Jeksenbi, 23 Mausym 2024
Bilgenge marjan 3838 7 pikir 13 Mamyr, 2024 saghat 13:45

Qyrghyzdar jonghar qúramynda shynymen boldy ma?

Suret: dzen.ru saytynan alyndy

«Jonghardyng joyyluy XVIII ghasyrdaghy eng auqymdy genosid boldy».

Tarihshy, Mark Leven.

Qazaq elining tarihynda, jonghar shapqynshylyghy aiyryqsha oryn alady. Sonymen qatar, elimizding jýrip ótken taghdyry talayly tarihy jolyndaghy basty geosayasy jauy retinde kórsetiledi.

Kóptegen tarihshylarymyzdyng oi-pikirinshe, óz uaqytyndaghy Jonghar handyghy oirattar dep aitylady. Osynau, kezinde arystanday aqyrghan imperiya bolghan Jonghar memleketi soltýstiginde Ontýstik Sibirden bastap, osy kýngi Qyrghyzstangha deyingi, shyghysynda Úly Qytay qorghanynan, qazirgi Qazaq eline deyingi orasan zor aumaqty alyp jatqan. XVII ghasyrdyng alghashqy shiyreginde oirat degen atpen tanymal bolghan Jongharlar, 1680 -1689 jyldary ontýstik Shynjandaghy Qashqar ólkesin basyp alady. Sonday-aq, shyghysynda qazirgi Monghol atanghan Halhalyq buryattardy jenip, biraz jetistikke jetedi.

«Jonghar» sózining etimologiyasyna keletin bolsaq, jungar, zungar – Shynghys han әskerlerining sol jaq qanaty. Ong qanat – burunghar dep atalghan eken. Biraq, keybir tarihy derekterde «Juun – gar» sózi Qytaydyng «qaraqshy adamdar» degen sózining maghynasy dep keltirilgen (Goliman Mark Isaakovich, doktor istoricheskih nauk, vostokoved). Osy, Jonghar handyghynyng shanyraghyn kótergen jәne onyng ósip-órkendeuine aitarlyqtay ýles qosqan Oirat taypasy.

Degenmen, osy Jonghar handyghynyng negizi bolyp sanalatyn oirattar, sonau XIII ghasyrdyng basynda, qazirgi Tuva aumaghynan kelgen. Qazirgi qyrghyzdar da óz zamanynda sol manda tirshilik keshken. Degenmen, osy oirat taypasy ózimen birge qyrghyz rularyn da kýshtep, Alatau etegine aidap kelgen kórinedi. 1653 jyly Qontayshy batyr ólgennen keyin, onyng úly Senge taqqa otyrady. Biraq, onyng taqqa keluine, sheshesi basqa inileri kelispey, qarsy shyghady. Degenmen, Hoshut han Ochirtu Sesen hannyng qoldauymen, búl tartysta 1661 jyly Senge maqsatyna jetedi. Alayda, 1670 jylghy tónkeris kezinde, ózi de bauyrlarynyng qolynan qaza tabady. Keyinnen, onyng taghyna kelgen Galdan, Jonghar eline biyligin jýrgize bastaydy.

1681 jyly Galdan Seren Tyani-Shani taularynyng sol jaghyndaghy aumaqqa jәne Qazaq handyghyna shabuyl jasay bastaydy. 1683 jyly Sevan Rabdan bastaghan Galdan qontayshynyng әskeri Tashkent pen Sayramdy alady. Olar, sóitip, Syrdariya jaghasyna deyin jetedi. Osydan keyin, Fergana alqabyn oirandap, keyinnen Taraz qalasyn da ózderine qaratady.

1698 jyly Galdan Seren baqilyqqa ketken son, onyng ornyna kelgen Sevan Rabdan әskeri býkil Ortalyq Aziyany jaulap alady.

1727 jyly Sevan Rabdannan keyin, onyng ornyna kelgen úly Galdan Seren qazaqtarmen soghysyn jalghastyra beredi. Áriyne, búl Jonghar men Qazaqtyng maydandasqan soghysynyng qalay ayaqtalghanyn qay-qaysymyz da bilemiz. Qytay generaly Pu De bastaghan armiyanyng súrapyl soqqysynan, tek qana Jonghar handyghy túrmaq, arystanday aqyrghan, at ýstindegi jauynger el tútastay qyrylyp, tarihtan joyylyp ketti. Búl, óz zamanyndaghy súmdyq genosid edi.

Óz kezinde, jongharlardyng qolyna týsip jәne solargha qyzmet etken, keyinnen, shýrshitterding joryghy bastalghanda, qytaylargha ótip, general Pu Dening qasynda jýrip, osy qyrghynnyng kuәgeri bolghan shved ofiyseri Yuhan Gustav Renattyng «Djungarsaya stepi» atty jazbalarynda búl oqighalar naqty bayandalady. Onyng Jonghar handyghynyng aumaghyn kórsetken, syzghan kartasy da bar.

Degenmen, bizding aitayyq degenimiz, keybir ghalymdardyng payymdauynsha Jonghar atauy óz uaqytynda Qyrghyzdyng – Chonqyr degen (chong qyr – alyp qyrghyz nemese ýlken qyrghyz degen maghynany bildiredi) sózinen payda bolghan deydi. Sol bir kezdegi Resey imperiyasynyng sayasatynda, Jonghar handyghynyng qúramy Oirattar men Qyrghyzdardan túrdy dep aitylady jәne jazylady. Al, Jonghar memleketining әskeri bolghan qyrghyzdardyng ýlken toby, kezinde, qazirgi Qyrghyzstan aumaghyna, Enesay (Eniysey) atyrabynan auyp kelip, Qyrghyz degen elge ainaldy deydi. Chonqyr – Jonghar handyghynyng negizgi eli týrki tildi oirat pen qyrghyz boldy delinedi. Degenmen, olardyng qazaqtarmen esh tilmәshsiz ózara týsiniskeni turaly da mәlimetter bar. (A.I. Levshin «Opisanie Kirgiyz-Kazachiih ily Kirgiyz-Kaysaskih ord y stepey» ( 1832 g)).

Oyrat pen Qyrghyzdar týrki tildi últtar. Sondyqtan, osy kýngi qalmaq pen mongholdy (buryattar) jongharlardyng tuysy deu óreskel qatelik, qalmaq pen qazirgi mongholdardy qazaqtar tilmәshsiz mýlde týsine almaydy, óitkeni, ekeui de halha – hidan elinen deydi keybir ghalymdar. Osy, A.IY.Levshin qalmaqtar turaly óte qúndy derekter qaldyrghan eken. Búl enbekten kóp nәrseni tabugha bolady.

Jonghar handyghy qyrghyn tapqan son, әupirimdep aman qalghan kishigirim bóligi Altay taularyna baryp tyghylyp, keyinnen orystardyng núsqauy boyynsha osy shókimdey ghana el, Altaylyqtar dep atalyp, tariyhqa endi.

Beysenghazy Úlyqbek,

Qazaqstan Jurnalister Odaghynyng mýshesi

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