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Janalyqtar 2418 0 pikir 9 Qantar, 2014 saghat 05:56

Jemisbek Tolymbekov. Qazaq elshisi

(Kóldey myrza, Sary batyr, Qabay atalyq)

 

 Áz Tәuke handyq dәuirinde Reseymen sauda-sattyq pen sayasy qarym-qatynas ornatpaq bolady. 1687 jyly Tәukening ong jaghynda otyratyn batyry Tәshim eki el aralyq sauda-sattyqty ashu mindetimen Toboliskige jiberiledi. Onyng mindeti Qazaq Ordasynyng ortalyghy Týrkistangha orys kópesterine jol ashu bolatyn. Tәshimnen keyin Túmanshy batyr bastaghan qazaq elshiligi, janyna iri saudagerler ergen, taghy da Reseyge attandyrylady. 1690 jyly Reseymen sauda-sattyq kelisimine Áz Tәuke han atynan qol qoy ýshin Sary batyr, Kóldey myrza, Qabay atalyq bastaghan qazaq elshiligi ýlken kesapatqa tap bolghany tarihy shyndyq. Olar Tobolisk qalasynyng iri saudageri Áuezbay Qúlmametovke Áz Tәuke han jazghan hat tapsyryp, eki el arasyndaghy sauda jýrgiziluine dәneker boludy súraghan. Qazaq elshiligining orys elshiligimen kezdesken jeri Jәmish kólining many. Orys jaghynan Tobolisk qalasynan kelgen stolinik Pavel Sharygin ókiletti elshi sanalghan. Eli matay-noghas Qabay atalyq qosshylarymen Tobolisk qalasyna Sibir gubernatoryna jolyghugha jәne oghan Áz Tәuke han arnap jazghan hatty tapsyrugha attanyp ketip,  isin ondy bitirip, elge esen qaytady.

(Kóldey myrza, Sary batyr, Qabay atalyq)

 

 Áz Tәuke handyq dәuirinde Reseymen sauda-sattyq pen sayasy qarym-qatynas ornatpaq bolady. 1687 jyly Tәukening ong jaghynda otyratyn batyry Tәshim eki el aralyq sauda-sattyqty ashu mindetimen Toboliskige jiberiledi. Onyng mindeti Qazaq Ordasynyng ortalyghy Týrkistangha orys kópesterine jol ashu bolatyn. Tәshimnen keyin Túmanshy batyr bastaghan qazaq elshiligi, janyna iri saudagerler ergen, taghy da Reseyge attandyrylady. 1690 jyly Reseymen sauda-sattyq kelisimine Áz Tәuke han atynan qol qoy ýshin Sary batyr, Kóldey myrza, Qabay atalyq bastaghan qazaq elshiligi ýlken kesapatqa tap bolghany tarihy shyndyq. Olar Tobolisk qalasynyng iri saudageri Áuezbay Qúlmametovke Áz Tәuke han jazghan hat tapsyryp, eki el arasyndaghy sauda jýrgiziluine dәneker boludy súraghan. Qazaq elshiligining orys elshiligimen kezdesken jeri Jәmish kólining many. Orys jaghynan Tobolisk qalasynan kelgen stolinik Pavel Sharygin ókiletti elshi sanalghan. Eli matay-noghas Qabay atalyq qosshylarymen Tobolisk qalasyna Sibir gubernatoryna jolyghugha jәne oghan Áz Tәuke han arnap jazghan hatty tapsyrugha attanyp ketip,  isin ondy bitirip, elge esen qaytady.

 Sary batyr men Kóldey myrzany Jәmish kólining manynan «elshige tiyispeytin tәrtipke qaramastan» 1690 jyldyng kýz aiynda orystar Sibir astanasy Tobolisk qalasyna ústap әketedi. Oqigha bayany Resey derekterinde: «1690 jyly Jәmish kóli janynda jolaushy týsetin jerde Tәuke hannyng adamdary Kóldey myrza men Sary batyr tútqyngha alyndy. Olar eki jýz jasaqpen kelip, aq patshanyng әskery adamdaryn nayzamen shanshyp, myltyqpen atyp, tonady. Tútqyngha almaq boldy. Tobyl uәzi, Tar bekinisinde kóp kisini keskilep óltirip, bekinisti órtedi. Sol ýshin Kóldey myrza men Sary batyr tútqyndaldy», - dep jazylghan.

 Resey jaghynyng taqqan kinәsi jalghan edi. Sary batyr men Kóldey myrza bastaghan qazaq elshiligi Ertisting sol jaghasynda Resey tarapynan kelisim sóz jýrgizetindermen, saudagerler, әsker adamdarmen kezigedi. Eki jaq Ertisting sol jaghasynda, Jәmish kóline qarama-qarsy tústa, kelisim sóz jýrgizip jatqanynda, kóldeneng top jortuylshylar búlargha soqtyghyp, eki jaqtyng da tas-talqanyn shygharady. Resey jaghy osyghan qazaq jaghy tikeley qatysty dep kinә taghady. Al, qazaq jaghy búl qalmaqtardyng istegeni degendi aitady. Anyghynda Tobolisk gubernator kensesinde Sary batyr: «Sarskogo presvetlogo velichestva slujivye ludy za kalmykov ne pristaly y ludyam ego shkody ne uchiniliy», - dep jauap beripti. Kelisimdi búzghan qalmaq soqtyghuy ekenin Sary batyr qanyqty, aipara aityp bergen.  Biraq, Sibir basshylary isting ónin ózgertip, orysty qazaq shapty qylady. Eki el arasyndaghy sauda-sattyq kelisimi qol qoyylmay toqtalady.

 Oqigha qazaq pen orys qarym-qatynasyn ushyqtyrady. Bitimge deyin qazaqtyng barymta-qarymtasy bastau alady. Kóldey myrzanyng әkesi Týke by búl iske ayanbay kirisedi. Elde qol jinap, jaugershilikke deyin barady. Týke biydi Abylay men Qazy hanzadalar qoldap, jol bastaydy. Jaugershilikting bayany Resey derekterinde: «1690 jyly Tәuke hannyng qazaqtary Ótes pen Qalmaq slabodalaryna kelip, ýilerdi órtep, dýkenshini jәne sharua adamdardy keskilep óltirip, orys erkekteri men әielderin tútqyndap әketti. Tәuke hannyng qazaqtary Tobyl uezindegi Yalutorov slabodasyna jasaqpen kelip oiran salyp, slabodany órtep, adamdaryn úryp-soghyp, tútqyngha alyp ketti. Semizkólding janynda әskery adamdardyng kóbin dalada qyryp tastap, birazyn tútqyngha aldy. Áli de jasaqpen kelip oiran salatyndaryn maqtan etti», - delinedi. 1690 jyly qysta Resey kópesterining Kashku bastaghan kerueni tonalyp, jalasy qazaqqa jabylady. Orystardyng ol nazyna Tәuke han: «El úrysyz, dala qyrsyz bolmaydy», - dep jauap beredi. 1690 jyldyng qysynda Týmen okrugining Tarhan ostrogi talqandalady. 1691 jyly Sarev-gorodisha bekinisi shabylady. Tobyl guberniyasynyng Utyaskoe slabodasy, Orynbor guberniyasynyng Kurtamysh qonysy talan-tarajgha úshyraydy. 1690-1692 jyldarda qazaq jasaqtary Sibirding Tara qalasyna deyingi aimaqtaghy elge tynyshtyq bermey barymtalap, qanaugha salady. Amalsyz Sibir basshylary 1692 jyly boyardyng úly Andrey Nepripasov bastaghan elshilerin Tәuke hangha jiberedi. Endi Resey qújat derekterine nazar salayyq.

 1692 jyldyng shilde aiynyng 14 kýni Úly patsha Petr I-shi jarlyghymen jәne Sibir prikazynyng (polisiya) sheshimimen, «Sary batyr men Kóldey myrza tútqyngha alynyp, tonalghany» turaly, boyarin Stepan Saltykov, atty kazak Aleksandr Alemesov, tilmash, tatar Yuluchka Shemanaev, aqsýiekting úly Andrey Nepripasov Qazaq Ordasyna Toboliskiden elshilikke jiberildi. Olar Týrkistangha Tәuke hangha jetti. Áz Tәuke han: «Slabodalaryndy tonaghan qazaqtar emes, qalmaqtar. Jәmish kólinde Sary batyr men Kóldey myrzany beker ústaghansyndar. Olar men jibergen elshiler bolatyn. Qazaq eli atynan», - deydi. A.Nepripasov: «Sary batyr men Kóldey myrza ózderimen qaraqshylardy ertip kelgen. Kóldey myrza sauda-sattyqqa, kelisim sózge shaqyrdy. Resey adamdary kól jaghasyna sauda jasaugha keldi. Kóldey myrza, Sary batyr qaraqshylarymen patsha aghzamnyng adamdaryn nayzamen shanshyp, sadaqpen atty. Saudagha әkelgen tauarlardy tonady. Sol әreketteri ýshin ekeui ústalyp, Toboliskige jiberildi», - deydi.

 Andrey Nepripasov patsha aghzamnyng jarlyghyn oqymaqqa Tәuke hannan bas kiyimin sheship, ornynan túruyn súraydy. Tәuke han ornynan túrmaq týgil, bas kiyimin de sheshpeydi. Andrey basqa elde patsha aghzamnyng búiryghyn qúrmetpen qabyldaydy dep shýlensiydi. Tәuke han ayaghynyng auyratynyn syltau etip, al bas kiyimdi «Allagha siynghanda da sheshpeymin» deydi. Andrey Nepripasov jaugershilikte tútqyngha týsken orys slabodasynyng adamdaryn qaytarudy talap etedi. Oryndalmasa soghys jariyalanady dep qorytady. Múny estigen han manayyndaghy qazaqtyng asyldary: «Bizge orysqa barudyng qajeti joq. Olardyng bizge kelgenderi malay bolady», - dep oryndarynan óre týregeledi. Andrey Nepripasov keri qaytatynyn bildiredi. Tәuke han ótinishin qabyl etpeydi. Kóktem shygha Búqara saudagerlerine qosyp qaytaramyn. Qazir qaytarsam Sarysu boyyndaghy qalmaqtar kәter qylady degen syltau aitady. Resey elshileri Tәuke han ordasynda qystap shyghady.

   Kóktem shygha qaytugha taghy súranady. Han olargha patsha aghzamgha jiberetin elshi tandap alyp, birge qosyp jiberetindigin jetkizedi. 1693 jyldyng orta sheninde Týrkistanda jýrgen Tobyldyq tatar, saudager Tәuishke Mergen Tәuke hannan Búqaragha saudamen barugha rúqsat súraydy. Han Andreydi ózinmen erte ketesing dep, rúqsat etedi. Olar Búqaragha ketisimen Abylay men Qazy hanzadalar jasaqtarymen orys qalalaryna shabuyldar jasaydy. Resey qalalaryn shapqan eki hanzada Tәuishke men Andreyden eki apta búryn Týrkistangha oralady. Tәuishke men Andrey Búqarada ýsh ay jýrip keledi. Kele Andrey qaytugha rúqsat súraydy. Qyrda jortuylshylar kóp dep Tәuke han Andreydi qaytarmaydy.

 Tәuke han Úrgha bekinisinen hanzadalar jasaqtary shabuyldaghanda tútqyngha týsken orystardy Týrkistangha aldyrtady. Andrey Nepripasovqa olar: «Qazaqtar Bәshenkege kelip, Tobyldyng aqsýiegi Vasiliy Shuligindi tútqyndap әketkenin, ýsh jýz kisi ólgenin, on eki adamnyng basyn kesip Búqaragha әketkenin, qazaqtardyng ekinshi toby Shipisyn slabodasyn shapqanyn, sol qazaqtar 1693 jyldyng orta sheninde Kóldey myrza jazghan hat ala kelgendigin aityp beredi. Tәuke han Kóldey myrzadan kelgen hatty oqudy búiyrady. Hatta: «Týrmening qiynshylyghyna shydamay Sary batyr qaytys boldy. Resey elshilerin kóp ústamay, qúrmetpen qaytarghan jón. Kelisim sózder jalghastyrylghany on», - degen sózder jazylypty. Tәuke han: «Sary batyrdyng jyldyghy ótkizilgenshe jaugershilik pen barymta-qarymtany dogharyndar», - dep qazaqqa toqtam salady.

 Andrey Nepripasov bas bostandyghyn oilap, eline qaytugha kómek súrap Kóldey myrzanyng qayyn atasy Týrkebaygha jalynady. Týrkebay Tәuke hannan Andreydi qaytarudy ótinedi. Qazaqtyng betke ústar  asyldaryn jinaghan Tәuke han: «Qay qazaq aq patshagha elshi bolyp barady?» - deydi. Qazaq asyldary yqylas bildire qoymaydy. «Eshkim joq», - dep han qabaghy týiiledi. Degenmen bireu shyghady. Ol Tayqonyr edi. 1694 jyly kóktemde Tәuke han Petr I-ge Resey men qazaq eli dostyghy, qarym-qatynasyn janartu turaly jәne Tobyl qalasynda tútqyndalyp otyrghan Kóldey myrzany qaytaru turaly hatpen ótinish qylady. Hatta: «Jaqsylyq ispen Sibir Tobyl uezine elshi etip jibergen eki adamnyng bireui Sary batyr qaytys bolyp, qyzmetshim Kóldey myrzany ústap otyr. Úrylardyng ornyna elshini qamaugha alghan degendi estigen emespiz. Úly mәrtebelim, ótinishimdi tapsyrugha senimdi adamym Qúltabay Atalyqov batyrdyng úly Tayqonyrdy jiberdim. Iltipat kórsetiniz», - delinedi. Tayqonyrgha sapar onaygha týspegenimen, is mejesine jetip edi. Peterborgha 55 kýn jol jýrdi. Qasyna sauda keruen basy týrkistandyq Álseyit Shýkirov, Andrey Nepripasovtyng elshiligi qúramynda kelgen Aleksandr Alemesov pen Yuluy Shamanaevty ertken bolatyn. Petr I-shi: «Na russkih ludey budet mysliti vsyakoe zlo. Ot Tyavky (Tәuke) hana vse mojno ojidati», - dep júqaryp, Kóldey myrza kinәsiz bolsa, Tәuke han tilegin oryndaugha yqylas qylady.

 Tobyl tatary, saudager Tәuishke Mergen Kóldey myrzanyng qayyn atasy Týrkebaygha «múndaghy A.Nepripasovty qaytarsa, Kóldey myrzanyng eline tiri jetui kýdikti» degen mәlimet jetkizedi. Týrkebay Tәuke hannan Andreydi qaytarmay, kidirtuin ótinip, Kóldey myrza Úrgha bekinisine jetkizilgenshe ústap túrudy súraydy. Qazy hanzadagha Kóldey myrzanyng әkesi Týke bi: «Orystyng әskerin jengen shygharsyn. Onyng ózinde jauynger matay jasaq erligimen. Eldestirmek elshiden. Taghy elshi jibert», – dep shýiligedi. Áz Tәuke han 1694 jyldyng 5 qazan kýni Tayqonyrdy qosshylarymen, qasyna orys elshiligimen kelgen kazak Aleksandr Alemesovty, Yuluchka Shamanaevty, tatar Yrys Qaranaevty 15 adamymen qosyp,  Sibir Tobyl duanyna elshi etip jiberip, Kóldey myrzany bosatugha yqpal etuin súrap, Tobyldyng duan basshysyna hat ta joldaydy.

 Kóldey myrza Toboliskiden Úrghagha jóneltiletinin bilgen rulas mataylar ýsh myng qolmen Úrgha bekinisine jetedi. Tәuke han olardy toqtata almay qalady. Oqigha búdan keyin ózgeshe óris alady.

 Kóldey myrza Toboliskiden Úrghagha jóneltilgende qasynda eki orys atqosshy, atty kazak Fedika Skibiyn, Matvey Troshin adamdarymen, saudager, tilmәsh Tәuishke Mergen bes serigimen bolady. Olar Úrghagha kirmey, Týrkistangha jetuge ýsh kýn qalghanynda eki atqosshy, tatar Tәuishke Mergen serikterimen óltiriledi. Fedika Skibiyn, Matvey Troshin adamdarymen Týrkistandaghy Tәuke hangha Kóldey myrzany syi-siyapatymen jetkizedi. Olar boyardyng úly aqsýiek Andrey Nepripasovty qaytarudy tileydi. Tәuke han Búqaragha satyp jibergendikten, qaytarmaytynyn aitady. Fedika Skibin sharasyz qalady. Tәuke han Reseyge jaugershilik jalghasatynyn mәlimdeuge shaq qalghan bolatyn. Tәuke han jibergen Tayqonyr bastaghan qazaq elshiligi 1694 jyly kýzde Kóldey myrzany bosattyryp, is ong bitedi. Ýsh myng qol mataylar jaugershilik jasamay, Úrghadan oralyp tarasady.

 Tәuke han Týrkistanda A.Nepripasovty adamdarymen eki jyl, ýsh ay ústaydy. A.Nepripasov 1695 jyly 24 aqpan kýni Týrkistanda auyryp óledi. Vasika Shuligindi adamdarymen Tәuke han jasyryn 1696 jyly 20 shildede Búqaragha attandyrady. Syr ózeni boyynda qazaqtar olardy tonaydy. Vasika Búqaragha jayau jetip, alty ay sonda túrady. 1697 jyly 13 qarashada Hiuagha jol tartady. Hiuada on apta túrady. 1698 jyly 8 nauryzda Reseyge baratyn Búqara keruenine ilesip, Astrahanigha jetedi. Orys basshylaryna Vasika Shuligin bilgeninin bayan etedi.

 Kóldey myrza esimimen matay-qaptaghay ishinde el atalady. Sary batyr kindiginen taraghan úrpaqtardan matay-qaptaghayda qúlshan, elshen, qydyrәli, biken, qara atty ruly elder taram jaydy. Úrpaqtary esimi ýsh Matay elining úranyna ainalghan Bóribay batyr, Qydyrәli bi, Doset bi, Tәneke (Núraly) batyr, Syrttan batyr, Maman qút, alghashqy matay elining qajysy, aghartushy Túrysbek, nar Esimbek, «Bóribay» kóterilisining basshysynyng biri Qojabek bolys, «Mamaniya» mektebin saldyrghan Seyitbattal qajy, qazaq romanyna bәige jariyalaghan Esenqúl qajy, «Qazaq Ustavyn» jazghan Barlybek – iygi isterimen elge tanymal túlghalar boldy.  Sary batyr, Kóldey myrza, Qabay atalyqty el eskerip, bilgeni abzal.                                                                                                     

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