyna ainaludy kózdep otyrghan bizding elding sayasy qatynastaryna tikeley qatysty bolmaq.

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