Seysenbi, 26 Qazan 2021
Janalyqtar 4234 0 pikir 14 Tamyz, 2013 saghat 07:01

Jalghas Ashatúly. Din jәne jastar

Býginde elimizde memleket pen diny úiymdar arasyndaghy ózara qarym-qatynasty aiqyndaushy salanyng biri ruhani, qúlyqtyq, patriottyq bilim beru men tәrbie bolyp sanalady. Keleshek úrpaqtyng ruhany túrghyda jәne qúlyqtyq damu problemasy – qazirgi qoghamdaghy eng ózekti mәselening biri bolyp otyr. Osyghan baylanysty dindi gumanistik bilim beruding ajyramas komponenti retinde zertteu manyzdy. Din búl shenberde adam ómirining basqa da salalarymen ózara әreketining arqasynda mәdeniyetting qúramdas bóligi sanatynda qarastyrylady.

Últtyng býgini men keleshegi  – bilimdi jastyng qolynda. Anyghyraq aitqanda, tarihyn tereng biletin, últtyng ruhany qúndylyqtaryn boyyna sinirgen úrpaq qana el bolashaghyn qalyptastyra alady. Al, sol bilimdi jastargha beruge eng negizgi qyzmet etetin túlghalar – oqytushylar qauymy. Sondyqtan da bilim berude jýrgizilip jatqan jana reformalardy jýzege asyru – oqytushy qauymyna ortaq is. Jana zaman oqytushylargha jana mindetter men maqsattar jýkteydi. Oqytushy qauymyna tyng serpilis, jana kózqaras әkeldi.

Býginde elimizde memleket pen diny úiymdar arasyndaghy ózara qarym-qatynasty aiqyndaushy salanyng biri ruhani, qúlyqtyq, patriottyq bilim beru men tәrbie bolyp sanalady. Keleshek úrpaqtyng ruhany túrghyda jәne qúlyqtyq damu problemasy – qazirgi qoghamdaghy eng ózekti mәselening biri bolyp otyr. Osyghan baylanysty dindi gumanistik bilim beruding ajyramas komponenti retinde zertteu manyzdy. Din búl shenberde adam ómirining basqa da salalarymen ózara әreketining arqasynda mәdeniyetting qúramdas bóligi sanatynda qarastyrylady.

Últtyng býgini men keleshegi  – bilimdi jastyng qolynda. Anyghyraq aitqanda, tarihyn tereng biletin, últtyng ruhany qúndylyqtaryn boyyna sinirgen úrpaq qana el bolashaghyn qalyptastyra alady. Al, sol bilimdi jastargha beruge eng negizgi qyzmet etetin túlghalar – oqytushylar qauymy. Sondyqtan da bilim berude jýrgizilip jatqan jana reformalardy jýzege asyru – oqytushy qauymyna ortaq is. Jana zaman oqytushylargha jana mindetter men maqsattar jýkteydi. Oqytushy qauymyna tyng serpilis, jana kózqaras әkeldi.

Sonymen qatar bilim beru «Qazaqstan – 2030» úzaq merzimdi Strategiyasynyng manyzdy basymdyqtarynyng biri bolyp tanyldy. Qazaqstandaghy bilim beru reformalarynyng jalpy maqsaty bilim beru jýiesin jana әleumettik-ekonomikalyq ortagha beyimdeu bolyp tabylady. Qazaqstan Preziydenti respublikany әlemdegi bәsekege qabiletti 50 elding qataryna engizu turaly mindet qoyghan bolatyn. Bilim beru jýiesin jetildiru osy maqsatqa qol jetkizude manyzdy ról atqarady.

Álemge tanymal músylman dintanushysy әl-Ghazaly diny bilim turaly bylay deydi: «Paydaly bilimmen shúghyldanu býkil basqa isterge qaraghanda әldeqayda jaqsy. Paydaly bilim – dýniyening jamandyghyn, aqyrettegi jaghdaydyng qauiptiligi men qorqynyshtylyghyn týsindiretin bilim. Dýniyege berilip, aqyretten bet búrghan adamdardyng nadandyghy men aqymaqtyghyn, olardyng boyyndaghy órkókirektik, kýnshildik, ekijýzdilik, ózin-ózi sýyshilik, ataqqúmarlyq pen mansapqúmarlyq, dýniyege qúshtarlyq siyaqty jýrek dertterining dauasy ne ekendigin bildiretin bilim – paydaly bilim».

Býgingi tanda jastardyng kóz aldynda din ruhaniy-qúlyqtyq iydealardy taratushy jәne mәdeny dәstýrdi saqtaushy retinde joghary dәrejege ie bolyp otyr. Osyghan oray bilim beru mekemeleri, memlekettik organdar aldynda qazaq qoghamy ýshin dәstýrli dinderding әleuetin jastardy ruhaniy-tәrbiyelikke jәne otansýigishtikke tәrbiyeleu turaly mәsele túr. Sonday-aq, elimizde ózara týsinistik pen dinaralyq tatulyqty saqtay otyryp,  memlekettilikti nyghaytu ýshin jas úrpaqqa dәstýrli dinder, olardyng ruhany qúndylyqtary, enbekteri, din ghúlamalary jayly bilui kerek.

Qazir Batystyng keybir elderinde búl mәselege baylanysty mektepterde diny bilim beru jýiesi qalyptasqan.

Adam diny sauattylyghyn arttyru arqyly qoghamgha, qorshaghan ortagha degen kózqarasy qalyptasyp, kemeldenu qúbylysy jýzege asady. Sondyqtan diny sauattylyqtyng adam sanasynyng ondy damuyndaghy róli manyzdy bolmaq.

Elimiz egemendik alghan alghashqy kezderi qazaq qoghamynyng jan dýniyesi, diny sauattylyghy keshegi Kenes ýkimeti yqpalynan belgili bir dengeyde әlsirep qalghan bolatyn. Yaghni, halyqtyng diny sauaty tómen dәrejede boldy. Osynday nәtiyjening saldarynan, týrli dengeydegi jana aghymdar men jana diny birlestikterding sany artyp ketti. Ol tek san jaghynan artyp qoymay, onyng jaqtaushylary men mýsheleri de kóbeydi. Ókinishke oray, búlargha tosqauyl bolatyn sol uaqytta bizding qolymyzda Abay, Shәkәrim sekildi úly túlghalardyng dinge sinirgen enbekteri tapshy boldy. Jastardyng diny súranysyna jauap beretin dәstýrli Islammen ózge dindi nemese baghytty ajyratyp beretin ghalymdar da az boldy.

San ghasyrdan beri kele jatqan dәstýrli diny ústanym – Ábu Hanifa mәzhaby jәne Maturudy aqidasy qazaqtyng balasyn tek qazaq qoghamynyng mýddesine tәueldi etedi. Búl baghytty ústanushylar ózining qarapayymdylyq, izgilikti sipattarymen erekshelenedi. Múny jaqsy bile bilgen ata-babalarymyz osy baghytty erteden beri nyq ústap, músylmandar arasyna jik týsirmey kelgen edi.

Al qazirgi tanda dinge bet búrghan jastar arasynda diny sauattylyqty arttyru maqsatynda Islam memleketterine baryp, ilim izdenip kelushilerding sany kóbeydi. Sol jastarymyzdyng Islamnyng qazaq qoghamynyng dәstýrli ústanymy men erekshelikterine, qúndylyqtaryna eshqanday da qarama-qayshylyq tughyzbaytyn tәlim ýirenip kelip jatqandar bar. Desekte, diny sauattyghynyng tayazdyghynan jat elde alyp jatqan ilimning parqyna barmay, qazaqtyng últtyq qúndylyqtary men erekshelikterin mýldem joqqa shygharyp, keybir memleketterding iydeologiyalaryn alyp, býginde el arasyna iritki salyp jýrgen jastar da az emes.

Qazaq «ishten shyqqan jau jaman» degendey basqa dindi nemese teris aghymdy uaghyzdaytyn missionerlerden góri ózimizding Islam dinin bet perde etip halyqtyng sanasyn ulap jýrgender qanshama. Diny sauaty keshegi ateizm men Islamnyng ortasynda qalqyp túrghan qazaqtyng kez-kelgen azamaty osy teris pighyldy aghymdardyng túzaghyna týskenderin angharmay qalady. Osylardy eskere otyryp, býgingi tandaghy bizding basty mәselemiz – diny sauatsyzdyq dep oilaymyn. 

Islamnyng qasiyetti ruhyn qayta janghyrtyp, halyqtyng sanasyn birjaqty etuding joldaryn qarastyratyn kýn tudy. Islamnyng qazaq dalasynda damuy ýshin Arab memleketterindegi din núsqalaryn kózsiz kóshiru biz ýshin jaramsyz.

Memleketting diny sayasatynyng basty maqsaty – elimizde diny ómirding jayly damuy men qoghamdaghy túraqtylyqty bekitu bolyp tabylady. Songhy kezde ghalamtor betterinde diny sauattylyq jayly kóptegen taqyryptar qozghaluda. Óitkeni memlekette sauatsyzdyqtyng saldarynan diny ahual kýrdelenip, әli kýnge deyin naqty sheshimin tabalmay keledi. Búl kórinis elding eleuli azamattaryn alandatyp, keybir qalalarda diny sauattylyqty arttyru maqsatynda is-sharalar úiymdastyryluda. Áytsede, jastardyng birshamasy múnday izgi amaldargha nemqúrayly qarap, óz betterinshe ghalamtor betterindegi belgisiz mәlimetterding aq-qarasyn ajyratpay, boyyna sinirip, ony óz ortasyna jaya bastaydy. Qazirgi teris aghymdar ýshin de óz maqsattaryn útymdy paydalanuda ghalamtor óte tiyimdi bolyp otyr.

Ayta ketetin jaghday, Qazaqstan músylmandarynyng arasynda Ábu Hanifa mәzhabyn ústanamyz degender 70% payyzdan asady. Desede, ol kisining kim ekenin, onyng ómir jolyn biletin sauatty músylmandar, ókinishke oray, az. Qazaq «adam bilmegenning dúshpany» degendey, múnday sauatsyzdyqty jastar túrmaq, elge qyzmet etip jýrgen ýlken aghalarymyzdan da bayqaugha bolady. Qazaq ejelden Ábu Hanifa jolyn ústanyp kelgeni haq, desekte, býgin sol ústanymgha jenil qarap qoyghandaymyz. Ábu Hanifa baghytyn ústanamyn dep, onyng baghytynan auytqyp elge qiyanat jasap jýrgender jeterlik. Búl da diny sauatsyzdyqtyng kesiri. Osylardyng aldyn alu ýshin mynaday sharalardy qolgha alu qajet:

- elimizding kez kelgen aimaqtarynda halyqqa fundamentaldy diny sauattylyq júmystary jýieli týrde jýrgizilui qajet. Ózimizding ata-dәstýrimizge, salt-ghúrpymyzgha say keletin, san ghasyrlardan beri Islam dinin ýiretip, nasihattauda dúrys baghyttaghy jol kórsetken Ábu Hanifa mәzhabynyng jolyn qayta jandandyru kerek. Halqymyzdyng diny túrghyda bilimin jetildirip, teris diny aghymdardyng jeteginde ketuine jol bermey, olardyng qoghamgha qanshalyqty ziyandy jaqtary bar ekendigin aityp týsindirgenimiz abzal;

- býgingi kýni kóptegen jastardyng dinge degen kyzyghushylyqtaryn esepke alsaq, meshit imamdarynyng olardy oqytyp-ýiretuge kýshteri jetkiliksiz bolyp otyr. Sondyqtan Islamdy týsinip ýirengisi kelgen jastarymyzdyng keybiri ghalamtor sayttaryna jýginedi. Osynday jastardyng psihikalyq oi-órisine, sana-sezimine әser etip, últtyq ruhany baghytta ósip-órkendeuine kedergi keltiretin jaghdaylardyng aldyn alyp, ghalamtor betterin qatang qadaghalap, dәstýrli dinge qayshy keletin sayttargha shekteu qoyyp, ýzdiksiz baqylau qajettiligi tuyndauda;

- Islamnyng qazaq dalasyna taraluyna yqpalyn tiygizgen úly әl-Farabi, Yasaui, Abay, Shәkәrim sekildi túlghalardyng mәrtebesin jastardyng arasynda kóterip, dәripteu ýshin olardyng negizgi týpnúsqa enbekterin janghyrtyp, aghartu sharalaryn úiymdastyru kerek;

         - diny sauattylyqty arttyru maqsatynda 2009 jyldan bastap «Dintanu» pәni engizildi. Búl ondy qúbylys әriyne, alayda, atalmysh pәnning ózi halyqtyng sauatyn ashu ýshin jetkiliksiz bolmaq. Yaghni, qazirgi kýni shiyelenisip jatqan barlyq mәselelerdi mektepterge engizgen búl pәn tolyghymen sheship bere almay jatyr. Halqymyzdyng negizgi dini Islam bolghandyqtan, biz ony tolyq mengeruimiz qajet. Al «Dintanu negizderi» tek Islamdy ghana nasihattamaydy, Islam dini taqyrybyna birneshe saghattyq uaqyt bólinedi, onda tek jalpylama týrde dinderding tarihyna toqtalady. Al, ol oqushylardyng din turaly bilimin tolyq qalyptastyra almaydy. Sondyqtan 20 jyldan asqan tәuelsiz tarihymyz bar, 70% payyzdan asa músylman halqymyz baryn eskere otyryp, biz balabaqsha, mektep tabaldyryqtarynan bastap jastardy Islam taghylymdaryna baulysaq artyq etpes. Sondyqtan da «Dintanu» pәnimen qosymsha, basqa da diny sauat ashu pәnderin oilap tauyp mektepke, jogharghy oqu oryndargha basqa da oqu ordalarynda oqytylsa, ondy nәtiyjege qol jetkizuimiz mýmkin mening ózimning jeke pikirime jaghymdy.

         Býginde elimizde «dintanu» jәne «teologiya» mamandyghy boyynsha әl-Faraby atyndaghy Qazaq últtyq uniyversiyteti, L.N.Gumiylev atyndaghy Euraziya últtyq uniyversiyteti, E.A.Bóketov atyndaghy Qaraghandy memlekettik uniyversiyteti, Abylay han atyndaghy Qazaq halyqaralyq qatynastar men әlemdik tilder uniyversiyteti, Q.A.Yasauy atyndaghy Halyqaralyq qazaq-týrik uniyversiyteti, «Núr» Islam mәdeniyeti Egiypet uniyversiyteti ghana mamandar dayarlauda. Osydan basqa da Bilim jәne ghylym ministrligi qoldauymen JOO-da dәstýrli dinimizdi tereng oqytyp, keninen qanat jayuyna septigin tiygizetin birneshe pәnder engizilse diny sauat ashudyng tiyimdi joldarynan bolar edi.

         Qoryta kele, qazirgi tanda elimizde halyqtyng әsirese, jastardyng ruhaniy-tanymdyq tәrbiyesin, diny sauattylyghyn arttyru manyzdylyghy kópshilikting auzynda jýr. Qoghamnyng diny ómirining tendensiyalaryn, diny ahualdy eskere otyryp, ony jastargha jetkizip otyru qajet. Kez-kelgen memleketting jarqyn bolashaghy men kemeldenui osy jastardyng bolmysy men sanasyna, mәdeny damuyna, bilim men tәjiriybe dengeyine baylanysty bolady. Sondyqtan jastardyng zamangha say diny bilim dengeylerin arttyryp, dәstýrli qúndylyqtardy saqtau býgingi kýnning basty mәselesi.

Últtyq sipatqa ainalghan dәstýrli Islam men dýniyetanymymyzgha syrttan kelip, týzetu jasaghysy kelgenderge jol bermeuimiz kerek. Óitkeni qazaqqa Islam dinin ýiretuding qajeti joq. Qazaq ejelden Islamdy ózining baytaq dalasynda memlekettik din retinde qabyldap, ony boyyna tereng sinirgeni belgili. Sondyqtan da, bizge Islamdy qaytadan týsindiru júmystaryn emes, ony babalar ústanghan keyipinde qayta janghyrtyp, halyqtyng sauatyn qayta qalyptastyru júmystaryn qolgha alghanymyz jón dep sanaymyn. Sol ýshin qazirgi jahandanu zamanynda qoghamnyng tútastyghyn kózdep, diny sauatsyzdyqtyng aldyn alu tek qana memleketting emes, әrbir Qazaqstan azamatynyn, ziyaly qauymnyn, qoghamdyq úiymdardyng da moynyna jýktelui tiyis.

Naqty islamy diny sauatty jastar sanasyna úyalata alsaq, birinshiden bilimdi jastar jinalghan aqparattardyng qajetin alyp, qajet emesin sýzgiden ótkizip ýirener edi.

Ekinshiden, islamy diny sauatty jas sybaylastyq, jemqorlyq syndy qoghamdyq keselderden aulaq bolar edi.

Ýshinshiden, el sanaty kóbeyip, tastandy, jetim, qarausyz qart mәseleleri kemiytin bolsa, tórtinshiden, óz-ózine qol júmsau, qoghamgha ózin qajetsiz dep tanu syndy keselderden de arylar edik. Nәtiyjesinde jastardyng bilim ayasy kenip, diny jәne últtyq qorghanysh qabatyn qalyptastyryp, kóptegen kedergilerge qarsy túrugha mýmkindik tuady. Áriyne múnyng bәri onay bitetin sharua emes, degenmen el bolashaghynyng jarqyn boluy ýshin aiqyn qadamdar ekeni anyq.

Jalghas Ashatúly

Mәdeniyetter men dinderding halyqaralyq ortalyghy

Taldau bólimining ghylymy qyzmetkeri

Abai.kz

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