Dýisenbi, 5 Jeltoqsan 2022
Janalyqtar 5979 0 pikir 5 Mausym, 2013 saghat 13:05

Qanseyit Ábdezúly, әl-Faraby atyndaghy QazÚU-ding professory: Abay dәstýri jәne qazaq dastandary

Qazaqtyng úly aqyny, qazaq jazba poeziyasyn jana sapalyq biyikke kótergen, әdebiyetimizge kórkemdik qúndylyqtardyng әlemdik ýlgilerin alyp kelgen, ózindik aqyndyq mektep, qaytalanbas dәstýr qalyptastyrghan Abay Qúnanbayúly poeziyasynyng kóp qyrly sipaty әdebiyettanu ghylymynda az sóz bolyp jýrgen joq. Ásirese, Abaydyng aqyndyq mektebi, onyng óz tústastary men ózinen keyingi shәkirtterine әser-yqpalyn bylay qoyghanda, Abay poeziyasynyng ózinen keyingi tútas qazaq әdebiyetine tiygizgen iygi әseri, qazaq poeziyasynyng jana sapalyq arnalaryna jol ashuy, tútas kórkemdik mektepter men janashyl aqyndyq izdenisterding dýniyege keluine negiz boluy әli de terendep zertteudi qajet etedi. Sonyng bir salasy qazaq poeziyasyndaghy dastandyq dәstýrding Abay arqyly jana biyikke kóterilui jәne jana kezenge qadam basuy. 

Dәstýrli qazaq poeziyasynda sujettik oqiy­gha­lardy arqau etip, tarihy kezenderding shyndyghyn biyik kórkemdik dengeyde, tartymdy suretkerlik sheberlik ayasynda jinaqtap kórsete alghan epiy­kalyq shygharmalar molynan kezdesedi. Poeziya­myzdaghy osynau arnaly kórkemdik izdenisterding arghy bastaularyna nazar audaratyn bolsaq, birinshi kezekte Abay poeziyasynyng kórkemdik taghylymy, sheberlik mektebi oigha oralady.

Qazaqtyng úly aqyny, qazaq jazba poeziyasyn jana sapalyq biyikke kótergen, әdebiyetimizge kórkemdik qúndylyqtardyng әlemdik ýlgilerin alyp kelgen, ózindik aqyndyq mektep, qaytalanbas dәstýr qalyptastyrghan Abay Qúnanbayúly poeziyasynyng kóp qyrly sipaty әdebiyettanu ghylymynda az sóz bolyp jýrgen joq. Ásirese, Abaydyng aqyndyq mektebi, onyng óz tústastary men ózinen keyingi shәkirtterine әser-yqpalyn bylay qoyghanda, Abay poeziyasynyng ózinen keyingi tútas qazaq әdebiyetine tiygizgen iygi әseri, qazaq poeziyasynyng jana sapalyq arnalaryna jol ashuy, tútas kórkemdik mektepter men janashyl aqyndyq izdenisterding dýniyege keluine negiz boluy әli de terendep zertteudi qajet etedi. Sonyng bir salasy qazaq poeziyasyndaghy dastandyq dәstýrding Abay arqyly jana biyikke kóterilui jәne jana kezenge qadam basuy. 

Dәstýrli qazaq poeziyasynda sujettik oqiy­gha­lardy arqau etip, tarihy kezenderding shyndyghyn biyik kórkemdik dengeyde, tartymdy suretkerlik sheberlik ayasynda jinaqtap kórsete alghan epiy­kalyq shygharmalar molynan kezdesedi. Poeziya­myzdaghy osynau arnaly kórkemdik izdenisterding arghy bastaularyna nazar audaratyn bolsaq, birinshi kezekte Abay poeziyasynyng kórkemdik taghylymy, sheberlik mektebi oigha oralady.
Abay Qúnanbaevtyng halyq basynan ótken bel­gili tarihy kezenderdi jәne osy kezenderde tagh­dyr keshken nemese el ómirindegi iri-iri oqighalargha úiytqy bolghan tarihy túlghalardyng ómirinen alyn­ghan sujettik jelilerdi arqau ete otyryp, tereng gumanistik, adamgershilik, azamattyq iydeyalardy kóteretin tuyndylary keyingi qazaq poeziyasyna da ózining iygi yqpalyn tiygizdi.
Abay jyrlaghan búl taqyryptardyng ishinde qazaq poeziyasynyng ghasyrlar boyy jalghasyp kele jatqan altyn arqauy – adamzattyq gumanistik qún­dylyqtar, biyik adamgershilik qasiyetter, mәn­gi­lik mahabbat, jastar arasyndaghy sýiispenshilik, Otandy qorghau, tughan jer ýshin kýresti beyneleu iydeyalary da aldynghy qatargha shyghady. Aytalyq, úly aqynnyng “Eskendir”, “Masghút”, “Ázim әngi­me­si” at­ty poemalary osynau ózekti taqyryp­tardy bey­neleuding qazaq әdebiyetindegi ozyq ýlgileri bolyp tabylady.
«Eskendir» poemasy aqyndyq sheginisten bastalady. Úly aqyn aldymen Eskendir patshanyng kim ekendigin, qanday is-әreketterge barghandyghyn, óz zamanynda qanday biylik jýrgizgendigin sholyp aitudy maqsat etedi.
Izgilik pen qatygezdikti, jaqsylyq pen jaman­dyqty birden ajyratyp, aqyndyq pozisiyasyn birden anyqtap, aishyqtap jetkizgen aqyn Abay Es­kendir patshagha, onyng túlghasyna, tarihy ornyna degen óz kózqarasyn birden ajyratyp alady.
Oqyrman da aqyn dýniyetanymyna tәn, avtorlyq maqsatqa say aqyn Abay qanday gumanistik qún­dy­lyqtardy, adamgershilik qasiyetterdi aldynghy qatargha shygharghysy kelgendigin birden angharady. Sondyqtan poemanyng bastaluyndaghy alghashqy shumaqtardyng ózimen-aq Abay óz dýniyetanymyn, adamzat tarihynda oryn alghan zamanauy oqigha­lar­gha qatysty óz baghasyn býrkemelemey, astarlamay, aq pen qarany bólip tastaghanday etip, oqyr­man­gha ashyq, taygha tanba basqanday týsinikti, әri poetikalyq ayada shashyratyp almay, týiindep, jinaqtap jetkizedi. Poemanyn:
Osy júrt Eskendirdi bile me eken?
Makedoniya shahary oghan meken.
Filipp patsha balasy, er kónildi,
Maqtan sýigish, qyzghanshaq adam eken, –
degen joldarmen bastaluynda osynday ýlken av­tor­lyq maqsat jatqandyghyn bayqamau mýmkin emes.
Aqyn jәne zaman, aqyndyq dýniyetanym jәne tarihy túlgha bolmysy kategoriyalaryn Abay sanaly týrde jiktep, jiliktep kórsetkisi kelmegenimen, osynau poema shumaqtarynyng mazmúnynan, poe­tiy­kalyq astarynan qazaq oqyrmany aqyn menzegeli otyrghan gumanistik, qala berdi adamzat­tyq qúndylyqtardy jan-jýregimen qabyldaydy.
Eng bastysy, aqyn dýniyetanymyndaghy ruhany qúndylyqtardyng bir adamnyn, yaghny belgili tarihy túlghanyng ómirbayanyna qatysty, sol kezendegi ót­ken tarihy oqighalar arqyly qalaysha jarqyrap kórinis tabatynyna kuә bolamyz. Poemanyng astary qalyng sujetke qúryluy, ishki dinamikasynyng shiraq, jinaqy bolyp kelui, óte tartymdy, jatyq tili, eng bastysy, shygharmanyng kórkemdik sapasynan, poetikalyq jýiesinen Abay qoltanbasynyng aishyqty kórinui poemanyng eng basty qúndylyghy retinde baghalanuy tiyis.
Aqynnyng kórkemdik qabyldauynda Eskendir siyaqty tarihy túlghanyng jeke taghdyrynan bastau alatyn sujettik jeli órby kele, poemanyng kór­kem­dik sheshimine oray aiyryqsha әserli, aiyryqsha tar­tymdy, taghylymdyq, tәrbiyelik manyzgha ie bo­lady. Yaghny jeke túlghanyng ómirinen alynghan tarihy oqighalar shoghyry kórkemdik dýniyetanym, filo­sofiyalyq oi-tolghamdar arnasynda aqyn ýshin býkil adamzattyq iydeyalardy kóteruge mol mýmkindikter ashty.
Poemanyng sujettik jelisinde ashkóz, qanqúmar patsha Eskendirge qarama-qarsy beyne retinde ghúlama ghalym, danyshpan, dana qariya Aristoteli beynelenedi. Poemanyng kórkemdik sheshimi retinde aqyn Abay óz shygharmasynda arnayy Aristoteli sózine kezek beredi.
Dýniyeni jaulap, ashu men qatygezdikke erik ber­gen, toqtau, qanaghat, rahym degendi bilmegen qanqúmar patshagha Aristoteliding sózi oy salady. Qatygez patshany rayynan qaytarady. Adam balasynyng kózi tirisinde dýniyege toymaytynyn, bargha qanaghat etpeytinin menzey otyryp, poema keyipkeri Aristoteli:
Kәpir kózding dýniyede arany ýlken,
Alghan sayyn dýniyege toya ma eken?
Qansha tiri jýrse de, ólgen kýni
Ózge kózben birdey-aq bolady eken, –
dep, tereng astarly ósiyet sózin aitady. Poemanyng ayaqtalar túsyndaghy osynau shumaqtar shyghar­manyng kýlli kórkemdik sheshimine syiyp túrghan taqy­ryp­tyq, әri filosofiyalyq oidy, avtordyng kon­sep­tual­dy kózqarasyn, tereng dýniyetanymyn anghar­tady.
Poemanyng iydeyalyq, kórkemdik janalyghy da aldymen osynau avtorlyq sheshimdegi aqynnyng ózindik tolghanystarynan nәr alady. Demek, Abay somdaghan kórkem beyneler tarihy kezender shyndyghyn avtorlyq iydeyagha sәikes qaytara jan­ghyrtyp, qaytara qúbyltyp, mýldem janasha maz­múndyq ayada oqyrmangha úsynugha bolatyndyghyn kórkemdik túrghydan dәleldedi.
Qazaq poeziyasynda kórkem beyne somdau, osy maqsatta aqyndyq sheberlik shynyna kóterilu mәselelerine arnalghan enbekter az emes. Ádebiyet­tanu ghylymyndaghy osynau mәseleni – qúnarly, dәstýrimizdi bayytqan taqyryp desek te bolady. Aldymen Abay dәstýrinde kórkem beyne somdau­dyng sanlaq ýlgilerin qaldyrghan qalam qayrat­kerleri eske týsedi. Klassik qalamgerlerimiz Maghjan Júmabaev, Sәken Seyfulliyn, Iliyas Jansýgirov, Sәbit Múqanovtan bastap, keyingi tolqyn qabyr­gha­ly aqyn-jazushylarymyzgha deyingi ýlken shoghyr­dyng arasynan osynau dәstýrli arnagha iz salyp, qalam tartpaghan shygharmashylyq túlghalar kemde-kem eken.
Maghjan Júmabaevtyng “Batyr Bayan”, “Qor­qyt”, “Qoylybaydyng qobyzy”, Sәken Seyfulliyn­ning “Kókshetau”, Iliyas Jansýgirovting “Kýi”, “Kýi­shi”, “Qúla­ger”, Sәbit Múqanovtyng “Súlushash”, alpysyn­shy jyldary dýniyege kelgen Qalijan Bekhojinning “Aqsaq qúlan”, Hamit Erghaliyevting “Qúrmanghazy”, Júban Moldaghaliyevting “Kisen ashqan”, t.b. poeziya­lyq shygharmalarymyz әde­biye­timizdegi tarihy taqyrypty, tarihy túlghalar taghdyryn beyneleudi jana beleske kóterdi. Osynau shygharmalardaghy tarihy taqyrypty mengeru erekshelikteri, sujet qúrudaghy pishindik izdenister, tarihy túlghany dara­laudaghy kórkemdik әdis-tәsilder Abay dәstýrindegi suretkerlik arnalarmen әr qyrynan kelip sabaqtasady.
Búl tuyndylar ishki kórkemdik quaty, halyqtyq sipaty jaghynan da úly aqyn shygharmalarynan ýlgi-ónege alghanyn, qazaq poeziyasynda búrynnan bar bay dәstýrlerdi jana kórkemdik sapalyq dengeyde qaytara janghyrtqanyn tanyta keldi. Qa­zir­gi qazaq poeziyasynda da búl óner kóshi, qú­nar­­ly dәstýr toqtap, tolastaghan joq.
Al endi, poeziyamyzdaghy sonday kórkemdik ýlgilerdi tudyrghan, qazaq әdebiyetindegi aqyndyq jaratylysy bólek, tuma daryn Isa Bayzaqov shygharmashylyghy da dara kórinedi. Asa daryndy óner iyesining basqa bir, ózi qatarlas óner iyesi turaly sóz tolghauy, obraz somdauy, sol arqyly kiye­­li qazaq ónerining túlghalaryn әdebiyetimizge kór­kem beyne retinde qaytadan alyp kelui – әrqashan da oqyrman yqylasyna bólenip otyrghan. Isa Bayzaqov qalamynan әr jyldary, әr kezende tughan óner tuyndylary da óz oqyrmanyn oqshau kórkemdik boyauymen, siyrek kezdesetin útymdy teneulerimen, sujet tartymdylyghymen oqyrman nazaryn audardy.
Isa Bayzaqovtyng әdebiyetimizding altyn qory­na qosylghan “Qúralay súlu” men “Altay ayasynda” atty poemalary tarihy oqighalardy kórkemdik túrghydan jinaqtaudyng jana ýlgilerin tanytty. Búl shyghar­ma­la­ryna aryndy aqyn aldymen qazaq taghdy­ryn­daghy airyqsha orny bar iri-iri tarihy oqighalardy ar­qau etedi. Halyqtyng bostandyq, tәuelsizdik jolyn­daghy maqsatty kýresi aldynghy qatargha shy­ghady da, osynau oqighalardyng el ómi­rin­degi, jekelegen adamdar taghdyryndaghy әleu­mettik-ruhany salmaghyna nazar audarylady. Aqynnyng dýniyetanym terendigi, tarihy kózqarasy, poetiy­ka­lyq, kórkemdik jinaqtau әdis-tәsilderi ózining keng auqym­dylyghymen, shynayylyghymen oqyrmanyn bauraydy.
Qazaq jýreginde “Esim hannyng eski joly” degen anyzgha bergisiz qanatty sóz qaldyrghan, el birligi, últtyq múrat jolynda bagha jetkisiz tarihy enbek jasaghan әigili Esim hannyng zamanynda taghdyr keshken, elining joghyn joqtaghan, әdildigimen, tura­shyl­dyghymen kópke jaqqan Montay biyding túlghasy da poemanyng qúnarly túsy desek, qatelespeymiz.
“Qúralay súlu” poemasynda tughan jerdi qasyq qany qalghansha qorghay biletin batyrlyq bolmys pen adal mahabbattyng jolynda basyn bәigege tigetin azamat taghdyrynyng arasyndaghy ruhany sabaqtastyq, jýrek quaty qylausyz poeziya tilinde sóileydi. Avtor osynau adam boyyndaghy izgi qas­iyet­terdi naqty kórkem túlghalar arqyly, olardyng jan dýniyesindegi sezim tolqyndaryn jarqyrata asha otyryp, oqyrmanyna tereng tebirenispen jetkizedi.
“Altay ayasynda” atty poemasy da aqynnyng osynau úly iydeyasyn basqa qyrynan alyp, ony ary qaray terendete týsetin tuyndysy. Búl shygharma­nyng da altyn arqauy – tәuelsizdik, bostandyq, yaghny erkin ómir jolyndaghy erjýrek jandardyng boyyndaghy kýres ruhyn, qajyr-qayratyn qúdiretti poeziya tilinde kesteleu bolyp tabylady. Adal mahabbat, shynayy sýiispenshilik jolynda basyn bәigege tigetin, biyik maqsat-múratty armandaytyn, osy jolda qanday da qauip-qaterden taysalmaytyn qazaq jastarynyng túlghasy tiptik kórkem beyneler dengeyine kóteriledi.
Poemanyng ortalyq keyipkerleri Balaghaz ben Erkejandy ómirding qiyn ótkelderine salatyn avtor sol kezendegi dala ómirining san qatparly tarihiy-әleumettik shyndyghyn jalang almaydy. Kerisinshe, keyipkerler taghdyry arqyly san qat­parly tarihy shyndyq kórinis tabady. Oqigha jeli­sinde әrqily әleumettik toptar óz әreketimen, óz minez-qúlqymen shynayy tanylady. Tarihy oqigha­lardy qamtyp kórsetu, túlghanyng kórkemdik quatyn asha týsetin is-әreketterdi bir jelining boyynda sheber qiilastyru, tabighat suretteri, psihologiya­lyq iyirimder – barlyghy týptep kelgende, aqynnyng suretkerlik sheberligining tereng qúnarynan bastau alyp jatady. Ony qazaqtyng eng bir sýiikti, ardaqty aqynyna ainaldyrghan dýniyeleri de osy mәngi tozbas qúdiretti poeziyanyng arqasy edi. Solardyng ishinde, taghy da qaytalap aitsaq Abay ýlgisimen, Abay bastaghan dәstýrde tarihy taqyrypty, әleu­met­tik-ruhany mәselelerdi arqau etken tuyndylary alystan menmúndalap, aishyqty kórinedi. Osylardyng qatarynda “Qúralay súlu”, “Altay ayasynda”, “Aqbópe” syndy poemalary kórkemdik talaptarynyng eng biyik shynyna kóterilgen tuyndylardyng qataryna endi.
Aqyn talantynyng taghy da bir qaytalanbas qyry “Aqbópe” poemasyndaghy Aqbópe túlghasynyng kórkemdik quatymen sabaqtas kórinedi.
Kim kórdi kókting jerge qúlaghanyn,
Kim kórdi kýnning jaryq súraghanyn,
Kim kórdi Aqbópedey qyrshyn jastyn,
Shomylyp qandy azapqa jylaghanyn, –
dep bastalatyn dastannyng tútastay sujetti jelisi, ishki kompozisiyalyq qúrylymy, keyipkerler jýiesi, barlyghy jinalyp kelgende bir iydeyagha toghysady, bir maqsatqa qyzmet etedi. Ol iydeya – mәngilik mahabbat iydeyasy.
Sýiispenshilikting biyik túghyrynan bir eli shegin­beytin qazaq jastarynyng qaysar minezin asqaqtata jyrlau maqsatyn kózdegen avtor suretkerlik tal­gham men kórkemdik talaptyng biyik dengeyine kóte­rile­di. Yaghny adamgershiliktin, kisiliktin, azamat­tyqtyng ainymas ólshemi – adal mahabbatqa degen túraqtylyq ekendigin aqyn barlyq shygharmala­rynda ómir boyy jyrlap ótti.
Abay poeziyasynyng terenine ýnile bilgen, sodan nәr alghan, eng bastysy, Batys-Shyghys qúndy­lyqtaryn poeziya tilimen sóilete bilgen úly Abaygha qazaqtyng bir top nәzirashyl aqyndary da tereng kónil qoydy. Ruhany ústazymyz Abay dep sanap, osy baghyttaghy izdenisterinde de olar Abaygha arqa sýiedi. Abaydyng poetikalyq suretkerliginen, til sheberliginen ýlgi aldy.
Dastandyq jyr dәstýrine at basyn búrghan aqyn-jyraulardyng barlyghy da Abaydan eng aldymen gumanistik iydeyany aldynghy qatargha shygharu­dy, adamgershilik, azamattyq qúndylyqtardy as­qaq­­ta­ta jyrlaudy ýirendi. Úly gumanistik iydeya­lary men azamattyq saryndaghy oi-ansarla­ryn poeziya tilimen qalyng oqyrmangha jetkize bildi.
Jaratushynyng bolmysy, Alla-taghalagha qúlshy­lyq etu, kýlli ghajayyptar bir ghana Jaratushynyng qolyn­da túrghandyghyn keninen nasihattaytyn dastandar legi qazaq poeziyasynan oryn taba bastady.
Búl tuyndylarda (dastandarda, tolghaularda) eng basta Abay negizin qalap ketken ornyqty dia­pazon­nyn, oy auqymyn arydan salyp, alys kókjiyekterdi qamtyp aitugha mol mýmkindikter ashatyn әdis-tәsilder boy kórsetti.
Bir kezde óz túsynda Abay kótergen eldik, otan­dyq taqyryp tar shenberden shyghyp, adamzattyq auqymdaghy manyzgha ie bolyp, әlemdik manyzy bar mәselelerge qaray bet búrdy, sóitip, eldik shenberden shyghyp, endi kosmogoniyalyq, filoso­fiya­lyq fenomenge ie bola bastady. Abay jyrla­ghan otandyq taqyryp, әsirese, shyghystyq saryn­daghy sujetter, diny astardaghy qiyal-ghajayyp oqighalar­gha toly mazmúndyq sujetter ózara jinala kelip, әreket ete otyryp, oqyrmandargha qiyalgha jeteley­tindey oy tastady. Ásirese, shyghys­tyq saryndaghy sujetter, dini- mistikalyq astary qalyng iydeyalar adam senbeytin tanghajayyp oqighalargha taban tirey otyryp, әreket etetin, qiyalgha jeteleytin, peri-perishteler bas keyipkerge ainalatyn jana su­jettik jeliler qazaq dastandarynan oryn aldy.
Qúrghaq didaktikanyng ornyn tiri poetikalyq sóz auystyrdy. Filosofiyalyq oi-ansarlargha qúlash úra alatyn aqyndyq quat aldynghy qatargha shyqty. Avtor óz tuyndylaryna arqau etken búl әserlerdin, izdenisterding tamyry eng aldymen Abaygha baryp tireledi.
Tarihy túlghalardan bólek endi qiyal-ghajayyp oqighalardy bastan keshetin, biraq halyq jadynda san ghasyrlar boyynda jattalyp qalghan, el arasynda anyz, әfsana bolyp keng jayylghan ertegilik qaharmandar da әdeby keyipkerler retinde shygharma sujetine enip, ýlken iydeyalyq jýk kóterip túratyn dengeyge kóterile bastady. Búl tuyndylarda da (meyli tarihy túlgha bola ma, meyli qiyal-ghajayyp keyipker bola ma) olar bәribir oqyrman sanasyn syrt iytergen joq, óz bolmysyna adam sanasy jaqyn bolghan song oqyrmandar da olardy tabighy qabyldady.
Ásirese, islam dinining asqan meyirimi men shapaghatyn, asyl qasiyetterin kórsetetin, sol qasiyetti dýniyelerdi anyzgha bergisiz etip suretteytin sujettik jeliler qazaq oqyrmandaryna birden jat kóringen joq. Búl qasiyetti dýniyeler, biyik, asyl, taza ruhany kýshter qazaq janyna jaqyn bolghandyqtan qalyng oqyrman olardy birden jýregimen qabyldady.
Osy arnada, әsirese, Syr boyynan shyqqan shy­ghys­shyl, diny taqyryptargha kóbirek qalam terbegen aqyn, jyrshy-jyraulardyng әdeby enbegi shoqtyqty kórindi. Sonyng biri, әri biregeyi – Syr sýleyi Túrmaghambet Iztileuúly Abay dýniyesin bala kezinen jýregine jaqyn ústap, sanasyna sinirgen, qala berdi, osynau ónirde keng etek jayghan halyq múrasynan nәr alghan, sonyng inju-marjandaryn jas­tayynan janyna balap, jattap ósken daryndarymyzdyng biri bolatyn.
Aqyn Búharadaghy “Kókeltash” medresesinde dәris alghan jyldary, keyingi óner iyesi retinde elge tanylghan kezenderinde de osynau jyrshylyq, dastandyq ónerimizden bir sәtke de kóz jazghan joq. Osy baghytta talay әdebiy-shygharmashylyq belesterden ótip, sheberlik shyndap, ómirining songhy kezeninde Shyghystyng әigili tuyndysy Firdousiyding “Shahnamesinin” sujetin jyrlady. Osylaysha Túrmaghambet Iztileuúlynyng qazaq poeziyasynyng tórine kóterilgen, qaytalanbas ataqty tól tuyndy­sy “Rýstem-Dastan” jyry dýniyege keldi. Syr boyyn­da ejelden tamyr jayghan úly danalyq mektebi, jyr mektebi, sonau Aldashbay ahundardan, Eshniyaz sal, Bazar jyrau, Kete Jýsipterden bastalatyn aqyndyq, ústazdyq mektep Túrmagham­bet Iztileuúly túsynda airyqsha sharyqtau biyigine kóterildi.
Ádebiyetimizding kóne tarihyna kishkene sheginis jasap, oy kózimen barlay qarasaq, dәstýrli qazaq poeziyasynda sujettik oqighalardy arqau etip, tarihy kezenderding shyndyghyn biyik kórkemdik den­geyde, tartymdy suretkerlik sheberlik ayasynda jinaqtap kórsete alghan epikalyq shygharmalar molynan kezdesedi. Poeziyamyzdaghy osynau arnaly kórkemdik izdenisterding arghy bastaularyna nazar audaratyn bolsaq, bizding zamanymyzdyng V-VIII gh.gh. kóne týrki eskertkishterinen bastap, ortaghasyrlardaghy jәdigerlerimiz, keshegi XIX ghasyrdaghy Abay poeziyasynyng kórkemdik taghyly­my, sheberlik mektebi oigha oralady.
Arygha barmay-aq, ózimizding XVI ghasyrda – 1530-jyldary, úly babamyz, tarihshy, aqyn Múhammed Haydar Dulatidyng “Jahan na­me” atty әigili, shyghystyq ýlgidegi, eng bastysy, týr­­kilik dýniyetanym biyiginen oy tolghaytyn, dana­lyq sóz aitatyn klassikalyq, poetikalyq shyghar­masyn dýniyege alyp kelgendigin aitsaq ta bolady.
Túrmaghambet aqynghy qayta oralsaq, onyng jyr­shy, jyrau, aqyn retindegi bir ereksheligi – ózi jyrlaghan shygharmalarynda bizding basty qúndyly­ghymyz – islam taqyrybyn mol qamtyp, osy arqy­ly dastandyq ýlgide imandylyq taqyrybyn, paygham­barlar ómirbayanynan taratyp aitatyn sujettik jelilerdi ónegelik jәne taghylymdyq maqsatta kóp jyrlaghandyghy.
Danalyq oi-tolghamdar, fәny jalghannyng qas-qaghym sәttik ótkinshiligi men adam boyyndaghy al­uan minez-qúlyqtyng kórinisteri – barlyghy oy eleginen ótedi. Shayyr osynau taqyryp, oy arnala­rynyng barlyghyn kórkem tilmen, poetikalyq aishyqtaular arqyly oqyrman jýregine әserli jetkizedi. Qazaq tanymyndaghy tanys sujetter, tanys keyip­kerler aqyn dýniyetanymy arqyly janasha jinaq­tyq mәnge ie bolatyndyqtan olar ózining kórkemdik qúndylyghyn terendete týsedi. Poetikalyq әseri de osy arqyly janasha payymdalady.
Aytalyq, aqynnyng “Jasyl qús”, “Habibulla men Allayar”, “Múhammed turaly”, “Mәrdi diqan» dastany, “Soqyr men aqsaq”, “Qoyshy hikayasy”, “Eskendir hikayasy”, “Lúqman balasynyng hikayasy”, t.b. dastandyq ýlgige jaqyn, hikayalyq sujetterdi arqau etken, kólemi jaghynan qysqa-qysqa tuyndylarynda din tarihynan, paygham­barlar ómirinen tarata otyryp, ómirdegi izgilik jolyna bastaytyn adam boyyndaghy jaqsy qa­siyetterdi uaghyzdaydy, ýlgi etedi. Jauyzdyq pen jamandyq, ótirik pen ósek, jala men pәle, úrlyq pen súmdyq siyaqty adam­zatty azdyratyn, jargha jyghatyn minez-qú­lyq­­tardy, shynayy ómir kó­rinisterin naqty keyip­kerler әreketi arqyly әshkerelep otyrady.
“Jasyl qús” hikayasynda Úly Jaratushynyn, Alla-taghalanyng barlyq izgi qasiyet­teri marapattalady. Álemdegi kýlli jaqsylyq, iygilik kózi Allanyng qolynda ekendigi aitylady. Kýlli әlemdi óz núrynan jaratushy Qúdiretting adamnan bastap, Jer betinde tirshilik etetin barlyq tiri ma­qú­lyqtargha birdey tiyesili rizyghyn tauyp beretini aityla kelip, búl jalghanda eshbir ózgeris, qoz­gha­lys, janghyru Allanyng raqymynsyz jýzege aspay­tyndyghy kórsetiledi. Dýniyede maqsatsyz jara­tylghan tirshilik iyesi bolmaydy degen iydeya boy kóteredi. Aqynnyng islamdyq dýniyetanymy da, jalpy adamzattyq qúndylyqtargha degen kóz­qarasy da osy iydeyalar arqyly kórinis tabady.
Taza din taqyryby, yaghny payghambarlar ómi­ri­nen sujet tarqatyp, oqighalar qúraudyng taghy­lymdyq, tәrbiyelik astaryna ýniletin aqynnyng osy maq­sattaghy tuyndylarynan “Sýleymen hikayasy”, “Samú­ryq hikayasy” atty eki dastanyn bóle-jara qaraghan oryndy. “Sýleymen hikayasy” dastany ózimizding anyz-әpsanalarymyzda, ertegilik, hiy­kayalyq jyr-dastandarymyzda jiyirek suret­telip, kenirek sóz bolyp kele jatqan Sýleymen (gh.s.) pay­ghambardyng ómirbayanynan alynghan kóne derek­terding birin arqau etken. Álemdegi jandy-jansyz ataulynyng barlyghynyng tilin bilgen paygham­bary­myzdyng el ishinde ejelden anyzgha ainalghan bir taghylymdy oqigha jelisi tútas dastannyng taqyryp­tyq iydeyalyq arqauyn kóterip túr.
Dastanda aldymen sabyr men aqyl, danalyq marapattalady. Ilim men bilim, kóregendik, tap­qyrlyq adam balasyn izgilikke bastaytyndyghy aitylady. Túrmaghambet aqynnyng osynau sujetti tanda­uynyng ózinde ýlken syr bar. Kýlli tirshilik zanyn, әlem jaratylysyn týsinuge shaqyrady. Adamnyng izgi maqsaty osy degen iydeyany algha tartady.
Al, “Samúryq hikayasy” dastanynda Allanyng peshenege jazghan taghdyr búiryghynan asyp, eshbir pende tirshilik ete almaydy. Aqyn óz dastanynda “Adamnyng taghdyry bir Jaratqannyng iyeligindegi dýniye” degen iydeyany nasihattau maqsatyn kózde­gen (Túrmaghambet Iztileuúly. Shygharmalary. Almaty, “Deshti Qypshaq” baspa ýii, 2007, 568-b.).
Týiindey aitqanda, Túrmaghambet Iztileuúlynyng dastan, hikayalarynyng ón boyynan san ghasyrlar arqauy ýzilmegen Shyghys shayyrlarynyng jyrlap ótken mәngilik iydeyasy – Úly Jaratushygha degen sýiispenshilik, Úly Jaratushygha jaqynday týsu iydeyasy, Allanyng bolmysynan taraytyn kýlli jaqsylyq, izgilik ataulygha úmtylu iydeyasy samal jeldey esip, janyna núr qúyady. Allanyng didary aqyn dastandarynda mәngilik aqiqat jolyna bas­taytyn shamshyraqtay biyiktey beredi. Shayyr әr aluan taqyrypty, yaghny adam boyyndaghy әrqily qylyq-minez, is-әreket jayyn astarly oimen qabystyra, sabaqtastyra órip otyryp, týptin-týbinde ózining basty aqyndyq múraty, dýniyeta­nym­dyq tiregi, temirqazyq nysanasy – adamgershilikti, iman baylyghyn, kisilik sabaghyn uaghyzdaudan bir eli auytqymay ótti. “Mәrdi diqan” dastanyndaghy «Mal, perzent, baq, dәreje, óner, ghylym; Berip túr naz-nyghmet neshe myng san; Shýkirin osylardyng ótemekke; Ua, dariyh, oilasanshy bizder nadan; Ýmit kóp, qansha aitqanmen, ómir qysqa; Bayansyz bir kýn óter fәny jihan” degen joldarda Túrmagham­bet Iztileuúlynyng danalyq oilary bir kezderi bes ghasyr boyyna qazaq jyraulary jyrlaghanday, adam ómirining kýlli mәn-maghynasy, filosofiyalyq týiini qaytara boy kóteredi.
Fәniyding jalghandyghy, pende ómirining qas-qaghym sәttik qysqalyghy, taq pen tәj, baylyq pen mansap, barlyghy-barlyghy jiylyp kelgende adamnyng tәuba jolyndaghy bir qadamynan bastalatyndyghy, búl tirshilikte iman men úyatty, ar men namysty biyik ústaghan jannyng ghana kәmil ekendigi aitylady. “Ege etti adamdy Alla búl qapasqa, Ózgeden izgiligi, ar­ty­­ghy ýshin”, – dep oiyn týiindeydi kemenger aqyn.
Sondyqtan da Túrmaghambet Iztileuúly óz shygharmalary arqyly qazaq poeziyasyndaghy, jalpy týrkilik poeziyadaghy san ghasyrlar boyyna jasap kele jatqan, eng bir jasampaz, dәstýr­li, qazaq oqyrmanynyng kórkemdik qabyldauyna etene jaqyn, qazaqtyng qara ólenindey qúlaqqa ýirenshikti, sinisti janrlyq týr – dastandyq jyr­la­ry­­myzdyng óresin jana biyikke kóterdi.Taqyryp­tyq auqymyn keneytti. Aqyndyq dýniyetanym kenistigin, kórkemdik jinaqtau aidynyn jana óristerge bastady. Eng bastysy, batyrlyq, qahar­man­dyq ruhtaghy, dәstýrli, san ghasyrlar boyynda shyndala, qyrlana týsken shyghystyq, týrkilik das­tan­darymyzdyng qataryna Túrmaghambet aqynnyng qalamy tanymdyq-taghylymdyq mәni tereng diniy-filosofiyalyq, sujettik dastandarymyzdy alyp keldi. Tarihy túlghalar taghdyrynan nemese pay­gham­­barlar ómirinen tarata aitylatyn, sujettik oqighalary tartymdy bolyp keletin, oqyrmanyn jalyqtyrmaytyn, poetikalyq quaty óte әserli, kórkemdik boyauy qanyq, suretkerlik sheberlik túr­ghy­synan tórt ayaghynan teng túrghan dastandyq jyr­lar­dyng osynau ýlken shoghyry bizding býgingi әde­biye­timizding de bagha jetpes baylyghy.
Tughan әdebiyetimizdegi osynau Abaydyng tenizdey tereng ruhany qaynarynan bastau alatyn әdebi-estetikalyq, taqyryptyq-sujettik, kompozisiya­lyq, filosofiyalyq, qala berdi tildik – stilidik izde­nis­terding barlyghy jiylyp kelgende әdebiyeti­miz­degi úly dәstýrlerding tamyry әli de tereng jәne san ghasyrlardyng qatparynan kóktep enip, bizge erkin jetip otyrghanyn dәleldeydi. Abay dәstýri das­tan janryndaghy osy úly silemderding bizge ja­qyn­dau jatqan úly arnalarynyng biri, әri biregeyi ghana.

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