Beysenbi, 20 Qantar 2022
Janalyqtar 4583 0 pikir 12 Nauryz, 2014 saghat 05:20

BAQSYLYQ

Surette: Nyshan Áz (soqyr Nyshan) atanghan Smayyl Shәmenov. Suret Berik Jýsipovting jeke múraghatynan alyndy.

Adam-ghazizdi serke shygharghan qúdiretti kýshting ilkidegi bir aty – Senim edi. Qay nәrsege bolsyn sheksiz senu men senimsizdik tanytu eshkimning erik-enshisinde emes, tek jýrek-patshanyng qúzyretinde. Biz biletin aqiqattyng anyghy: Ózinnen góri Ózgege kóbirek sengen kýni shekteletindigin!

Búghan deyin kýmәnning jeteginde úzaq jýrgen adam-pende aldyndaghy asqar asulardyng sheshimi – senim degen jalghyz qazyqqa baylanghan kýni baqsynyng baghy janghan. Sodan songhy zamanda senim bar jerde ertengi kýnnen ýmit barlyghyn, ol joq jerde bolashaq degenimizding ózi bualdyr búltqa oranghan saghym ekenin úghyndyrghan degdar túlgha – baqsy abyroyynyng ólshemi de sheksiz. Tabighat-ananyng tylsym tәmsilderin týstep tany almaghan adam-pende qaraqan basyndaghy shiyelenister týiinining sheshiluine zәru bolghandyqtan, shiyrshyq atqanda sheshimi tabylmay, talay taghdyr qúrdymnyng týbine ketken.

Surette: Nyshan Áz (soqyr Nyshan) atanghan Smayyl Shәmenov. Suret Berik Jýsipovting jeke múraghatynan alyndy.

Adam-ghazizdi serke shygharghan qúdiretti kýshting ilkidegi bir aty – Senim edi. Qay nәrsege bolsyn sheksiz senu men senimsizdik tanytu eshkimning erik-enshisinde emes, tek jýrek-patshanyng qúzyretinde. Biz biletin aqiqattyng anyghy: Ózinnen góri Ózgege kóbirek sengen kýni shekteletindigin!

Búghan deyin kýmәnning jeteginde úzaq jýrgen adam-pende aldyndaghy asqar asulardyng sheshimi – senim degen jalghyz qazyqqa baylanghan kýni baqsynyng baghy janghan. Sodan songhy zamanda senim bar jerde ertengi kýnnen ýmit barlyghyn, ol joq jerde bolashaq degenimizding ózi bualdyr búltqa oranghan saghym ekenin úghyndyrghan degdar túlgha – baqsy abyroyynyng ólshemi de sheksiz. Tabighat-ananyng tylsym tәmsilderin týstep tany almaghan adam-pende qaraqan basyndaghy shiyelenister týiinining sheshiluine zәru bolghandyqtan, shiyrshyq atqanda sheshimi tabylmay, talay taghdyr qúrdymnyng týbine ketken.

Kóne dәuirlerding kóshine jetekshilik jasap, «tiri әruaq», «tәnir tekti túlgha» atanghan baqsy beynesin ghalymdar shamandyq din ókili retinde qarastyrghan. Rasynda da, ol - adamdar әlemi men әruaqtar dýniyesining arasyndaghy dәneker, adamzat balasynyng basyndaghy barsha mәselelerdi sheshushi, ómir sýrip otyrghan ortasyndaghy qoghamdyq, әleumettik oi-pikirlerdi retteushi. Bir sózben aitqanda, tabighat-ana syrlarynyng aldynda ózin dәrmensiz-әlsiz sezingen adam-pendening basyndaghy barsha shytyrman mәselelerding bitimshisi osy baqsy bolghan. Al, baqsy-emshining balgerlik әlti az aitylyp, az jazylmaghan jayt. Týsi men tegining bótendigine qaramastan baqsy siyaqty túlghanyng әlem halyqtarynyng birazynda bolghanynyng ózi qoghamdyq damu men daghdarystyng belgili bir satylarynan baqsy men adam-pende balasy qol ústasqanday qatar ótkendigin aighaqtay beredi. Biraq sol derekterding bәri býgingi kәsiby halyq emshiligining negizin salushy baqsy túlghasy turaly tolyq sheshimder men qorytyndylar jasady deuge bola ma?

Baqsy túlghasyn zerttegen ghalym V.N.Basilov baqsylyqtyng alys paleolit dәuirinde payda bolghandyghyn aitady. Al, Okladnikov, Formozov, Zaporojskiy, Marghúlan, Aqyshev siyaqty ghúlamalar tarapynan baqsylyq neolit dәuirining ayaghynda payda boldy degen oilar algha tartyldy. Olar ózderining sóz derekterin arheologiyalyq qazba júmystary kezinde tabylghan zattyq aighaqtarmen bekitip otyru arqyly bitim aitady.

Baqsylyq zikir kezinde kiyiletin rәsmy kiyim ýlgilerine baylanysty baqsylyq ýrdis «ana erki» dәuirinde, әielder arasynda bolghan qúbylys retinde de qarastyryldy. Sodan son, baqsylardy psihikalyq aurugha shaldyqqan adamdar degen derekti algha tartushylar da az bolghan joq. Shyn mәninde búl derekterding qaysysy qanshalyqty dengeyde aqiqat aulyna manaylaytynyn әzirge ashyp aitqan eshkim joq. Endeshe, baqsylyqtyng payda boluynyng ghylymy ortada qalyp alghan basty sebepterining birnesheuine toqtalyp ótu lәzim.

Paleolit adamdary ózderin tabighat-anamen tútas organizm retinde qabyldaghany belgili. Dәuir jyljyghan sayyn adamdar ózderin tabighatqa qarsy túra alatyn erekshe jaratylys retinde sezine bastaghandyqtan, Neolitte jaghday aitarlyqtay ózgergen edi. Osy kezde rulyq qoghamdar payda bolyp, әr rudyng salt-rәsimderi ortaqtasa bastady. Endi sol qoghamgha osy beyrettilikti retteytin túlgha kerek boldy. Ol qyzmetti ruhtar men ruh iyeleri arasyndaghy dәnekershi-abyzdar atqardy.

Dualidyq bólinis kezinde óliler әlemi men tiriler әlemi arasyndaghy ýshinshi әlem – ruhtar әlemin biriktiretin әleumettik mediyatorlar kerek boldy. Dәl osy kezde baqsy túlghasy payda bolyp, olar barlyq yrymy rәsimderdi óz qoldaryna aldy da, ózderine deyingi jrester túlghasyn tolyq yghystyrdy.

Baqsylyqtyng basqa kulitterden ereksheligi – adamdar men ruhtar arasyndaghy erekshe dәnekerlikke sheksiz seniminde bolatyn. Olardyng oiynsha, búl baqsylardy sol belgili ruhtardyng ózi tandap-tәrbiyelemek. Búl kezdegi baqsy-dәnekershining mindeti ruhtargha qyzmet etu, sol arqyly adamdargha kómektesu edi. Búryn baqsylardyng mindetine ólgenderding janyn baqy dýniyege shygharyp salu da kirdi. Ejelgi baqsylar boljam jasau, baqytsyzdyqtan saqtandyru, joq qarau, aurudyng sebebin anyqtau, nauqas emdeu kezinde ruhtar kómektesetinine bek sendi. Keybir derekter olardyng siqyrly «jady tasy» arqyly tabighatqa da tikeley әser etip, qar, janbyr jaudyra alatyndyqtaryn aighaqtaydy. Kýni keshege deyin ómir sýrgen kóptegen baqsylar qyryq bir qúmalaq tartyp, maqtyng (magiyanyn) syryn bildi.

Aqyndar men jyraular baqsydan tek sóz maghyn, sóz kiyesin ghana qabyldady. Baqsylyq zikir kezinde paydalanylghan danghyra, qobyz siyaqty alghashqy muzyka aspaptaryn da jasaushy baqsylar edi. Búl – úly baqsylardyng әrtýrli tarihy derekter tanbalaghan kóp qyrly tútas túlghasynyng jalpy beynesi. Endeshe, osy baqsylyq qasiyet tútqasyn ústap otyrghan jandarda, әsirese, býgingi kәsiby halyq emshilerinde әlgindey erekshelikterden ne qaldy?

Baqsylyqtaghy basty qasiyetterding biri – ruhtar. Olar adamnyng ólgen song da ómir sýretin óz ruhtary jәne búrynghy ótken ata-babalarynyng ruhtary bolyp ekige bólinedi. Ertede búl ruhtardy týrki júrtynda bir sózben «jyn» dep ataghan jәne ol jyndardy kiyeli jәne kesirli dep qaq jaryp qaraghan. Keyinnen «jyn» sózin arabtyng «aruarh», yaghny «ruh» sózi almastyrghany bayqalady. Keybir ghalymdar tarapynan ruh-jyn qonghan adamdy «jyndanghan» sanauy da sodan bolsa kerek. Biraq osylardyng bәri ózin aqtaghan naqty tarihy derek kózi bola ala ma? Biz qolgha týsken derek kózder negizinde baqsy beynesining mynaday birneshe jiyntyq beyne súlbasyn kóremiz:

Birinshi: Týrki әleminde biylik tútqasyn ústaghan basqarushynyng Tәnirilik tegining belgilenui. Múnday qasiyetke keyin «aspan qalaulysy» atanghan baqsy da layyq dep tabyldy. Biyleushi de, baqsy da miftik tarihta olardyng ilki ata-babalary basty túlgha bolghandyqtan ózderine de sol erek biylikti menshiktedi, sóz magiyasyn mengerdi. Al, sóz magiyasy baqsylyqta ýlken oryngha iye. Sóz – em jasaudyng da basty qúraly dep sanaldy.

Ekinshi: Dәstýrli qoghamda aqsaqaldar da ýlken әleumettik rólge ie edi. Óitkeni, jasy ýlken adamdar әruaqtar әlemine jaqyn dep esepteldi. Jastyng úlghangy olardy ruhtar men ata-baba әlemine bir taban jaqyndatty, yaghny aqsaqal-abyz beynesi men baqsy beynesi qatar qarastyryldy. Qay halyqta bolsyn, jasy úlghayghan baqsy kemel baqsy sanalatyndyghy sondyqtan.

Ýshinshi: Baqsylyqqa jaqyn túrghan beynening biri – aqyndar. Olar basynda betashar, as, toy siyaqty rәsimderdi atqarushy retinde payda bolyp, jana týsken kelinning betin ashty. Búl ata-baba kulitinen әldeqayda búryn payda bolghan salt bolatyn. Aqyn men baqsynyng rәsmy dәnekershi retindegi ortaqtyghy Sibir halyqtarynda baqsylardyng epikalyq shygharmalardyng oryndaushysy әri saqtaushysy bolghandyghynan da bilinedi. Búrynghynyng adamdary sóz ben saz kiyesine kәmil sengendikten, jyraudyng jyry men baqsynyng zikiri keshke, shoq jaryghy sóngende bastalatynyn syrtqy úqsastyq dep qaraugha bolmaydy.

Emshilik seans kezinde baqsyny erekshe ahualgha týsiretin qúral – «baqsylyq muzyka». Áskery joryqtar kezinde de baqsylar qolyna qobyz alyp, qosyn jauyngerlerining ruhyn kóterip jyr aitqany, kýy tartqany beseneden belgili. Qobyz óz tegin sadaq adyrnasynan alatyndyqtan, ol әskery ruhpen tikeley baylanysty aspap sanalady.

Anyz boyynsha, búl aspapty jasaushy – Qorqyt. Áytse de, H.G.Korogly Qorqyttyng tarihy negizi joq degendi aitsa, ghalym S.Qasqabasov Qorqyt túlghasyn jiyntyq beyne dep esepteydi. Al, Á.Marghúlan Qorqyt múragerlerin Qoylybay bastaghan ejelgi baqsy-jyraular, Ketbúgha siyaqty qobyzda kýy shalushylar, Sypyra dәstýrining izindegi jyrau-abyzdar, Janaqqa jalghasqan qobyz ústaghan aqyndar dep tórt topqa bóledi. Áriyne, búl jikteuding óte shartty ekenin esten shygharmaghan shart. Búdan belgili bolyp otyrghany: Qorqyt dәstýrin jalghaushylar baqsylyq pen kәsiby muzykanyng arasynda túrghan túlghalar ekendigi. Búl – baqsylyqtyng qazaqqa ghana tәn bir ereksheligi. Qazaqtaghy eski jyrshy-jyraulardyng jyr tolghaghanda ózderin qobyzben sýiemeldeytini baqsy bolmysynan qalghan songhy rudiyment-nyshan.

Baqsy qobyzynyng qúrylymy da arnayy sóz etiluge tiyis kýrdeli mәsele. Á.Marghúlan, B.Sarybaev, S.Amanovalar qobyzdyng syrtqy pishini qús perishtesi – aqqudy beyneleytindigin aitsa, V.N.Basilov qobyzdy minis kóligine úqsatady jәne ony týie maly dep dәleldeydi. Sóitip, oghan qobyzdyng shanaghyna týie moynaghynyng taghyluyn kuәlikke tartady. Ras, qazaq baqsylarynyng qolyndaghy danghyra turaly Andreev, Spasskiy, Bronevskiy, Tronov, Hodyrev siyaqty orys ghalymdarynyng birshama jazyp, ter tókkendikterine qaramastan, kýni býginge deyin qobyz ben danghyra aspabynyng ortaqtyghyna jóndi nazar audarylmay keledi. Bir belgili aqiqat, qobyz ózining bastapqy keyip-qalybyn danghyradan aluy әbden mýmkin ekendigi jәne búl formalyq úqsastyq ilki sanada adam tәnining (organizm) kóshirmesi esebinde payda boldy deuge negiz mol. Sibir halyqtarynda baqsy ólgesin onyng danghyrasy men kiyimin ormangha aparyp, qayyng aghashynyng basyna ilip qoyatyn rәsim bolghan. Qazaqta ólgen adamnyng dombyrasy men qobyzyn teris qaratyp iletin salt kýni keshege deyin keldi. Al, baqsy molasyn basqa molalardan bólek qoyghany ekining birine belgili. Osy jaytterdi teksere kele, búlghar ghalymy Donchev qiyaqty aspaptar Europagha týrik-búlgharlardan kelgen degen boljam jasady. Oghan dәlel – búl aspaptyng әli kýnge deyin ukrain tilinde «kobza», nemiste «koba», týrikte «kopus», vengrlerde «kopus», polyaktar «kopa», serb-horvattar «kopus», rumyndar «kobza» ataytyndyghy.

Demek, aspapty muzykanyng alghashynda baqsylyq meditasiya esebinde payda bolghandyghy turaly oidyng tinin tiriltip, tekteuge negiz jetkilikti. Muzykanyng ilki mindeti týrli dúgha, jasyryn kýshter arqyly tabighatqa әser etu ýshin magiya esebinde payda bolghany da dәleldeudi qajet etpeytin qaghida. Basynda synar shekti sadaqty aspapqa ainaldyryp, damytqan da baqsylar bolatyn. Óitkeni, baqsy muzyka sýiemelimen tabighat kýshterin ózine qaratty, ózining kómekshi ruhtaryn da muzyka arqyly shaqyrdy. Demek, muzykanyng kәsiby halyq emshiliginde әli kýnge negizgi qyzmet atqaratyny da sondyqtan. Emshi de, emdelushi de trans jaghdayyna tek muzyka kómegi arqyly ghana týspek!

Qobyz muzykasyn Yqylasqa deyin kәsiby emes, rәsmy muzyka retinde baghalaytyn qasang kózqaras últtyq muzykatanushylar arasynda qazir de óz ýstemdiginde. Bizding oiymyzsha qobyz muzykasynyng rәsmy jәne joghary estetikalyq kәsiby qasiyeti әuel bastan-aq bólinbes býtindikte bolghan. Búl eki qasiyetting negizinde de muzykanyng adamdy erekshe ekstazgha týsiretin magiyalyq kýsh jatyr. Kamarov atty ghalym qazaq baqsysynyng bedeu qatynnyng ishin jaryp, sary su alyp bergenin, әlgi qatynnyng sodan song ýbirli-shýbirli әuletke ainalghanyn jazady. Endeshe, Europa men orys ghalymdarynyng baqsylyq turaly aitqan boljaldaryn qazaq baqsylaryna sol qalpynda qaptay salugha asyqpaghan abzal. Mysaly, V.N.Basilov baqsy jasaytyn keremetterdi: «Óz denesin erkin mengerui (pyshaq salu, atu, úru); Sezim mýshelerin rettep otyru (ketpen jalau, jalang ayaq shoq keshu); Qoldyng eptiligi – gipnoz jasau» dep ýsh topqa bóledi. Osy ghajayyptardyng qay-qayysy bolsyn baqsylyq jolyn berik tútynghan qazirgi kәsiby halyq emshiliginde de kezdesedi. Amal qansha, sol dýley kýshting býgingilerding boyynda birkelki emestigi ókinishke oryn qaldyrumen keledi emes pe?

Baqsylyq quat joyylyp ketetin belgisiz kýshke nemese ghayyptan darityn tuma qasiyetke jorugha kelmeytin túnghiyq tylsym. Baqsy aldyna kelip jýgingen adam-pendening aldymen jýregine ýmit sәulesin týsirip, sodan song baryp onyng sanasyna senim úyalatady. Qara ormanday qarauytyp, týnere tenselgen ordaly oy qayghysyn seyiltip, sanagha qyzmet ete bastaghanda ghana tәn qojalyghy azaptan arylyp, sauyghyp, kәdimgidey tazara bastamaq. Baqsy – «ruh» pen «senim» iyesi. Al, ol jasaghan shipanyng dauasy Jaratushy Jalghyzdan.
Anyghy Soghan ayan!

Berik JÝSIPOV, foliklortanushy.

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