Seysenbi, 26 Qazan 2021
Janalyqtar 3538 0 pikir 19 Tamyz, 2013 saghat 04:28

Ramazan Qúrmanbaev. Nәubet jyldary alyp qúrylystar sýiekterding ýstine salyndy

Últ janashyrlary 1932-1933 jyldary bolghan asharshylyqtyng sayasy baghasy әli berilgen joq degen toqtamgha kelude. Sol zamandaghy Kenes odaghynyng basshylary qazaq últyn joyyp, túqymdyqqa mal baghatyn qúl men esiginde jýretin kýnderdi ghana qaldyru sayasatyn ústanghanday. Sózimiz dәleldi bolu ýshin qazaq dalasynda búryn sondy bolmaghan alapat ashtyqtyng shyghu tarihyna ýnilip, qújattargha zer salayyq. 

Otarlaushylardyng ghasyrlar boyy janyn jegidey jegen aram oiy, qazaqtyng asty-ýsti baylyqqa toly keng dalasyna iyelik etu edi. Osy maqsatty iske asyru ýshin Mәskeu 1925 jyly patshany otbasymen qatygezdikpen qyryp tastaudy úiymdastyrghan jendet – F.IY.Goloshekindi Qazaqstan Ólkelik partiya komiytetining 1 hatshysy etip taghayyndady.

Últ janashyrlary 1932-1933 jyldary bolghan asharshylyqtyng sayasy baghasy әli berilgen joq degen toqtamgha kelude. Sol zamandaghy Kenes odaghynyng basshylary qazaq últyn joyyp, túqymdyqqa mal baghatyn qúl men esiginde jýretin kýnderdi ghana qaldyru sayasatyn ústanghanday. Sózimiz dәleldi bolu ýshin qazaq dalasynda búryn sondy bolmaghan alapat ashtyqtyng shyghu tarihyna ýnilip, qújattargha zer salayyq. 

Otarlaushylardyng ghasyrlar boyy janyn jegidey jegen aram oiy, qazaqtyng asty-ýsti baylyqqa toly keng dalasyna iyelik etu edi. Osy maqsatty iske asyru ýshin Mәskeu 1925 jyly patshany otbasymen qatygezdikpen qyryp tastaudy úiymdastyrghan jendet – F.IY.Goloshekindi Qazaqstan Ólkelik partiya komiytetining 1 hatshysy etip taghayyndady.

 Sol jyldary Qazaqstanda sayasy pozisiyasy myqty qazaq ziyalylarynyng toby shoghyr­langhan edi. Goloshekinning basty maqsaty – osy ziyaly qauymnyng kózin joyyp, ainalasyna aitqanyna kónip, aidauyna jýretin jandayshaptardy jinau boldy. Goloshekin 1927 jyly kýzde Stalinge qazaq komunisterining últshyldargha qarsy kýresin kýsheytip jatqanyn aitqanda Stalin oghan: «Joldas Goloshekiyn! Mening oiymsha, osy hatta belgilengen sayasat negizinen birden-bir dúrys sayasat» dep jauap jazady. 1927 jyly qarashada ótken partiya úiymynyng 6-shy konferensiyasynda Stalinning qoldauyna sýiengen Goloshekiyn: «Qanday da bolmasyn toptyng «kósemderi» Ólkelik komiytetke qarsy shyghyp kórsin, olardyng barlyghy 1 aptanyng ishinde janshylady» dep qoqan-loqqy kórsetti.

 Qazaq baylaryn tәrkileu turaly dekret 1928 jyly tamyzdyng 27-de qabyldandy. Osy tәrkileu turaly zang 1928 jyldyng sәuirinde myndaghan maly bar han, súltan túqymdarynan shyqqan iri baylargha qarsy jýrgiziletini qúpiya dayyndalghanymen, nauqan barysynda jýz túyaghy barlardy da iri bay qataryna jatqyzyp, tәrkiledi. Kәmpeskening manyzyn qazaq dalasyndaghy Úly qazanmen birdey baghalaghan Goloshekiyn: «Múnyng arty azamat soghysyna úlassa da biz odan tayynbaymyz» dep, ózderining zúlymdyq sayasatyn ashyq mәlimdedi.

 Osy jyldary әli búghanasy bekimegen Kenes ýkimetine ishki-syrtqy jaulardan qorghanyp, sosializmning jenisin saqtap qalu kerek edi. Sol ýshin memleketting quatyn kýsheytip, ekonomikanyng myqty irgetasyn qalau maqsatynda, 1928-1932 jyldardaghy I besjyldyq eldi industriyalandyrugha arnaldy. Búl jyldary Magnitogorsk, Kuznesk metal­­lurgiyalyq kombinattary, Stalingrad traktor zauyty, Mәskeu men Nijniy Novgorod qalalaryndaghy avtomobili zauyttary boy kóterdi. Búdan basqa da 1500 iri óndiris oshaqtary ashyldy. Osy kәsiporyndargha stanok, qúral-jabdyqtardy shetelden valutagha aiyrbastap alugha astyq kerek boldy. Sonymen qatar, Kenes ýkimeti basshylarynyng aldynda alyp qúrylystarda enbek etetin jýz myndaghan júmysshylardy azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etu problemasy túrdy.

 1928 jyldyng 11 sәuirinde BK(b)P men BOK-ning birikken plenumynda 1929-1930 jyldardaghy astyq dayyndau nauqany turaly qauly shyqty. Osy qaulynyng negizinde sharualardyng astyghyn memlekettik tómen baghamen alugha, kónbese, әkimshilik nemese sot arqyly tartyp alugha ýkimet uәkilderine biylik berildi.

 IY.Stalin 1929 jyly 22 sәuirde BK(b)P OK Plenumynda astyq dayyndau sayasatynyng basty baghyty turaly bayandama jasady. Onda: «…Astyq dayyndau nauqany kezinde tótenshe ókilettik engizip, kulaktar men baylardyng qarsylyghyn janyshtap, olardyng artyq astyqtaryn alamyz. Industriya ýshin valutany ýnemdeymiz… Biz astyq dayyndaudyng ishki mýmkinshiligi bar ekenin taptyq. Búl óte dúrys sayasat qana emes, osynyng arqasynda sovhoz ben kolhoz úiymdastyrudyng nyq jolyna shyqtyq», – dep týiindeydi.

 1929 jyly 21 tamyzda Stalin Molotovqa jazghan hatynda: «Biylghy astyq dayyndau bizding júmystarymyzdyng eng manyzdysy. Eger búdan útylsaq, biz bәrinen aiyrylamyz. Sondyqtan, Ortalyq komiytetting sheshimderin oryndaudy asa qatygezdikpen ótkizbesenizder útylamyz», – deydi. Al, 1930 jyly 24-shi tamyzda jazghan hatynda bylay mәlimdedi: «Kýnine 1-1,5 million pút astyqty syrtqa shygharudamyz. Mening oiymsha, búl – az. Eng az degende, 3-4 milliongha deyin kóteru kerek. Áytpese, biz jana metallurgiyalyq, mashina jasau zavodtarynsyz qalamyz(Avtozavod, Chelyabinsk, t.b.)».

 1929 jyly 20 jeltoqsanda Kommunistik partiyanyng Ortalyq komiyteti Reseyding óndiristi audandaryn etpen qamtamasyz etu ýshin qauly qabyldady. Qazaqstan qaulynyng qararlaryna sәikes Mәskeu, Peterbor tәrizdi iri qalalardy, Reseydegi ónerkәsip ortalyqtaryn, soltýstik Kavkazdy, Orta Aziyany, Qiyr Shyghystaghy jәne әskery mekemelerdi etpen jabdyqtaushylardyng birine ainaldy. Odaqtyq dәrejedegi «Soizmyasoprodukt», «Jivotnovodsoiz», «Skotovod», «Potrebkoop», «Lenmyaso», «Mosmyaso», «Sovhoztrest» siyaqty úiymdar Qazaqstanda mal etin dayyndaumen ainalysty. 1926-1930 jyldyng 1-shi sәuirine deyin Qazaqstannan Ortalyqtyng iri ónerkәsip oryndary men әskery mekemelerine 2830820 tonna astyq alyp ketken.

 «Qazaqfilim» tapsyrysymen tanymal rejiyser Erkin Raqyshevpen birigip «Asharshylyq» atty derekti filimning ssenariyin jazu ýstinde Reseyding Federaldyq qauipsizdik qyzmetining múraghatynan alynghan qújattardan jantýrshigerlik oqighalar kezdestirdik.

 1929-1930 jyldardaghy Ortalyq komiytetpen Ólkelik partiya komiytetining diyrektivalaryn oryndauda jibergen qatelikter turaly Qazaq OAK-ning hatshysy Abdolla Asylbekov, keyinnen әleumettik qamsyzdandyru Halyq komissary bolghan Naghima Aryqova jәne taghy basqalardyng Ortalyqqa jibergen 1930 jyly 19 tamyzda «Erekshe qúpiya» belgisi soghylghan bayandamasynda sol kezde oryn alghan kelensiz oqighalar keltiriledi:

 «Oral okrugining orta sharuasy Esenaliyevke 10 saghatta 50 pút et tapsyrudy jýktegen. Ol 3 siyrdyng ekeuin soyyp, et tapsyrsa, maldy qasaqana soydy degen aiyp taghylyp, bar dýniye-mýlkin tәrkilegen. Elek audanynda 200 kedey astyq ótkizbegeni ýshin tútqyndalghan. Olar astyq ótkizu ýshin maldaryn satyp astyqqa aiyrbastasa, maldaryn satqany ýshin sottaghan.

 Kedeylerding moynyna jip ilip, ózderi asylyp óldi dep júrtqa kórsetken.

 Gurievte jýn dayyndau nauqany kezinde bir qoydan bir pút jýn ótkizudi talap etken.

 Qyzylorda okruginde maqta men jýn dayyndau kezinde Qazaqtardyng kórpelerin jyrtyp, maqtasyn, kiyizding jýnin týtip ótkizuge mәjbýrlegen. Jospardy oryndamaghandardy sot­tap jibergen.

 Aqtóbe okrugining Aqkemer auylynda Pozdnov degen qazaqtardy ýiden shygharmay qamap, qarsylyq kórsetkenderding auzyna kerosin qúiyp órtep, qorlap qinaghan.

 Jәnibek auylynda uәkilder mas bolyp, әielder men jas qyzdardy zorlaghan. Olardy otqa órteymiz dep qorqytyp qargha jalang ayaq jýrgizgen.

 Jospardy oryndaghan sharuashylyqtargha onyng mólsherin 2-3 ese kóbeytken. Ony da oryndasa, orynday almaytynday qosymsha tapsyrmalar bergen. Sóitip, jospar oryndamady dep, olargha aiyppúl salyp, sottaghan.

 Ár otbasyn eki pút sýiek, bir itting terisin ótkizuge mindettedi. Osy jospardy oryndau ýshin kedeyler men sharualargha 5 kýn uaqyt berildi. Adamdardy sottaymyz, jer audaramyz dep qorqytyp, olargha iyt, esek, týielerdi soyghyzyp, sýiekterin tapsyrugha mәjbýrledi. Siyrlardyng mýiizin kestirtip, tapsyrtty. Kiyiz, arqan tәrizdi ýy mýlikterin alyp ketti.

 Sot, prokuratura qyzmetkerlerining kóbisi sauatsyz adamdar bolghandyqtan, zang búzylghan. Olar jer-jerlerge uәkil retinde jiberilip, jogharydan kelgen tapsyrmalardyng kózsiz oryndaushysy ghana bolghan» (SA FSB RF. F. 2. Op. 8. D. 744. L. 570-576). Osynday shekten  shyqqan oqighalar Qazaqstannyng barlyq jerlerinde oryn alghanymen, aiyptylargha eshqanday jaza qoldanylmaghan. Sonday-aq, halyqqa 20-gha tarta salyq salynyp, onyng ishinde kesirtke, jylan, tyshqan aulap, terisin tapsyru tәrizdi týsiniksiz týrleri kezdesken. 

 1930 jyldyng 20 sәuirinde Ólkelik BK(b)P-y mal sharuashylyghy audandarynda kooperativ jәne kolhoz birlestikterin úiymdastyru turaly №188 qúpiya qauly qabyldady. Osy qaulyda Goloshekinning «Újymdastyrudy otyryqshylandyru negizinde ótkizemiz. Adamdardy emes, jeke maldardy bir jerge jinap, Ortalyqtyng újymdastyru tapsyrmasyn iske asyramyz» degeninen, újymdastyru nauqany qazaqtardyng bar malyn tartyp alu ýshin ghana ótkiziletini týsinikti boldy.

 Búl jerde mynaday jymysqy sayasat oryn aldy. Ólkedegi azyq-týlik dayyndaudy baqy­laugha alghan top ishinde qoldaryna sheksiz biylik berilgen ýsh adamnan túratyn komisiyanyng mýsheleri, sonday-aq, ortalyqtyng tapsyrmasyn oryndau ýshin qúrylghan mekeme basshylarynyng qúramynda jergilikti últ ókilderi bolmady. Mysaly, 1930 jyldyng 28 tamyzynda ótken Qazaqstan ólkelik partiya komiytetining qasynan qúrylghan astyq dayyndau ýshtigining úiymdyq mәseleler jónindegi mәjilisining №1 hattamasyna nazar audarayyq. Oghan QATYSQANDAR: ýshtikting mýsheleri – VOSKANOV, ALShANSKIY, DIYVEEV. ShAQYRYLGhANDAR: BRUShKOVSKIY (Narkomtorg), ShEYMAN (SoYzhleb), GLADOVSKIY (SoYzmyaso), SMIRNOVSKIY (KazpolevodsoYz), VARLAMOV (Red.gazet «Sov.stepi»), YuSAK (SoYuztrans), DEMIDOVICh (Sr.-az.Voen.okrug).

 Qazaqtyng baqqan maly men jerindegi ekken dәnin Mәskeudegi ortaq qazangha jiberu ýshin ótkizgen mәjilistegilerding is-әreketi jemtikke talasqan qargha-qúzghynnyng tirligimen para-par edi. Ádiletsizdikke ara týsken arys azamattar qughyn-sýrginge úshyrap, artynan bәri jazalandy. Nauqan barysynda halyqtyng qasiretine kuә bolghan kóptegen kommunister Qazaqstannyng birtalay aimaqtarynda búghan qarsy astyrtyn sharalar úiymdastyrghan. OGPU-dyng aqparat habarlaryn taratu bólimining jazghan anyqtamasynda Aqmola okrugi, Janaarqa audany, №5 auylynyng auyl sharuashylyghy arteliining tóraghasy, partiya mýshesi «artelige tapsyrghan mal-mýlik ýkimetting menshigine ainalyp, dalada qalasyndar» dep ýgit jýrgizgenining nәtiyjesinde, sol auyldaghy kedeyler men sharualar arteliden shyghyp ketken. (RGAE. F. 7486. Op. 37. D. 61. L. 68-63. Podlinniyk, ekz. №13).

 Ashtan qyrylatynyn týsingen el ýkimetke qarsy shyqty. Bas kóteruler әsirese, 1930 jyly qazaq dalasynda asharshylyq apaty jaylay bastaghan kezde kýsheye týsken. Oghan Uәiis Shondybayúlynyng «Birles elim» atty ólenindegi

 «Kýshindi jyi,

 Janyndy qyi,

 Dýnie túrmas qalpynda.

 Neshe ghasyr yzalanyp,

 Tis qayraghan jauynnyn

 Shyqsyn jany,

 Aqsyn qany

 Shengeldi sal, alqymda!» degen joldar ortalyq ýkimetke narazylyqtan tughan halyqtyng yza-kegi men janayqayy edi. Kópshilik dýmpuinen ýreylengen Goloshekin narazylyq­tardy basu ýshin Edil boyynan jazalaushy әskery kýshterin arnayy aldyrtyp, Qazaqs­tandaghy iri qalalarda әskery kýshter ústau ýshin Stalinning rúqsatyn alady.

 Qazaq halqynyng basyna qara búlt bolyp tóngen sol bir nәubet jyldary shekaralyq audandardaghy baylar Qytay jerine ýdere kóshti. 1930 jyldyng basynan bastap Qytaygha auqattylarmen birge kedeyler de kóshe bastady. Olar «Goloshekin zombylyghynan qútyludyng jalghyz ghana joly bar. Ol – shekara asu» dep oilady. Olardy shekaradan ótkizu maqsatynda qarulanghan qorghaushy top shygharyp salyp otyrghan. Sebebi, shekaradan ótpekke әreket jasaghan halyqty OGPU qyzmetkerleri ayausyz qyrghan. Shekarashylar otryadtary tynysh jatqan auylgha oq jaudyryp, auyl aqsaqaldaryn kópting kózinshe atyp óltirip, kiyiz ýilerdi órtep, maldardy tartyp alyp, ýreyi úshqan halyqty shekaradan aulaq quyp tastaghan.

 Ile Sini-szyan әkimining kenes konsuly Kolosovqa tapsyrghan resmy hatynda 1930 jyldyng 2 jeltoqsanynda Horgos postysy shekarasynan ótken bosqyn ash qazaqtardy әiel, bala demey quyp kelgen sovet shekarashylary 50 adamdy óltirip ketken. Qytay ókimeti resmy notasynda 300-dey bosqynnyng aiuandyqpen óltirilgenin ashyq aitady (QR PM 4755-1-is 8-p.).

 Mәskeulik zertteushi Fetisov 1980-shy jyldary Kenes shekarashylary turaly jazghan «ShEST GEROIChESKIH SUTOK» degen enbeginde Kenester Odaghy Komunistik Partiyasynyng Bas sekretary bolghan K.U.ChERNENKONYNG 1930 jyldary Jarkent shekarasyndaghy jazalaushy otryad basshylarynyng biri bolghany turaly jazady. Zorlyq-zombylyq etinen ótip, sýiegine jetken búqara júrt:

 «Shyqpay jatyp besikten qayghy toryp,

 Sarghaldaqtay janbyrsyz qalghan solyp.

 Qayda barsang aldynda Qorqyt kóri

 Nege tudyq baqytsyz halyq bolyp?!» dep kýnirendi.

 Ónerkәsip oryndaryn etpen qamtamasyz etu Mәskeuding arnayy núsqauymen oryndalatyn boldy. Enbek jәne Qorghanys Kenesining 1931 jylghy 28 qyrkýiek kýni qabyldaghan qúpiya qaulysynda osy jyldyng 4-toqsanynda Mәskeuge 35000 tonna, Leningradqa 24500 tonna et jetkizip túruy mindetteldi. Osy jyldary Reseydi etpen qamtamasyz etude Qazaqstannyng ýlesi 40 payyzdan joghary bolghan. Qazaqstanda mal etin dayyndau asa qatal, qorqytu jәne qysym jasau әdisterimen qosa jartylay әskery tәrtippen jýrgizilgen. Osylaysha astyq pen et Qazaqstannan Reseyge vagon-vagon bolyp ketip jatqanda auyldaghy ýiler iyesiz qalyp, joldyng boyy men qala kóshelerinde adamdar iyt-qúsqa jem bolyp, qynaday qyrylyp jatty. Bir ýzim nan taba almay ashyqqan qazaqtargha kómek kórsetuding ornyna 1931 jyly 18 nauryzda KSRO Halyq Komissarlar Kenesi tóraghasynyng orynbasary A.A.Andreev qúrghan komissiya Reseyden Qazaqstangha 150 myng qojalyqty kóshiru turaly №221 qauly qabyldady. OGPU lagerlerining Bas basqarmasynyng bastyghy Kogannyng jer audarylghandardyng otbasyn tamaqpen qamtu normalary jóninde Azyq-týlikpen qamtamasyz etu Halyq Komissary Mikoyanmen keliskeni turaly №249-shy anyqtama 9-shy shildede shyqty.

 Qazaqstangha jer audarylyp kelgen G.S.Nevadovskiyding qyzy Tatiyana Nevadovskaya «Qazaqstan qasiretnamasy» degen óleninde ashtan ólgenderding ayanyshty halin surettey kelip:

 «Kiyimim kók, ashyghudy bilmeymin,

 Ash-jalanash bәri-daghy olardyn», – dep jazghanyna qaraghanda, basqa últtyng ókilderi ashtyqtan kóp zardap shekpegen.

 Derekkózderde Qazaqstanda 1929 jylghy 40 milliongha juyq maldan 1933 jyly 4 millionday bas qana qalghany keltiriledi. Sol jyldary Qazaqstanda Ortalyqqa jiberu ýshin 2 mln.422 myng 105sentner et dayyndalghan.

 1933 jyldyng kókteminde qazaq dalasyn mәiitterding sasyghan iyisi jaylady. 

 Orys ghalymy Danilov «1932 jyly astyqty shetelge shygharmasa, Kenes Odaghynda 7 mln. adamnyng ómirin saqtap qalugha bolatyn edi» dep jazdy. Sol jyldardaghy jýrgizilgen alyp qúrylystar ashtan ólgen qazaq halqynyng sýiekterining ýstinen salyndy.

 Ashtan qyrylyp, kómusiz qalghandardyng molasyna ainalghan Qazaqstangha 1933 jyldyng 1-shi aqpanynda Reseyden 1 mln adamdy qonystandyru turaly OGPU Tóraghasynyng orynbasary G.Yagodanyng qoly qoyylghan №50062 diyrektivasy shyqty. Búl qújatta kóship kelushilerge júmys oryndaryn ashyp, ýy taghy basqa túrmysqa qajetti auruhana, mektep salu jayly is-sharalar úiymdastyrylatyndyghy turaly aitylady. Osy jyldyng 13-shi aqpanynda Yagoda men GULagtyng bastyghy Berman Stalinge jazghan №50073-shi hatta 2 mln adamdy Qazaqstangha jer audaru josparlaryn qalay iske asyryp jatqandary turaly esep beredi.

 1929-1940 jyldary Kenes ókimetining ekonomikasy qaryshtap ósti. 1937 jyly KSRO ónerkәsip ónimderin shygharuda Europada 1-shi, dýniyejýzi boyynsha 2-shi oryndy iyelendi.

 1897 jyly ótken Resey imperiyasyndaghy halyq sanaghynyng resmy statistikasy boyynsha qazaqtar 4 mln 84139, ózbekter 1 mln 690 myn, tәjikter 350 myng bolghan. Búdan tura 100 jyl ótkende ózbekting sany 25 mln-gha juyqtap, qazaqtyng sany 9 mln-gha әzer jetken. Akademiyk-demograf Bromleyding «Etnicheskaya demografiya narodov SSSR» degen kitabynda 1939 jyly qazaq halqynyng jalpy sany 1926 jylmen salystyrghanda ósu ornyna kerisinshe 26 payyzgha kemigeni aitylady. Qazaqtar 1926 jylghy sanyna 1970 jyly jetken.

 Búl kórsetilgen derekter últymyzdyng basyna týsken, adamzat balasynyng tarihynda búryn sondy bolyp kórmegen nәubetting bir parasy ghana. Qazaqtardy jer betinen joyyp jiberuge baghyttalghan zúlym sayasattyng syryn ashatyn tarihy qújattar múraghattarda shang basyp, jaryqqa shyghatyn kýnin tosyp jatyr.

 Jaratushynyng yqylasy týsip, jazasyz japa shekken milliondaghan qandastarymyzdyng ruhy – qazaq dalasynda egemendikting kók bayraghy bolyp jelbiredi.

 1930 jyldardaghy asharshylyqtan eshqanday qazaq әuleti aman qútylghan joq. Qazaq­standa ómir sýrip jatqan alash balalarynyng bәri asharshylyq qúrbandarynyng úrpaqtary. Tәuelsizdikting qazaq halqyna qanshalyqty qymbatqa týskenin oiy taza, sanasy azat jas úrpaq jan-tәnimen úghynghanda ghana bostandyqtyng manyzyn tolyq týsinip, ony qorghay alatyn últ qalyptasady. Órtenge shyqqan kók shóptey azattyqtyng tanymen ómirge kelgen jas jetkinshekterding asharshylyq aqiqatyna kózin jetkizu býgingi agha buynnyng qaryzy. Joqtausyz ketken asharshylyq qúrbandary әruaqtarynyng aldyndaghy paryzynyng óteui. 

 

Ramazan QÚRMANBAEV,

 «Asharshylyq Qúrbandary»

 qoghamdyq birlestigining tóraghasy

Týpnúsqadaghy taqyryp:

«Nege tudyq baqytsyz halyq bolyp?!.»

«Ekonomika» gazeti, №22 (299), 2013 jyl

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