Jeksenbi, 5 Jeltoqsan 2021
Janalyqtar 3374 0 pikir 2 Tamyz, 2013 saghat 06:39

Dosay Kenjetay. Qadyr týni...

Qadyr týnining qadirin bilesing be nemese qadir týnining mәni nede... búl súraq Qúranda da bar: «ua ma adraka ma laylat al kadr». Allanyng meyirimi men shapaghatynyng ornaghan kýni. Alla taghala adam balasyna Qúranda aty atalghan jiyrma segiz payghambardy qosqanda jýz jiyrma tórt myng payghambar jibergen eken. Barlyghynyng mindeti haq joldy, dindi, Allanyng bar jәne bir ekendigin pash etu bolatyn. Biraq adam balasy atyna say (adam sózi arabsha insan, yaghny úmytshaq degen maghynagha keledi ) úmytshaqtyqpen osy aqiqatty úmytumen boldy. Osy týni Alla taghala adamzatqa jany ashyp taghy da meyirlenip, ózine barar joldy silteytin haq din Islamnyng mәnin, songhy payghambar arqyly Qúrandy týsirgen edi. Dәl osy ay osy týnde Alla ayattary arqyly adamzattyng býgingi betalysyn retteytin ýlken jýiening negizin jiberdi. Ol negiz Qúranda bolatyn. Aqyl, ghylym jәne erik. Aqyly bar adamda jauapkershilik bolady, erki bar adamda iyelik sezimi bolady, ghylymy bar adamda ólshem bolady. Jauapkershilik adamnyng ózin tanuynan bastalady. Ózin tanyghan adam ghana Allany tanidy. Erikti adam tek Allagha ghana qúl, adamzatqa úl bolyp bar әlemdi ózine tiyesili, qatysty bauyr tuys retinde kóredi. Al ólshemi bar adam osylardyng jaqsy jamanyn ajyratyp, salystyryp, ýsh uaqytty tútastandyryp, Alla, әlem jәne ózin baylanystyra alady. Sonda ghana adam Allanyng Bir jine Bar ústanymyn sezine alady.

Qadyr týnining qadirin bilesing be nemese qadir týnining mәni nede... búl súraq Qúranda da bar: «ua ma adraka ma laylat al kadr». Allanyng meyirimi men shapaghatynyng ornaghan kýni. Alla taghala adam balasyna Qúranda aty atalghan jiyrma segiz payghambardy qosqanda jýz jiyrma tórt myng payghambar jibergen eken. Barlyghynyng mindeti haq joldy, dindi, Allanyng bar jәne bir ekendigin pash etu bolatyn. Biraq adam balasy atyna say (adam sózi arabsha insan, yaghny úmytshaq degen maghynagha keledi ) úmytshaqtyqpen osy aqiqatty úmytumen boldy. Osy týni Alla taghala adamzatqa jany ashyp taghy da meyirlenip, ózine barar joldy silteytin haq din Islamnyng mәnin, songhy payghambar arqyly Qúrandy týsirgen edi. Dәl osy ay osy týnde Alla ayattary arqyly adamzattyng býgingi betalysyn retteytin ýlken jýiening negizin jiberdi. Ol negiz Qúranda bolatyn. Aqyl, ghylym jәne erik. Aqyly bar adamda jauapkershilik bolady, erki bar adamda iyelik sezimi bolady, ghylymy bar adamda ólshem bolady. Jauapkershilik adamnyng ózin tanuynan bastalady. Ózin tanyghan adam ghana Allany tanidy. Erikti adam tek Allagha ghana qúl, adamzatqa úl bolyp bar әlemdi ózine tiyesili, qatysty bauyr tuys retinde kóredi. Al ólshemi bar adam osylardyng jaqsy jamanyn ajyratyp, salystyryp, ýsh uaqytty tútastandyryp, Alla, әlem jәne ózin baylanystyra alady. Sonda ghana adam Allanyng Bir jine Bar ústanymyn sezine alady. Tauhid sonda onyng ruhynda jýzege asyp, sanasy da aqyly da tek Ol dep qaytalay bastaydy. Osy qaytalau adamzattyq jalpy ortaq órkeniyetti qalyptastyrdy. Jalpy dinderding tarihyna qarsanyz islam dini siyaqty adamzatty ýlken transformasiyagha úshyratqan din joq. Býgingi ghylymy jetistikter, tehnologiyalyq, tehnikalyq janalyqtar, psihoanalitikalyq ústanymdar, ruhani, bolmystyq, teologiyalyq taldaular, islam dinining ghylymgha jol ashuy arqyly qalyptasty. Sondyqtan býgingi Batys, Shyghys jәne Budda әlemi sense de senbese de, moyyndasa da moyyndamasa da «Qadyr týninin» mәnine tereng ýnilgeni abzal. Sondyqtan Qúrannyng jeti atynyng biri «al zikr» boldy.

Qadir týni búl «úly ólshem» berilgen kýn. Qadara etistigi arabsha ólshemdi bildiredi. Búl ólshem adamzatqa jaqsy men jamannyn, aq pen qaranyn, jaryq pen zúlmattyn, mahabbat pen ghadauattyn, imandylyq pen asylyqtyng t.s.s. ara jigin ajyratyp bergen kýn. Adamzat tarihy shyndyghynda Qúrannan búrynghy jәne Qúrannan keyingi dep bólinedi. Sebebi tarih tek sayasy oqighalar tizbegi ghana emes, ol adamdyq ruhany әlemining oy sanasynyng tarihy. Adamnyng adam ekendigining ózara teng jaratylghandyghyn, jaratylysynyng bir ekendigin osy Qadyr týni әigiledi. Qala berdi adam jynystary er men әielding de bir ekendigin osy Qadir týni anyqtap berdi. Búryn әiel erden tómen, qúldar men aqsýiekter, nebir kastalar, synyptar, dәrejeler men dengeyler jaratylystan dep kelgen adamzat endi Qúran arqyly olardy da Alla jaratqan dep tanydy. Sol kezendegi Arabiya týbegindegi ahlaqy azghyndyq dengeyin tarihtan oqyp otyryp, Allanyng adamzatty eng tómengi azghyndyq satysynan eng jogharghy moralidyq kemeldikke qalay alyp shyqqandyghyn kóruge bolady. Sol kenistik, sol uaqyt aralyghy, payghambardyng ústazdyghy arqyly Alla adamzatqa meyirimmen ýlgi jol salyp berdi. Býgingi mәsele sol ýlgini alyp, әr últ, qauym óz kenistigining mýmkindikterine qaray jýzege asyruy shart. Ol kenistikte sol elding mәdeniyeti, salty, oilau jýiesi, islamy ýlgidegi qúndylyqtarmen órilui tiyis bolatyn. Al búl ólshemdi tarazylaghysy kelmeytinder men jogharydaghy «ghylym» sipatyna mәn bermeytinder Arabiya týbegining kenistigin (mәdeniyeti, salty, ghúrpy, dýniyetanymy) de osy jerge kóshirgisi keledi. Búl negizgi ólshemdegi paryqsyzdyq emey ne? Allanyng toqsan toghyz sipattaryna qarap onyng bar әlemde, әlemnen, әlemge, әlemderden de qamtu, iyelenu qúdireti bar ekendigin tanydyq. Qúranda «hua al zahiyr, hua al batiyn, hua al ahiyr, hua al auual» yaghni, ol LA makan. Demek qazaq óz kenistiginde de Allanyng qoyghan ólshemderin tarazylap iygeruine bolady eken.  Sondyqtan Qúrannyng jeti atynyng biri «al furkan» boldy.

Qúran — adamzatty qaranghylyqtan núrgha bastaytyn Qúdaylyq rahmet — meyirim kózi, adamgha baqyt jolyn kórsetetin Tәnirding sózi (kalam-logos). Mәdeniyet tarihymyzdy órnektep, qayta qalyptastyrghan da osy Tәniri Sózi (Kalamy-Logos) bolatyn. Óitkeni dәstýrli jabyq qoghamdyq jýiening ornyna adamilanghan qoghamdy ornatu әreketi Qúrangha negizdelgen dinnen bastau alady. Yaghny alghash ret jabyq senim jýielerining ydyrap, ornyna joghary adamdyq oi-sananyng qalyptasqandyghyn kóremiz. Osylaysha Qúran Tәnirding birligi (tauhiyd), qúqyqtyq-moralidyq (kitaptardyn) birlik, qoghamdyq ruhany birlik siyaqty manyzdy qúndylyqtyq múrattardy qalyptastyrdy. Tәnir men adam arasyndaghy ruhany baylanys tikeley imandylyqqa negizdelgen Qúran ýndeuine qatysty. Qúran jeke adam jәne qogham tirshiligi ýshin qajetti qúqyqtyq, sosio-ekonomikalyq, sayasiy-basqaru, etiko-moralidyq jýielerdegi negizgi qaghidalar men ústanymdardy kórsetken. Qúranda oryn alghan eki  manyzdy mәsele – Bir Tәniri senimi (tauhiyd-monizm) men Tәnirding qúdireti, tabighat pen adam jәne Tәnir arasyndaghy baylanystar jýielengen. Qúranda adamnyng kónili (qalby-jýregi) negizinen alghanda tanymnyng kózi nemese tanymgha jetuding qúraly maghynasynda qoldanylghan. Qúran adamdaghy aqyldy “qalb kózi” (kónilding kózi), yaghny Tәnirding jeke mәndik ayany (al-uahi-ul-juziy), al Qúrangha da obektivtik, uniyversaldyq ayan, Álemge de Tәnirding ekinshi kitaby retinde tanytady. Yaghny Birlik ústanymy adam, Qúran jәne әlemdi ózara tútastyqta qaraydy.

Qúran Tәnirding adamdy “halifa” maqamynda jaratqandyghyn aitady. Búl jerdegi halifa úghymy — adamnyng әlemdegi orny men manyzyn anyqtaytyn diny kategoriya. Sózdik úghymy “ókil, orynbasar” maghynasynda aitylsa, al diny terminologiyada “Tәnirding jerdegi ókili, orynbasary” degen eng qúrmetti ataq. Adamnyng múnday jogharghy ataqqa layyq boluynyng syry onyng jaratylys maqsaty men ereksheliginde jatyr. Búl erekshelik adamdy qúndylyq jaratu qabileti men qorshaghan ortasyn úghymdar jәne qúbylystar arqyly maghynalandyryp, mәdeniylendire alatyn aqyl iyesi — bolmys retinde basqa bolmystardan oqshaulap túrady. Qúrandaghy mәlimet boyynsha ruh әleminde Tәnir men adamnyng arasynda “jaratushy-jaratylghan” sipattaryn bildiretin, olardyng ózara maqsaty men mindetin anyqtaytyn, “al-misaq” yaghni, ant, kelisimsóz jýzege asyrylghandy. Adam búl antty Tәnirding jerdegi ókili retinde Jaratushysyn úmytpay, jerdegi adamdyq orny men qyzmetin atqaryp, alghan “amanatty” saqtaymyn dep bergen bolatyn. Búl jerdegi amanat — iman, jauapkershilik, Tәnir jәne adamdardyng haq-qúqyqtary, sóz, aqyl, oilau qabiletin dúrys qoldanu, ar-namysyn saqtaudy bildiredi. Adam osy qabiletterin ornymen dúrys qoldanyp, damyta alghanda ghana halifa degen atqa layyq bolady.

Qúran ayattary adamzattyng birligin, Tәnirding barlyq adamdardyng Jaratushysy ekendigin bildirgennen keyin, mәdeniyet pen qoghamnyn, taypalar men úlystardyng bir negizden payda bolghandyghyn eskertip, olardyng ózara teng súhbat arqyly tútastyqqa, birlikke úlasuyn negizgi maqsat etip kórsetedi. Sondyqtan Tәnir adamzatty qúdaylyq tabighat negizinde ózara teng qylyp jaratqan. Al adamdardyng keyingi qorshaghan ortasy, әleumettik-tarihi, geoklimattyq, әdet-ghúryptyq, mәdeniy-dýniyetanymdyq erekshelikteri Tәnirding teng qylyp jaratu aqiqatyn ózgerte almaydy.

Adam Tәnirge bergen sózinde túryp túrmau mәselesinde qúdaylyq synaqqa senip senbeuinde erikti. Qúranda adam — tandau erkindigi bar, jauapkershilik iyesi, sonymen qatar amanat tasushy bolmys. Sondyqtan da Qúranda kórsetilgen aqiyrettegi iman etushiler (júmaqtaghy) men imansyzdardyng (tamúqtaghy) hәli adamgha degen negizgi eskertu bolyp tabylady.

Adam — jan men tәn jәne aqyldan túratyn birtútas bolmys. Adamnyng tәni topyraqtan, jany Tәnir әleminen berilgendikten, tәn topyraqqa, jan ruhany әlemge, óz negizderine oralugha qúshtar.  Osynday jaqsy men jaman, aq pen qara, tәn men jan, iman men kýpirlik, moyynsúnu men teriske shygharu siyaqty qarama-qayshy qúbylystardy jaratudaghy syrdy Qúran kóptegen ayattarynda týsindiredi. Adam eger erikti bolmasa, synaq jýiesi mәnsiz bolyp shyghar edi. Búl týsindirmelerde qarama-qayshylyqtar men kýresting obektisi adamnyng jaratylys syrynda ekendigi kórinedi. Tәnirding adamnyng tabighatyndaghy qayshylyqtardy ony synaqtan ótkizu jәne onyng kemeldenui men ruhany jogharylauy, Aqiqatty tabuy ýshin qajetti dep tapqan jýiesi. Adamnyng ruhany kemeldenui “topyraq” hәlinen bastalyp, Tәnirge qaray jol alyp jatyr. Iasauiyding hikmetterinde “topyraq bol” dep adamgha jii eskertiluining syry osynda bolsa kerek. Qúran adamnyng ruhany kemeldenuin onyng halifalyq paryzy sonymen qatar qúdaylyq synaqtyng aqiqaty dep qaraydy.

Qúrannyng adamdy basqa bolmystardan erekshe maqamgha shygharuy Tәnirding jaratu kezinde oghan “óz ruhynan ýrlegen” qúdaylyq jauhardyng (substansiya) beriluine baylanysty boluy kerek. Osy qúdaylyq jauhar arqyly adam perishtelerden de joghary Tәnirding halifasy bolugha layyq bolmys retinde jaralghan. Sonymen qatar adam “eng kórkem formada (surette) jәne mazmúnda (siyrette)” jaratylghan eng súlu bolmys. Jaqsylyq pen jamandyqty aiyru qabileti men kýshi de (furqan, tamiiyz) tek adamgha ghana berilip, әlemdegi mýmkindikterding barlyghy adamgha qyzmet etu ýshin jaratylghan. Adamnyng osy potensialdyq mýmkindikterdi óz kәdesine jarata bilui onyng jeke әreketi men qabiletine baylanysty.

Sonymen, Qúranda adamnyng qanday bolmys ekendigi, ómir sýru ortasy men tirshiligining mәni, әlemdegi orny men maqsaty turaly onyng bolmysyn naqtylaytyn tiyanaqty jauaptar bar. Búl jauaptardyng barlyghy adamnyng ruhy men kóniline qatysty psihologiyalyq qúbylystar men quattardy týsinikti әri qarapayym tilmen berilgen. Qúrannyng ýndeui adam sanasyna, ruhy men aqylyna arnalghan. Sondyqtan adamgha tek jýrek, kónil (qalb) arqyly ghana jol tabu mýmkin. Qadir týni ol payghambarymyzdyng mughjizasy Qúrannyng týse bastaghan týni. Alla tarapynan adamgha onyng Alla men әlem arasyndaghy shynayy baylanystyng kilti berilgen týn. Ol kiltti Alla adamgha ústatty. Mine, qazaq  jalpy týrki halyqtarynyng músylmandyq týsinigining negizin qalaushy Iasauy babamyzdyng ilimining basty mәselesining ruh nemese adam boluy da sondyqtan.

Abai.kz

 

0 pikir