Jeksenbi, 22 Mamyr 2022
Janalyqtar 9138 0 pikir 25 Mausym, 2013 saghat 06:38

Quandyq Shamahayúly. Jurnalist shygharmashylyghy

Jurnalist tuyndysynyng sayasaty men onyng negizin qalaytyn taqyrypty, baghyt-baghdaryn jýzege asyrugha ghylymi, publisistikalyq, әdebiy-kórkemdik sekildi adamzat óz tarihynda ómirge keltirgen shygharmashylyqtyng barlyq janrlary men formalary paydalanylady. Jurnalistikanyng barlyq instituttary qoghamdyq týrli kózqarastardyn, tarihy sananyn, tereng tanymnyng ayasynda ózining keleli mindetin janrlargha jýginbeyinshe tolyqtay atqara almaydy. Telearnalar da, redaksiyalar da shygharmashylyqtyng týrli formalaryn belgili dengeyde paydalanady.

Jurnalist tuyndysynyng sayasaty men onyng negizin qalaytyn taqyrypty, baghyt-baghdaryn jýzege asyrugha ghylymi, publisistikalyq, әdebiy-kórkemdik sekildi adamzat óz tarihynda ómirge keltirgen shygharmashylyqtyng barlyq janrlary men formalary paydalanylady. Jurnalistikanyng barlyq instituttary qoghamdyq týrli kózqarastardyn, tarihy sananyn, tereng tanymnyng ayasynda ózining keleli mindetin janrlargha jýginbeyinshe tolyqtay atqara almaydy. Telearnalar da, redaksiyalar da shygharmashylyqtyng týrli formalaryn belgili dengeyde paydalanady.

         Jurnalistikada ghylymy tuyndylar týrleri keninen qoldanylady. Ghylymiy-zertteu әdister arqyly tabylghan materialdardy paydalana otyryp, ghylymy izdenisterding beynesin jasaugha ynghayly aqparattardy halyqqa jetkizedi. Onyng qamtityn ayasy da ken, filosofiyadan ekologiyagha, әdebiyettanudan psihologiyagha deyingi aralyqty qamtidy. Dýniyetanymnan, tarihy tújyrymdardan, ekonomikalyq, diplomatiyalyq, sayasy jәne ózge derek kózderinen, ghylymnyng týrli salalarynan alynghan aqparattar telekórermen qauymgha týsinikti әri tartymdy etilip jetkiziluge tiyis. Olar ýshin qoghamdyq ýderister men әleumettik damudyng zandylyqtary, joldary turaly, qazirgi zaman talabynyng sipattary, sayasi-ekonomikalyq, mәdeniy-ruhany damudyng qozghaushy kýshteri jayyndaghy aqparattardy der kezinde alyp otyru asa manyzdy. Osy sebepten jurnalisting tuyndysy ghylymiy-teoriyalyq,  ghylymiy-tarihi, ghylymi-iydeyalyq jәne ghylymiy-tanymdyq sipatta jasalady. Key jaghdayda telehabar jýrgizuge salanyng ghalymdarynyng kóptep shaqyrylatyndyghy da sondyqtan. Sonymen qatar praktikadaghy jurnalisterding arasynda da týrli salalar boyynsha ghylymi- zertteumen ainalasatyn ghalymdardyng qatary óse týsse dayyndalatyn telehabardyng sapasy arta týseri haq. Onyng tiyimdiligin reseylik telearnalardyng keybir baghdarlamalary kórsetip otyr.

         Jurnalisting kýndelikti júmysynda ústanatyn negizgi ústanymdarynyng biri – ghylymy stilistikanyng tilin iygeru, ghylymy aqparattar men úghymdar, tújyrymdamalardy bilu, ghalymdarmen iskerlik baylanysta teng dәrejede qarym-qatynas jasay bilu. Soghan qaramastan jurnalist óz auditoriyasy ýshin әr qashan әdettegi «qyzmetshi» bolyp qala bermek. Eng bastysy, uaqyt tynysyn dәl beyneleytin ózekti mәseleler men ghylymy bilimning ózara sabaqtastyghyn sezine biletin, ony kórermen qauymgha layyqty týrde kórsete alatyn dengeyde qalyptasugha tiyis.

         Ádebiy-kórkem, oiyn-sauyq baghdarlamalardyng televiziyada alar orny erekshe. Búl túrghydan kelgende, otandyq telearnalar qamshy saldyrmaytyn dengeyge jetip qalghan. Telearnalar baghdarlamasynda kórkemdik tuyndylardyng basym týsip jatqandyghynan múny angharu qiyn emes.  Jurnalistikada kórkem tuyndylardyng ózindik alar orny  men atqaratyn mindeti bar. Múnday tuyndylardyng da auditoriyanyng dýniyetanymyn qalyptastyruda róli orasan. Sebebi kórkem tuyndylar arqyly biz ótkennin, býginning jәne keleshekting beynesin jasaymyz, ómir shyndyghy men túrmystyq kórinisterding shartty týrdegi derekterin kónilge qonymdy etip úsynamyz.

         Kórkem tuyndylar – aqparat qabyldaushylargha qogham ómirining quanyshty, shuaq shashqan sәuleli tústaryn lirika arqyly sezinuge, kónil shattyghyn syilaugha, ómirdegi qadamdaryn dúrys tabularyna zor yqpal etedi. Olay bolsa, televiziya salasyna kórkemdik bilimi joghary, talghamy biyik, daryndy óner mamandary auaday qajet. Sebebi, kórkemdik tuyndylardy tandau, oghan tapsyrys beru ýshin de jurnalisting óner men shygharmashylyqty tanu biliktiligi men tuyndynyng kýrdeli qyrlaryn sezinetin daryn-qabileti bolugha tiyis.

         Telejurnalist óner tuyndylaryn efir arqyly kórermenge jetkizudi úiymdastyrushynyng dengeyinde qalyp qoygha tiyis emes. Kórermenge úsynylatyn kino, spektakli, konsert, kórkem-publisistikalyq kórsetilimder, derekti filimder, týrli óner tuyndylarynyng kórmeleri men tuyndygerding sheberligi jayyndaghy arnayy reportajdardyng bәri de jurnalisten belgili bir mәtindi talap etedi. Ádebiy-kórkem, óner tuyndylaryn baghdarlamagha dayyndaudyng ózi jurnalisten erekshe sezim men ony týsine bilu týisikti talap etedi. Ásirese, sazdy әuennen túratyn jeke telehabarlar, sazgerler men kórkem óner sheberleri jayynda telefilim, múrajay, tarihy eskertkishter, mýsin tuyndylary jayynda baghdarlamalar dayarlaghanda jogharydaghy talap tipten kýsheye týspek. Sondyqtan, telejurnalist ýshin ónertanushy mamandyghy da kәsiby qyzmetting dengeyine qoyylady.

         Jalpy jurnalistika ýshin ghylymy jәne әdebiy-kórkem tuyndylardyng manyzy aitarlyqtay bolghanymen publisistika bәribir aldynghy orynda túrmaq. Sebebi, «publisistika tuyndy jasaudyng belgili bir formasy retinde qoghamdyq pikirge «qyzmet kórsetu» maqsatymen payda bolghan. Sondyqtan, kópting oi-pikirin beyneleu әri ózara yqpaldasu onyng basty mindeti» [12]. Olay bolsa, publisistikanyng dýniyetanym men tarihy sanamen baylanysty aqparatty ózinde saqtaytyndyghymen sanasugha tiyispiz.

         Publisistika – (latynnyng publicus – kóptin, halyqtyn, búqaranyng degen maghynany bildiretin sózi) erekshe tuyndy týri retinde adamzat tarihymen birge jasasyp kele jatqan úghym. Alayda, búl sóz Europa elderi men Reseyge HIH ghasyrdyng bastapqy jartysynda jetti. Býginge deyin ghalymdar publisistika sózin әrtýrlishe týsindirip keldi. Bir toby qoghamdyq-sayasy taqyryptaghy barlyq tuyndyny publisistikagha jatqyzsa, keybiri halyqqa arnalghan sayasy jazbalardy, ýshinshi toby pikirsayys sipatyndaghy ótkir tuyndylardy, tórtinshi bóligi jurnalistikadaghy ocherk nemese reportajdan ózge maqalalardy publisistika dep atap jýr. 

         Ár tuyndy ózindik qúndylyghyn saqtaydy. Teletuyndy baghdarlamadan óz ornyn alghanda ghana shynayy mәnge ie bolyp, tereng manyzgha enedi. Publisistika әleumettik ómirding barlyq salasyndaghy ayasy keng taqyryptaryn ótkir mәselelerimen qosa aqparat qabyldaushy qauymgha jetkizgende ghana óz mindetin atqarmaq.

         Ótip jatqan oqighanyng obiektivti beynesi publisistikada oy tolghanystyq túrpatyndaghy subiektivtik baghytta kórinis tabady. Anyghyraq aitqanda, tek derekti ghana emes, sonymen qatar ol jayyndaghy kózqaras ta jetkiziledi. Ár BAQ óz aqparattyq sayasattaryna qaray ómirding sanqily órnekterin jasap, týrlishe bagha berip jatady. Sondyqtan әr telearnanyng kórsetiliminde belgili bir oqigha әr qyrynan basqasha sipatta kórinis tauyp jatsa tanqalarlyq jaghday emes. Eng bastysy, belgili bir telearnanyng payymdaghan beyne kórsetilimining ózgelerden qanday aiyrmashylyghy bar degenge nazar audarylmaq. Eger eldegi onshaqty arnanyng bir-birinen aiyrmashylyqtary bolmay qaytalaumen ghana shektelse, onda olardyng әr birinde shygharmashylyq izdenisting toqyraushylyqqa úshyraghandyghy.

         Qazirgi zaman tarihynyng qas qaghym sәtin kórermenge der kezinde jetkizgende, ýnemi qozghalys ýstindegi damu ýrdisti, ýzilissiz jalghasyp jatqan oqigha tizbekteri men ómir aghynyn kórsetkende onyng sebep, saldaryna, ishki qyr-syryna tereng ýnilu, ózara qarym-qatynasy men sabaqtastyghyn anyqtau qajet bolady. Onyng ózi shyn mәninde op-onay shaghyla salatyn janghaq emes. Alayda, osy kýrdeli qiyndyqtyng ózi  oqighany beyneleu, oghan bagha beru syndy shygharmashylyqtyng jauapkershiliginen telejurnalistikany arashalap alady desek qatty qatelesken bolar edik. Kerisinshe, salmaqty oy men payymdy, asqan saqtyq pen alghyrlyqty talap etedi. Kýnbe kýngi oqigha túrmaq әbden ii qanghan ondaghan jyl búrynghy kórinisterge bagha bergenning ózinde tarihshylarymyz onyng sipaty men manyzdylyghy jayynda qyzyl kenirdek bolyp aitysyp-tartysyp jatpaytyn ba edi. 

          Qoghamdyq ómir kórinisterin beynelegende onyng ary qaray damuy men ózgeristerin kelesi telehabarlarda tolyqtyryp otyru manyzdy bolmaq. Múnday payymdaudyng mәni naqty jaghdaygha sәikestirilgen shyndyqty tabugha baghyttalatyndyghy bolyp otyr.

         Qoghamdyq pikir әrdayym ómir kórinisteri jayynda birúday payymdy talap etip otyrady. Sondyqtan telehabar da oqigha, kórinisterdi tolyqtay qamtyp, ony jiyntyq sipatynda qarastyrugha tiyis.  Yaghni, oqighanyng sipatyn beynelep kórsetkende kezeng kelbetinine sayasi-ekonomikalyq, qúqyqtyq, estetikalyq, etikalyq, filosofiyalyq jaghynan keluding manyzy zor bolmaq. Belgili bir oqigha, kórinisti qarastyrghanda jogharyda atalghan baghyttardyng qaysybirining artyqshylyghy basym týsken jaghdayda taqyrypqa say publisistikalyq tuyndynyng jazylatyn janry men kórsetiletin formasy aiqyndalatyndyghymen erekshelenedi.

         Publisistikalyq tuyndynyng taghy bir erekshe sipaty – sinkretizm. Búl degenimiz belgili bir tuyndyda ghylymi, әdebiy-kórkemdik, kónil tolqytar lirikalyq beyneleuding jәne qarapayym әri týsinikti bayandaudyng jan-jaqty qoldanyluy. Múnyng ózi qoghamdyq oy men pikirge qaratylghan obiektivti jaghdaydyng sipattarymen baylanysty. Ártýrli jaghdayda jasalghan publisistikalyq әr aluan tuyndylarda qarapayym әri týsinikti bayandau men kórkem shygharmashylyq tәsilding ózara qatynasy ózgerip otyrsa da ekeuining de belgili dengeyde qatar qoldanylatyny basy ashyq әngime.

         Publisistikalyq tuyndy degenimiz obiektivti jaghdaydyng sanqily sipattary men elementterin týrli tәsildermen beyneleu is әreketting nәtiyjesinde payda bolatyn ýrdis. Onyng ózi ómir suretterin әrtýrli janrlardyng kómegimen jasaghan materialdardan túrady. Janrlar әrtýrli bolumen qatar birneshe toptargha bólinedi. Aqparattyq (reporterlik) tuyndylar (zametka, otchet, súhbat, reportaj) negizinen kýndelikti kórinisterdi oqigha arqyly kórermenge jetkizip, oghan qatysushylar men kuәgerlerding oilary men pikirlerin, lebizderin aighaqtau tәsilmen jasalady. Múnday janrlar derekterge basa nazar audarady jәne meylinshe jedel әri jurnalisting kommentariyin az mólsherde ghana qoldanudy talap etedi. Taldamaly janrlar tobynyng (korrespondensiya, maqala, resenziya, sholu, kommentariy) negizgi maqsaty ómir kórinisterining mazmúnyn, sebep, saldarlaryn, publisistikalyq tәsilmen aiqyndau, ishki syrlaryn ashyp kórsetu, ózekti mәselelerin taldap, zerttey otyryp sheshimin tabudyng jolyn izdeu, anyqtau bolmaq. «Kórkem-publisistikalyq janrlar (ocherk, felieton, pamflet, esse, joljazba) qazirgi zaman tarihy keyipkerlerining tiptik obrazyn jasau, ómir kelbetin jeke túlghalardyng ereksheligi, olardyng әreketi arqyly kórsetu, obiektivti jaghdaydy kórkemdik tәsilmen aiqyndaudy maqsat etedi».

         Reportajda oqighany taldaudyng alghashqy qadamy jasalyp, oghan qatysushylardy belgili dengeyde beynelese, maqalada nemese arnayy jasalghan telebaghdarlamada onyng derekterimen qatar sipattary, ishki syrlary da aishyqtalatyndyghymen erekshelenedi. Degenmen әr janrlar tobynyng basty nazarynda ózine sәikesken oqigha, kórinisterge say tuyndygerding minez qúlqy da kórinis tabatyndyghyn eskeruge tiyispiz. Sayyp kelgende, televiziya publisistikasy kýndelikti ómirdegi shynayy jaghdaydy kórermen aldyna shyghara otyryp, onyng ayasyndaghy tújyrym dar payymdardy qoghamdyq tarihy sanagha óz izin qaldyrarlyqtay etip, telekórermenning dýniyetanymyn qalyptastyrugha yqpal etuge tiyis.

         Jurnalistikadaghy shygharmashylyqtyng basty modeli retinde publisistika ózge janrlargha mindetti týrde әser etedi. Múny jurnalistika shygharmashylyghyndaghy publisistikalyq sipat dep tanimyz jәne onyng ózi ghylymi, kórkemdik tuyndylardy publisistikalyq túrpatpen bayytyp, ózekti mәselelerdi kórermenderding kýndelikti  súranystaryna say jetkizu bolyp tabylady. Myqty publisist bolu ýshin әriyne, is qyzmet ayasynda zertteu jýrgizu, daryn men qabiletting basymdyghy, qoghamdyq oigha belsendi qyzmet kórsetu erik kýsh óte manyzdy. Alayda, múnyng bәri jetkiliksiz. Eng bastysy, әdistemelik mәdeniyetti iygeruding mәni zor bolady. Sonyng negizinde ghana daryn qabilet, eren enbek tabysty әri tiyimdi jýzege asady.

         Ádisteme nemese metodologiya – shygharmashylyq mindetterdi tiyimdi jýzege asyrugha mýmkindik beretin belgili is qyzmet ayasyndaghy negizgi sipat, jýie men baghyt-baghdar turaly bilim kesheni. Jurnalisting әdistemelik mәdeniyeti - ózara tyghyz sabaqtasatyn biliktilik pen qabilettilikting tórt salalyq baghytynan túrady. Atap aitqanda, qoghamdyq tanymnyng jalpy әdistemesi, jurnalistikanyng negizgi әdistemesi, emprikalyq týrde derek tabu әdistemesi jәne tabylghan derek pen janalyq nysandaryn óndeu, týsindiru әdistemesi.

         Qoghamdyq-sayasy ózge qayratkerler siyaqty jurnalisting de mәdeny әdistemelik negizin qoghamdyq tanymnyng jalpy әdistemesi qúraydy. Onyng yadrosy jurnalisting ústanatyn әleumettik filosofiyasy, yaghni, qoghamdyq damu men is qyzmetke baza bolatyn zandar, zandylyqtar jayyndaghy payymdaulardyng jýiesi. Sonymen qatar oghan ekonomika, sayasat, menedjment, basqaru teoriyasy, qúqyq, etika, dintanu sekildi gumanitarlyq ghylymdar bilimi jatqyzylady. Jurnalist tanym, logika, sosiologiya, әleumettik psihologiya, tariyh, ónertanu, әdebiyet salasy boyynsha jýieli bilim almayynsha ilgeri bir qadam da attay almaydy. Belgili bir sala boyynsha jurnalist mamandanghan kezding ózinde  sol salanyng qyr-syryna terendep boylaytyn ghylymy dәristerge jýginuine tura keledi. Qysqasy, jurnalistikanyng salalanuy men jurnalisterding mamandanuynyng arqasynda BAQ qyzmetkerleri qogham ómirining belgili bir salasyn bes sausaghynday tereng biletin, sol baghyttaghy iri «qoghamdyq oishylgha» ainalady degen sóz.

         Jurnalist shygharmashylyghynyng jәne tanymynyng talapqa say kelmeui qoghamgha kóptegen eleuli zardap әkeledi. Aytalyq, shygharmashylyq júmysty negizsiz әri baghytsyzdyqqa úryndyrady, ómir kórinisterin syrttay sipay qamshylap qana beyneleuine iytermeleydi. Osynyng saldarynan aqparat qabyldaushylardy adastyratyn qate tújyrymdar men payymdaular jasaugha deyin jetkizetin jaghymsyz jaqtary bar.

         Jurnalisting әdistemelik mәdeniyetin qúraytyn ekinshi bir faktor jurnalistikanyng negizgi әdistemesi. Búghan jurnalist shygharmashylyghy barysynda mindetti týrde qoldanylatyn búqaralyq aqparat qyzmeti bolyp tabylatyn jurnalistika jayyndaghy barlyq bilimning jiyntyghy, aqparattyng sipattary, funksiyalarynan bastap shygharmashylyq qyzmet zandary, zandylyqtaryna deyingi salanyng barlyq bilimi jatqyzylady. Osy bilimdi qoldanu jurnalistikanyng ereksheligin, sipatyn tolyqtay týsinuge, shygharmashylyq izdenister jasaugha yqpal etumen birge әleumettik tanymnyng jalpy әdistemesine eleuli ýles qosady, ony salanyng spesifikasyna sәikestiruding mýmkindigin beredi. Anyghyraq aitsaq, publisistikanyng ereksheligi men sipattary jayyndaghy bilim tarihi, logikalyq, kórkemdik, ghylymiy-tanymdyq zandardy jәne tanymnyng anyq әri jýieli, praktikamen jiti astasatyn prinsipterin iskerlikpen qoldanugha mýmkindik beredi, onyng tәsilderin iygeruge yqpal etedi.

         Jurnalist әdistemesi mәdeniyetining ýshinshi salasy emprikalyq derekter jinau men qabyldau tәsilderi. Oghan bayqau jasau, saualnamalar jýrgizu (súhbattasu, anketalyq súraular salu), derekterdi zertteu (resmi, jeke t.s.s.), qajet jaghdayda eksperiymentter jasau (naqty, modeldik, oy eleginen ótkizu arqyly) biliktilik pen qabilettilikter jatqyzylady. Derek jinau qyzmetting ayasyna kitaphana, múraghattargha otyru, derekter jiyntyghyn jasau (dosie), belgileu jazbalar jasau, ony senimdi týrde jariyalau ýshin tabylghan aqparatty dәiekteu tәsilderi enedi.

         Jurnalisting qolyna týsken әrbir san, mәlimet, aqparat, material ataulynyng bәri derek bola almaydy. Derek degenimiz, birinshiden, shynayy týrde bolyp ótken dýniyeni beyneleytin, tekseruge bolatyn (verifikasiya) aqparattyq material. Sonymen qatar dәiektendirilgen aqparatty (mәlimetting kóshirmeleri, súhbattyng rastalghan mәtini, kitap nemese maqalalardan alynghan resmy siltemeler t.b.) naqty aqparat kózinen alynghan derekpen salystyryp, alyp qashpa jel sózderden ajyratu manyzdy. Eger dәl osylay dәiektendirilmegen jaghdayda ony paydalanu kerek bolsa mindetti týrde resmy týsinikteme qosa berilgeni dúrys.

         Ekinshiden, derekting atqaratyn róli aitarlyqtay jәne onyng nysany manyzy tereng oqighalar, mәlimdemeler, is әreketter. Derekting sipaty turaly mәseleni jurnalisting qoghamdyq pozisiyasymen, әdistemelik baghytymen tikeley baylanysty týsindiruge bolady. Eger jurnalisting әdistemelik pozisiyasy dúrys bolmasa aqparat jinauda da, oghan bagha berude de teris tújyrym jasaugha iytermeleydi. Onyng saldarynan qoghamda jalghan derekter etek jayyp, onyng sony aiyqpas dau-damaygha, shugha úlasyp ketui mýmkin.

         Jurnalist әdistemesining tórtinshi aumaghy jinalghan derekterdi týsindiru, oghan bagha beru, baghyt silteu, tújyrym jasau, tuyndynyng dýniyetanymy men naqty mazmúnyn jasau tәsili. Týsindiru tәsili degenimiz derekterdi kórinispen biriktiru, týrli jaghdaylardyn  arasyn baylanystyru, әrbirining ornyn belgileu, mazmúnyn anyqtau, oqighanyng qalay órbuine, qogham ómirindegi maghynasyna say bagha beru, shynayy negizdi tújyrym jasau.  Kýndilikti ómirding tynys-tirshiligine layyqty bagha beruding ózi әdistemening alghysharty. Sebebi, qoghamdyq damudyng zandylyqtaryn tereng týsinu arqyly ghana shynayy negizdi tújyrym jasaugha bolady.

         Jurnalistika men publisistika qyzmetining әdistemesi jayyndaghy teoriyalyq bilim tuyndy jasau barysynda ómirde jýzege asyrylatyndyghymen erekshelenedi. Belgili bir tuyndy jasau, shygharmashylyq isti bastaudyng sebebi, alghashqy qadamy – redaksiyanyng tapsyrmasy, jurnalisting nazaryn audarghan mәsele, qoghamdyq tapsyrys, kezdeysoq әngime, bayqalghan tosyn qúbylystar sekildi faktorlar bolady. Osynday alghashqy qadamdy «qozdyrushy mehanizm» dep te ataydy. Sebebi, osynday bastamanyng arqasynda jurnalist óz bilimi men әleuetin, jinaqtaghan tәjiriybesin, shygharmashylyq enbektegi mýmkindigin, qabilet-qarymyn sarqa paydalanyp qozghalysqa engizedi. Anyghynda, jurnalisting әdistemelik mәdeniyeti onyng shygharmashylyq júmysy bastalghanda iske asyrylady.

         Ádisteme mәdeniyetining damuy, shygharmashylyqtyng belgili jaghdayynyng eerksheligiine say materialdy iygeru, oy eleginen ótkizuden bastalyp, bolashaq tuyndynyng týrli núsqalaryn jasau, әli de anyqtalmaghan mәni men mazmúnyn elestetuge úlaspaq. Onyng mәni eng aldymen keleshek tuyndynyng mazmúnyn, taqyryby yaghni, tema (grekting thema – negizin qalaushy degen sózi) bayandalugha tiyis ómir kórinisterining jiyntyghy; jandy materialdar arqyly tuyndaytyn ózekti problema (grekting problema – mindet, algha qozghaushy degen sózi); negizgi aitar oiy nemese iydeyasy (grekting idea – bilim, oy sana degen sózi) bolatyn obiektivti jaghdaydyng kórinisteri turaly derek, materialdaryna negizdep kóterip otyrghan mәseleni sheshu barysynda dәleldenetin tújyrym, kózqaras, pikir sekildilerdi anyqtaydy. Sonymen qatar tolyqqandy bolmasa da tuyndynyng formasy turaly payym men boljam týrli núsqada jasalyp, janr, kompozisiya, til stilidi de qamtidy.

         Alghashqy kezende mazmún men formany qúraytyn boljam nemese gipoteza (grekting hypothesis – yqtimaldy negiz, payym degen sózi) dengeyinde sheshimning mýmkindigi men payymdau týrindegi núsqa ghana bolmaq. Onyng kóptigi keri әser etpeydi, kerisinshe, tuyndygerding kelesi qadamdaryna dayar túrghan jana derekterin rettteuine kómektesedi. Tughan iydeyany damytu, ózgertu, anyqtau jәne ony tolyq jetildirilgen dýniyetanymnyng dengeyine kóteru ýshin týrli boljammen júmys isteuding ózi shygharmashylyq isting sipatyn anyqtaytyn әdistemelik mәdeniyetting negizinde jýriledi.

         Eger shygharmashylyq mindetti atqarugha dayyndyq jetkiliksiz bolsa, qosymsha әzirlik qajet bolady. Keyde ústanghan baghytty ózgertuge de tura kelui mýmkin. Publisist onday jaghdayda ómir kórinisterin basqasha zerttep tanuy qajet bolady. Nәtiyjesinde, tuyndynyng sapasyn arttyryp, mazmún men formanyng birligin qamtamasyz etuge mýmkindik tabady.

         Jurnalisting tuyndy jasau isining aqyrghy satysy telehabardyng mәtini nemese telessenariyin jazu desek, ol da әdistemelik mәdeniyet negizinde jasalmaq. Mәtin jasau isting barysy men nәtiyjesi jurnalisting jeke shygharmashylyghyndaghy iskerligine, júmys tәjiriybesine, daryn qabiletine, fantaziyalyq týisigine, sezim men psihologiyalyq ereksheligine baylanysty. Ádisteme mәdeniyetin iygeru, shygharmashylyq qabilet pen daghdyny qalyptastyryp damytu zor enbekpen keledi. Shygharmashylyq júmystyng zandylyqtaryn tanu, publisistika zergerlerining zerthanasyna enip, olardyng tuyndy jasau tәsilderinen, tәjiriybelerinen ýirenu, óz qarym-qabiletin jetildirip damytu, oilaudyng tiyimdi tústaryn iygeru isi ýzilissiz jalghasugha tiyis. Shygharmashylyq isting alghashqy kezeninde jurnalist telearnanyng redaktorlau, úiymdastyru, tuyndy jasau júmystyng tehnologiyasyn iygeredi. Osylaysha, telejurnalistika tәsilderinin, praktikalyq qyzmetting alghashqy maghlúmaty men qabileti qalyptasady.

         Osy kezden bastap, jurnalisting ómir tәjiriybesimen synaqtan ótken daryn-qabileti men biliktiligining arqasynda mamandyqtyng kelesi kezenine auysady. Jurnalistikanyng naghyz kәsiby ónerin iygeru qajettiligi osy kezde tuyndaydy. Atalmysh óner mamandyqty is jýzinde iygeru, óz kәsibine jýrek qalauymen berilu, jurnalistikadaghy óz ornyn belgileu isine sheshushi ról atqarady. Sonymen qatar osy tústa jurnalist tuyndysynyng kelbeti men ózindik eerksheligi aiqyndalady.

         Tehnologiyalyq tәsilderdi adam ózi mýddeli bolsa tez iygeredi. Al, jurnalistik óner enbek etu barysynda mengeriledi. Shygharmashylyq júmystyng eng jogharghy satysy bolyp tabylatyn sheberlikti daryn iyeleri ózining bar әleuetin joghary dengeyde sarqa paydalanudyng arqasynda ghana qalyptastyrady. Shyn daryndy jurnalist degenimizding ózi qoghamdyq pozisiyasyn qalyptastyrghan, maman retinde myqty dayyndyqtan ótken, әdistemelik mәdeniyetin tolyq iygergen túlgha. Osy ýsh qasiyetting tútastyghy, ózara yqpaldastyghy jurnalist sheberligining dengeyin anyqtaytyn basty faktorlar. 

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