Júma, 20 Mamyr 2022
Janalyqtar 3633 0 pikir 6 Mausym, 2013 saghat 18:21

Halyqtyng teng jartysyn joghaltu – últtyq qasiret

Býginde asharshylyq pen sayasy qughyn-sýrgin mәselesine ortaq sayasy ba­gha berilip jýr. Alayda qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryna qaraghanda asharshylyq jyldary qyrylghan halyq sany eki-ýsh esege kóp. Óitkeni qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary sayasy jýiege qarsy shyqqandar, al halyq osy jýiening qúrbandary. Sonda da asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alu әli eskerilmey keledi. Tarihshy ghalym Talas Omarbekov zúlmat jyldardyng tyng derekterimen bólisti. 

 

31 mamyr – sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary kýni. Osy joqtau kýnine asharshylyq ta, Úly terrorlyq kýni de bir joqtaugha toptastyrylghan. Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn joqtau kýnining tasasynda Asharshylyq qúrbandary әli de atau­syz qalyp keledi. 

– Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin men asharshylyq ekeui eki bólek tarihy oqigha. Kópshilik búl úghymdy tolyq týsinbey, bir úghymgha syighyzyp jýr. Ol – Alash qozghalysynyng qayratkerlerin qughyndau, 1929-31 jylghy halyq kóterilisterinde atylghandar, bay-kulaktardy tap retinde qughyndau, týrli sosialistik zandar boyynsha sottalghandar, deportasiyagha úshyraghandar, 1936-39 jyldar aralyghynda Ýlken terror dep atylghan partiya jәne memleket qayratkerlerin joqtau kýni. 50 jyldardyng basynda Stalin ómirden ozghansha búl qudalaular jalghasa berdi. Qazir asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eshkim atap ótpeydi, óitkeni sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary ghana aitylady. 

Býginde asharshylyq pen sayasy qughyn-sýrgin mәselesine ortaq sayasy ba­gha berilip jýr. Alayda qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryna qaraghanda asharshylyq jyldary qyrylghan halyq sany eki-ýsh esege kóp. Óitkeni qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary sayasy jýiege qarsy shyqqandar, al halyq osy jýiening qúrbandary. Sonda da asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eske alu әli eskerilmey keledi. Tarihshy ghalym Talas Omarbekov zúlmat jyldardyng tyng derekterimen bólisti. 

 

31 mamyr – sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary kýni. Osy joqtau kýnine asharshylyq ta, Úly terrorlyq kýni de bir joqtaugha toptastyrylghan. Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandaryn joqtau kýnining tasasynda Asharshylyq qúrbandary әli de atau­syz qalyp keledi. 

– Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin men asharshylyq ekeui eki bólek tarihy oqigha. Kópshilik búl úghymdy tolyq týsinbey, bir úghymgha syighyzyp jýr. Ol – Alash qozghalysynyng qayratkerlerin qughyndau, 1929-31 jylghy halyq kóterilisterinde atylghandar, bay-kulaktardy tap retinde qughyndau, týrli sosialistik zandar boyynsha sottalghandar, deportasiyagha úshyraghandar, 1936-39 jyldar aralyghynda Ýlken terror dep atylghan partiya jәne memleket qayratkerlerin joqtau kýni. 50 jyldardyng basynda Stalin ómirden ozghansha búl qudalaular jalghasa berdi. Qazir asharshylyq qúrbandaryn eshkim atap ótpeydi, óitkeni sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary ghana aitylady. 

Qazaqstandaghy barlyq qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandarynyng sany asharshylyqta qyrylghan halyqtyng jartysyna da jetpeydi. Birinshi asharshylyq 1921-22 jyly 1 millionnan astam halyqty jalmasa, ekinshi asharshylyqta 2 million ýsh jýz myng adam qyryldy. Eki asharshylyqty qosqanda 3 millionnan asyp jyghylady. Sayasy qughyn-sýrgin qúrbandary sany jaghynan, demografiyalyq jaghynan asharshylyqtan әldeqayda az. Áriyne, ruhany túrghydan halqymyzdyng betke ústarlaryn joghaltu auyr azap. Biraq asharshylyqta biz halyqtyng ózinen airylyp qala jazdadyq emes pe? Halyqty qan qaqsatqan eki asharshylyqta qyrylghan qúrbandargha Qúran oqylyp, as berilui kerek. Búl – qazaqtyng jartysyn jalmaghan asharshylyq. Halyqtyng teng jartysyn joghaltu – últtyq qasiret. Endeshe memleket Últtyq Qasiret kýnin belgileu kerek. Qasiret kýnine arnap barlyq jerlerde eskertkishter ashylu kerek. Býginde Asharshylyq qúrbandaryna arnalghan memorial Astanada ghana bar. Bir eleusiz kóshede ólip qalghan atyn jýgeninen sýirep túrghan bala beynelengen. «Mәngilik alau» eskertkishi respublikanyng barlyq ónirlerinde boldy, mine sol siyaqty keler úrpaqtyng esine salar eskertkishter ornatylsa lәzim. Basqa halyq bolsa jylyna bir ret jinalyp, joqtau aitady. Halqymyz sol joqtaudy aita almay otyr. Ýnsizdik jariyalap, jalaudy tómen salbyratyp joqtau aitu kerek. Sonda óskeleng úrpaq búl súmdyq qasiretti bilip, qaytalanbas ýshin qoldan kelgendi jasaytyn edi. Búl – naghyz tarihy sabaq, taghylym. Asharshylyq kesapaty birneshe jylgha sozyldy... 

– Asharshylyq qay tarihy oqighadan órbidi jәne ýsh jyldyng ishinde qazaq dalasyn tegis sharpyp ýlgerdi?

– 1925 jyly Goloshekinning qazaq jerine kelgen Kishi Qazan nauqanynan bastalady. Kishi qazandy keybireuler «kollektivtendiru» nemese «újymdastyru» dep shatastyrady. Kishi qazan shyn mәninde kollektivtendiru emes, ol negizinen ýsh nauqannan túrady. Alghashqysy – qazaq auy­lyn kenestendiru nauqany, yaghny rulyq auyldardaghy baylardyn, aqsaqaldardyng qolynan biylikti tartyp alyp, olardyng ornyna jalanayaq, jalshydan shyqqan sholaqbelsendilerdi auylnay qylyp taghayyndau. Ekinshi nauqan – 1926-27 jyldary shabyndyq, jayylymdyq jerlerdi qayta bólu. Rulyq auyldardaghy jer, jayylymdar baydyng menshiginde bolghandyqtan, kedey-kepshikke qaytaryp beru kerek dep oilady Goloshekiyn. Shyn mәninde búl nauqan sәtsizdikke úshyrady. Ekinshi nauqan – Goloshekinning nadandyghynan, bilimsizdiginen tuyndaghan nauqan bolatyn. Qazaq auylynda jerge jekemenshik bolmaghan, qauymdyq menshik bolghan. Osyny Goloshekin týsine qoyghan joq, al onyng tónireginde otyrghan Oraz Jandosov, Nyghmet Núrmaqov, Jalau Mynbaev sekildi azamattar Goloshekinge búl mәselening bayybyn әdeyi týsindirip aitqan joq. Óitkeni Goloshekin qatelikten song qatelik jasasyn, sonan song Mәskeu ony tezdetip alyp ketedi dep ýmittendi qazaq basshylary. Al búl nauqan barysynda qazaqtyng rulyq auylyna barghan jer bólushiler qiyndyqqa úshyrady. Óitkeni olardyng jerdi ólsheytin qúraly da bolghan joq. Úzyn-úzyn arqanmen ólshedi, arbanyng dóngelegine belgi salyp, arbany aidap ótti. Arba dóngelegi qansha ret ­aynalsa, kedey-kepshikke sonsha jer bólip berdi. Áriyne qazaq auyly múny kýlkili, sayqymazaq shara retinde qabyldady. Jerding iyesi bay ghana emes, sol auyldyng barlyghy ege. Óitkeni bir auylda 15 ýy bolsa, olardyng bәri bir atanyng balalary. Jayylym kedeyge, baygha ortaq boldy. Goloshekin osyny týsine almady, oghan onyng aqyly da, tәjiriybesi de jetpedi. Áriyne búl eki shara óz nәtiyjesin bergen joq. Birinshiden, qazaq auylyna auylnay bop taghayyndalghan sholaqbelsendiler auyldy basqara almady, óitkeni aqsaqaldar otyrghanda halyq keshegi jalshyny qaydan tyndasyn? Osy qalyptasqan jaghdayda Goloshekin qazaqtyng baylaryn qúrtu kerek dep oilady. Qazaqtyng asa iri baylarynyng yqpalyn azaytu ýshin kәmpeskeleu kerek. Kәmpeskeleu turaly jobany Mәskeuge jibergen kezde «Qazaq baylarynyng mýlkin nasionalizasiyalau» dep jazyldy. IY.Stalin ony qalamsabymen syzyp tastap, ornyna «konfiskasiya» sózin jazyp qoydy. 1928 jyly «Qazaq baylaryn kәmpeskeleu» nauqanyna Stalinning tikeley aralasqan jaghdayy bar. Kishi Qazannyng eng auyr, qasiretti sharasy – qazaq baylaryn menshiginen, yaghny maldan aiyru. Malynan aiyryp qoymay, kózin qúrtugha kóshti. Olardy basqa alys oblystargha jer audardy, qamaugha aldy, ýiqamaqqa saldy. 1930 jyly bastalghan býkil Kenester odaghyndaghy bay-kulaktardy tap retinde joygha úlasty. Olardyng kóbisi barghan jerlerinde ashtan qyrylyp qaldy, aman qalghandary keyingi qughyn-sýrgin nauqandarynda ólip ketti. Kýni býginge deyin tiri qalghan qazaq bayyn bilmeymiz. 1928 jyly mynnan astam qazaqtyng mal iyeleri kәmpeskelendi. (Olardyng ishinde әr týrli túlghalar boldy, mysaly Abaydyng balasy Túraghúl da 1934 jyly Shymkentte qaytys boldy). Kәmpeske qughyn-sýrginining auyr saldary 1929 jyldyng ayaghynda jappay újymdastyrudan bastaldy.

– Asharshylyq osy újymdastyrudan bastalady dep bilemiz tarihtan... Sol kýshtep újymdastyru Kenester odaghynyng barlyq elinde boldy emes pe?

– Asharshylyq – býkil elge kelgen nәubet. Biraq Qazaqstannyng qasireti mynada boldy. Iri baylar sharuashylyqtan airyldy, ekinshiden kýshtep újymdastyru zorlap otyryqshylandyrugha ainaldy. Kóshpeli jәne jartylay kóshpeli sharualardy jappay otyryqshylandyru, mәdeniyetti týrde barlyq qauly-qararda tapsyryldy. Tipten jarty jyldyng ishinde maldan júrday bolyp shyqty. Mal – ortaq qoragha qamaldy. Mal bir jerde bolsa, kóshpeli halyq qayda barady, sonyng qasyna kiyiz ýiin tigip, mәjbýrli qonystana bastady. Búl – Goloshekinning qulyghy. «Birinshi maldy otyryqshylandyryndar, sonda kóshpeliler eshqayda kete almaydy» degen qaghidagha sýiendi. Jyldyng tórt mezgilinde óz ayaghymen erkin jayylatyn mal brusellez tәrizdi әr týrli júqpaly aurulargha shaldyqty. Qazaqtyng mal sharuashylyghy – tabighy sharuashylyq, qorshaghan ortagha sәikes jasalghan. 

Ol az bolghanday, 1931 jyly qazaq auylynda bay-kulaktardy tap retinde joy bastaldy. Endi qazaq auylynda bay qalmady ghoy, onyng ornyna ortashalar tútqyndalyp, aidalyp ketti. Osy jarty jyldyng ishinde 200 mynnan astam ortasha sharuashylyqtary qudalanyp, joyylyp ketti. Búl kesapatqa basqa da mayda-shýide týrli nauqandar ýsti-ýstine tópelep, qosylyp jatty. Mysaly, et dayyndau nauqany bastaldy. Qazaqstanda әrbir temirjol stansiyasynyng janynan mal soyatyn alandar jasaldy. Mәskeuge, Leningradqa, batys Kavkazdyng iri qalalaryna, Ortalyq Aziya elderine, iri industriyalyq ortalyqtargha et jóneltilip otyrdy. Qazaqstannyng ortalyq, shyghys ónirleri – iri ónerkәsip ornyna ainaldy. Mәskeu men Leningradty elimiz 1991 jylgha deyin etpen qamtamasyz etti. Qazaqstandaghy et dayyndau nauqanyn jýieli týrde jýrgizu ýshin «Soiz myaso produktov» degen úiym qúryldy. Ol eshqanday ministrlikke baghynbaydy, biraq býkilodaqtyq ýkimetke qaraydy. Úiymdy etpen qamtamasyz etu ýshin elimizde «QazJivSoiz» qúryldy. Sol kezde «kontraktasiya» degen bәleni oilap tapty. Búl kelisimshartqa sәikes, sharuanyng tóli tuylsa, 12 ailyghyna deyin janaghy búzau ólip qalsa, egesi «halyq jauy» retinde sotqa tartylady. Óitkeni ol búzau tana bolghannan keyin etke ótkizuge dayyndalady. Kontraktasiya boyynsha sharuagha ún nemese zattay aqy berilui tiyis bolatyn, biraq sholaqbelsendiler onday jaghday jasay almady. Jergilikti ýkimetting onday baylyghy da bolghan joq. Osynday zobalannyng barysynda taghy da qosaqtalyp auylsharuashylyq ónimderining salyqtary belgilendi. Mysaly, sýiek, teri, mýiiz, túyaq salyghy. Ony orynday almaghan qazaqtar aidaladan tyshqan, qoyan aulap, sýiek terip ketti. Mine, osy ónimderdi ótkizbese sottalady. «Halyq jauy» retinde 107, 111 statiyamen sottalyp jatty. 

1930–1933 jyldar aralyghynda Qazaq­standa 40 milliongha juyq mal bolsa, 1933 jyldyng sonynda qazaq dalasy biyligine Mirzoyan kelgen kezde 4 millionnnan sәl ghana asatyn mal qaldy. Men múraghat qattamalary men derekterin aqtaryp otyryp, et shyghynyn eseptedim. Et dayyndau nauqanynda әrbir pút et esepke alynghan. Ýsh jyl ishinde 36 millionnan astam mal joyylsa, sonyng 15 millionnan astamy – Qazaqstannan tys ónirlerge, al 9 milliongha jeter-jetpes et – ishki qoldanysqa jiberildi. Osynday jaghdayda qazaq qalay qyrylmaydy? Keybir publisiys­ter, jazushylar, jurnalister múnday taldau jasamastan kýshtep újymdastyrudyng kesirinen qazaq asharshylyqqa úshyrady dep úrandaydy. Ol – qate úghym. 

IYә, kýshtep újymdastyru barlyq elde boldy, biraq eshkim qyrylghan joq. Qyrghyzstan, Ózbekstan, Reseyding derevnyalarynda úiymdastyryldy. Ukrainada bolghan ashtyqtyng sebebi basqada. Derevnyalardy qaruly әskerler qorshap alyp, jergilikti halyqtyng astyghyn tartyp aldy jәne syrtqa eshkimdi shygharmady. Sodan býkil derevnya qyrylyp qaldy. Bizde erkin kóship jýrgen qazaqtyng malyn tartyp aldy, ózin betimen jiberdi. Qalaghan jaqqa Qytay, Resey, Ózbekstan, Edil boyyna ótip ketsen, óz erking dep qoya berdi. Biraq mal joq qoy, halyq alysqa bara almaydy. Sondyqtan Qazaqstandaghy ashtyqpen Ukraina jәne Edil boyyndaghy ashtyqtyng sebebi eki týrli. Bizde negizgi tagham – etti tartyp aldy, ukraindardan – astyghyn alyp qoydy. Sonau týrki qaghanattarynda mal sharshuashylyghy qanday bolsa, HH ghasyrdyng basynda Kenes ýkimeti ornay bastaghanda dәl sonday boldy. Týrki qaghanatynda qauym kiyiz ýide túrsa, újymdastyru aldynda da qazaqtar kiyiz ýide túrdy. Otyryqshylandyru – kez kelgen qazaq ýshin qasiret boldy. 

– Biraq týbi otyryqshylyqqa kóshuimiz kerek edi ghoy... 

– Oghan birtindep kelu kerek edi, ol 2-3 jyldyng ishinde jýzege asyratyn nәrse emes. Birtindep kooperativter qúryp, naryqtyng qatynasyna, jekemenshikke negizdelui kerek edi. Mal baghyp jýrgen qazaq egin eguge qanday jaghdayda barady? Bidaydan týsken ónimdi bazarda joghary baghamen satyp, sodan payda tabatyn bolsa ghana barady. Qoyandy jәrmenkesine aidap aparyp satatyn maldan týsetin aqshadan bidaydan týsetin aqsha anaghúrlym kóp boluy kerek. Sony qazaqqa dәleldese, ózi-aq kooperativ qúra bastaydy. Búl – Búharin úsynghan teoriya. Búl joldy keyinnen Smaghúl Sәduaqasov ta úsyndy. Biraq Kenes odaghyndaghy kompartiya kýshteuge, zorlaugha jәne qysqa merzimde jýzege asyrugha negizdeldi. Osynyng kesirinen qazaq asharshylyqty kórdi. Otyryqshylandyru erikti týrde 50-60 jylda jýzege asuy kerek edi. Biz tәuelsizdik alghanymyzgha 20 jyl toldy, al naryqtyq qatynasty әli iygere almay jatyrmyz. Al odaq ýsh jyldyng ishinde apay-topayyn shygharyp, qamshymen sabap, myltyqpen atyp, aidap apardy. 

1932 jyly 7 tamyzda Sosialistik menshikti qorghau turaly zang shyqty. Stalin qol qoyghan. Osy Zang boyynsha eki jazalau sharasy qoldanyldy. Eger de astyq qoymasyna bir ash adam kele jatsa, qarauyl myltyqty eskertu retinde birinshi aspangha atyp, sosyn ekinshi oqty adamgha atu kerek boldy. Al qarauyl birinshi oqty әlgi adamgha, ekinshi oqty aspangha atty. Ekinshi jaza – kolhoz dalasynan 1 kese masaq jinap alsa, 107 statiyamen 10 jylgha sottalatyn. Mende «Memlekettik kәsiporyndardyng dýniyemýlkin qorghau jәne qoghamdyq sosialistik menshik» zany boyynsha sottalghan adamdardyng esebi bar, olardyng úzyn sany – 17 799 adam, onyng 704-i bir uys masaq tergeni ýshin atu jazasyna qiylghan. Osy zangha qatysty Stalinning aitqandary bar: «Memlekettik kәsiporyndardyng mýlkin úrlatyp, talan-tarajgha salyp qoya almaymyz...Kenestik irgesin búzu bolyp tabylady. ..Kenes ýkimeti búl zandy osyndaylardy eskerip baryp shyghardy. Búl zandy búljytpay jýzege asyru әrbir kommunistin, әrbir júmysshynyng birinshi boryshy». (Stalin shygharmalary, 13 tom, 226-bet). Biz bir ghana zandy aittyq, osynday jazalaytyn zandar kóp boldy. Osynyng bәri asharshylyqqa alyp keldi. 

– Asharshylyqtan qyrylghandar sany – 2 millionnan astam, al onyng aldyndaghy asharshylyq qúrbandary 1 millionnan asady. Búl derek naqty ma, әlde búl sanda da búrmalaushylyq bar ma? 

– Adam sany qalay kemidi? Búl jantýrshigerlik oqigha. Key zertteushiler kitaphanada túrghan osy derekterdi oqymay, kórmey, kóz jetkizbey jatyp asharshylyq jayynda naqty mәlimetter joq dep mәlimdeydi. Múndayda dәlme-dәl aitu qiyn, degenmen qolda bar demografiyalyq esep pen múraghat derekterin salystyryp qaraghanda 700 mynnan astam adam 1921-22 jyldardaghy asharshylyqtyng tikeley qúrbany boldy. 1930 jyly 1 mausymda auyl halqynyng sany – 5 million 873 myng adam bolatyn. Sonyng 4 million 800 myny – qazaqtar. 1932 jyly – 3 millionnan astam adam qaldy. 1933 jyly – 2 million 493 myng adam qaldy. Sóitip tek 1934 jyly ghana halyq sany sәl-pәl kóbeyip, 2 million 600 myngha jetti. Mirzoyan kelgen song basshylyq, sayasat ózgerip, bosqyndardy qaytaru, asharshylyqty toqtatu qolgha alyndy. 1933 jyldyng 29 nauryzynda osynau soraqy jaghdayda Qazaqstannyng jana basshysy Levon Mirzoyan Stalin men Molotovqa tómendegidey habarlaydy: «...Bizding derekterimiz boyynsha qonysynan aughandar 71 audandy qamtyp otyr: onyng 50-i kóshpendi jәne jartylay kóshpendi, al 21-i otyryqshy eginshilik audandar. Olar әsirese Ontýstik Qazaqstan oblysynyn, Almaty oblysynyng audandarynda, Qaraghandy oblysynyng ontýstik bóliginde, Shyghys Qazaqstan bóligining batys bóliginde, Aqtóbe oblysynyng ontýstik bóliginde, Batys Qazaqstan oblysynyng birqatar audandarynda qaptap ketti. Búrynghy eginshilik audandarynan, mәselen, Áulieata, Taldyqorghan, Merke, Talas, Shu, Sozaq, Qorday, Ile, Qaratal, Jitiqara, Semiozer jәne t.b. audandarda qonysynan aughandardyng sany óte kóp. Barlyq oblystardy alatyn bolsaq, shamamen halqynyng sany 300 myng adam bolatyn 90 mynnan asa qojalyq (respublika shenberinen tys jerlerdegini eseptemegende) ózderining tughan jerlerinen basqa mekenderge kóship jatyr, yaghny qonysynan auushylyq jaghdayyna dushar boluda.

Búdan basqa songhy eki aidyng ishinde qonysynan aughandar ishinen Orta Aziyadan, Sibirden jәne Edil boyynan keri qaytyp kelushiler tasqyny kýsheye týsti, ol kýni býginge deyin toqtalmay otyr». 

Al qala halqynyng esebi bólek. 1931 jyly qalada – 732 myng adam ghana túrghan. Kelesi jyly 1 million 72 myng adam boldy, biraq qala halqynyng sany qazaqtardyng esebinen ósken joq. Ózge últtardyn, ortalyqtan kelgen slavyandardyn, әr týrli halyqtardyng esebinen kóbeydi. Óitkeni ash qazaqtardy esh uaqta qalagha jolatqan joq, tirkeuge alghan joq. Kerisinshe kósheden qualap, iytin shyghardy. Sonda osy nәubet jyldary qazaq qyrylyp jatqanda, qala halqynyng sany ózge últtardyng esebinen úlghayyp jatty. Bosqyndardy alyp tastaghanda ýsh jyldaghy adam shyghyny – 2 million ýsh jýz mynnyng ainalasy. 

Qazir mynaday saual tuyndaydy. Qazaq asharshylyqtan qyrylmaghanda, qazir halyq sany qansha bolar edi? Týrkiya ghalymdary búl saualgha naqty derekter keltire otyryp, óz tújyrymyn aituda. Azamat soghysynyng aldyndaghy asharshylyqty qosyp, eseptegende qazaqtyng sany – 6 million adam bolghan deydi. Sol kezde Týrkiyadaghy týrikterding sany – 10 million bolghan. Qazir týrikterding sany – 74 million bolypty, búl týrik halyqtarynyng óz esebi. Týrik ghalymdarynyng esebi boyynsha qazaqtar 60 millionnan asyp týsetin edi. Týrkiya basqa últtardy qosyp alyp, әr týrli prosesterding arqasynda týrikke ainaldyrdy. Al mening óz esebim boyynsha, Qazaqstanda halyq sany 60 million bolmasa da, 40 millionnan asyp jyghyluy tiyis edi. Týrikterding aityp otyrghan sózining jany bar. Halyqtyng dәstýrli sharuashylyghynan aiyryp, qughyndamaghanda jogharghy kórsetkishke jetu mýmkindigi bar edi. Qazaqtar 2-3 әielden alghan, halyqtyng sany jaqsy ósip otyrghan. Sondyqtan týrik tarihshylarynyng aitqan uәjine men kýmәn keltirmeymin. Ókinishke qaray, búl armangha ainalghan kórsetkish. 

– Alashorda partiyasy qúrylyp, bolmasa izbasarlary qalghanda osynau zúlmatty kesapattardyng aldyn alugha bolar ma edi? 

– Mәselen, Alashordashylar týk te istey alghan joq. Óitkeni olar Qazan tónkerisinen keyin jappay qughyngha úshyrady. Alash qozghalysynyng qayratkerlerin respublikadaghy kóterilister qarsanynda bәrin qudalap, sottap, jer audaryp, olardyng bas kóteruine eshqanday mýmkindik qaldyrghan joq. 1925 jyly 29 mamyrda Stalin Týrkistangha hat jazdy. Sol hatta Alash qayratkerleri men últtyq intelliygensiyany partiya men memlekettik qyzmetke paydalanbau turaly úsynys jasady. Olardyng kózqarasynda Shoqaevtyng ústanymy bar dep shoshydy. Qauipti intelliygensiya retinde Stalin olardy oqu-aghartu salasyna paydalandy, onyng ózinde qatang baqylaugha aldy. 1929 jyly Qazaqstannyng týkpir-týkpirinde kóterilister bastaldy. Tastakópir, Bostandyq, Betpaqdala, Yrghyz, Aday, Sozaq kóterilisi Abyraly-Shynghystaugha úlasty. Osy kóterilisterge Alash qozghalysynyng qayratkerlerin kinәlady. Nәtiyjesinde OGPU 42 Alash qozghalysynyng mýshelerin sottady, sot eki ret 1932 jәne 1942 jyly boldy. Sot qorytyndysy boyynsha konslagerige aidaldy, jer audaryldy, sóitip Alash azamattary halqynan ajyrap qaldy. Alash qayratkerleri halyqqa kómek qolyn soza almady. «Baytal týgil, bas qayghy» boldy. Ózderi Voronej, Aq teniz kanalynda aidauda jýrdi. «Ókimet basyna Á.Bókeyhanov pen Ahmet Baytúrsynov kelgende ne bolatyn edi?» degen saual tuyndaydy. Olar Nikolay Buharin úsynghan joldy úsynar edi. «Kollektivizasiya, kompiys­kasiya» siyaqty revolusiyalyq reformalar emes, ekonomikalyq qatynastardy úsynar edi. Sharualar korporativterin qúru, jeke menshikti, kapitalizmdi saqtaudy úsynatyny anyq. Alashorda kapitalistik qúrylysty tandady. Bókeyhanov osy baghytty ústandy. Qúramysovtar – respublikalyq dengeydegi sholaq belsendiler, jogharydan berilgen tapsyrmalardy ghana oryndaytyn bilimsiz adam edi.

– Qazaq jerindegi jónsiz sayasat, jappay qyrylu, halyqtyng mýlkin talan-tarajgha salu siyaqty qoldan jasalghan zobalandy bastan keshkende qazaqtyng kózi ashyq, qyzmettegi qayratkerleri qanday ústanymda boldy? 

– Biraq Qazaqstannyng partiya qayrat­kerlerining ishinen qazaqqa jany ashityn azamattar shyqty. Smaghúl Sәduaqasov bastaghan Jalau Mynbaev, Sanjar Aspandiyarov, Nyghmet Núrmaqov, Túrar Rysqúlov, Jaghypar Súltanbekov, Zeynolla Tóreghojiyn, Múhtar Samatovtar boldy. Mine, osylar Goloshekinge onyng ústanghan sayasaty halyqty kýiretuge, qúrtugha aparatynyn aityp týsindirdi. Qazaq sharualaryn kýshtep újymdastyrugha, menshiginen aiyrugha ashyq qarsy bolyp, ózderining pikirlerin aitqan azamattar osylar. Biraq Goloshekinning tónireginde stalindik-avtoritarly jýiening jaghdayynda onyng baghytyn qoldaghan adamdar boldy. Olar – Oral Isaev, Ghabbas Toghjanov, Asylbekov, Baydildiyn, Musiyn, Qúramysov, Syrghabekov, Mendeshov, Jýnisov, Áytiyev, Eltay Ernazarov degen kisiler óz pikirlerin ashyq aita alghan joq. Biylikting aitqanymen jýruge mәjbýr boldy. Óz qoldaryndaghy mýmkinshilikti paydalanyp, Goloshekinning baghytyn jaqtamasa da sosializmning qazaq halqyn jetistikke jetkizetinine sengen adamdar boldy. Sóitip sanaly týrde kommunistik partiyanyng qiytúrqy baghytyn qoldady. Olar da halyqqa jany ashydy, sonda da kompartiya sayasaty dúrys dep bildi. Olar Oraz Jandosov, Úzaqbay Qúlymbetov, Rozybakiyev, Jarmúhamedov, Seyfulliyn, Iliyas Qabylov, Jangeldin újymdastyru sayasaty halyqty jaqsylyqqa jetkizedi dep sosialistik iydeyagha sengen kisiler. Al alghashqy toptaghy azamattar halyqtyng úldary. Olar búl baghytty ashyqtan-ashyq synady. Goloshekinning sayasatyna qarsylyq bildirdi. Biraq stalindik-totalitarlyq jýie eshkimdi tyndaghan joq. 

– Súhbatynyzgha rahmet! 

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