Sәrsenbi, 28 Aqpan 2024
Bilgenge marjan 2002 0 pikir 16 Nauryz, 2023 saghat 13:21

Hazar qaghanatynyng songhy astanasy qay qala?

Arab tarihshysy Ál Masudy Hazar qaghanatynyng songhy astanasy jaylyda qúndy derekter qaldyrghan: «Stoliysey byl Samandar, gorod, lejashiy na rasstoyaniy vosimy dney puty ot al-Baba. ... No tak kak v rannie dny islama on byl zavoevan Sulaymanom b. Rabi'a al-Bahili, to upravlenie bylo pereneseno ottuda v gorod Amal na rasstoyanie semy dney ot (Samandar). Amal, tam gde teperi jiyvet hazarskiy sari, sostoit iz treh chastey, na kotorye ego delit velikaya reka, kotoraya vytekaet iz verhnih chastey turkskih zemeli. Ot nee strany Burgar otdelyaetsya rukav, kotoryy vpadaet v Maytas. Nazvannaya stolisa raspolojena po oboim beregam reki. V serediyne reky lejit ostrov, gde nahoditsya reziydensiya praviytelistva. Zamok sarya raspolojen na odnoy storone ostrova, kotoryy mostom iz lodok soedinyaetsya s odnim iz beregov».

Múnda Shyghys Zakavkazie aimaghy men Tiflis (Samandar) qalasyn músylman halifaty basyp alghanda, Hazar astanasy ýlken ózen boyyndaghy Amal qalasyna kóshirilgeni jazylghan. Ol ózen týrkilerding soltýstiktegi jogharghy jerlerinen bastau alghanyn, onyng Búlghar patshalyghy aimaghyndaghy bir arnasy Maytas tenizine qúyatynyn kórsetken. Maytas – Azov tenizi ekeni mәlim. Atalghan ózen ishki Resey aimaghynan shyghatyn qazirgi Don (Tanays) degen oryndy. Ózen basyn «týrkilerding jogharghy jaqtaghy jeri» deui ishki Resey aimaghy X ghasyrda týrkiler mekeni bolghanyn, yaghny orystardyng ata-babalary týrkitildi búlgharlar ekenin aighaqtaydy. Al Hazar ózeni – Azov tenizi men Qyrymgha jaqyn aimaqtaghy basty ózen Kubani degen dúrys. Ál Masudiyding osy deregi X ghasyrda Don ózenining ekinshi jylghasy qazirgi Egorlyk ózeni arqyly Kubani ózenimen jalghasqanyn, eki ózen qosylghan tústa Amal qalasy ornalasqanyn aighaqtaydy. Ol, shamamen Stavropoli aimaghyndaghy Karamurzinskiy auyly ornalasqan jer. Óitkeni, ertede Kuban ózenine jogharydan Egorlyk ózeni sol jerde kelip qúighany sputniktik kartadan bayqalady. Ál Masudy jogharydan keletin ózen Amal qalasyn ýshke bólip túrghanyn, han ordasy ózen ortasyndaghy aralda ornalasqanyn bayandaydy.

Egorlyqty qazaqshalasaq, Jogharylyq bolady. Jogharydan keletin bolghandyqtan, Jogharylyq dep atalghan ózen keyin orys tilinde Egorlyk dep búrmalanghan. Karamurzinskiy auyly Armavir qalasyna jaqyn. Armavir men Tbilis arasy 620 km, saltattygha shamamen 7 kýndik jol. Yaghni, ol Ál Masudy kórsetken derekke say keledi. Demek, Hazar ózeni – qazirgi Kubani ózeni. Orys audarmashysy Hazar astanasy arabshada Amal dep jazylghanyn moyyndaydy («V tekste: Am.l»), sóite túra ony Atili dep orysshalaghan. Osylaysha qalany Edil (Atili) ózeni boyynda bolghanday búrmalap, «Hazar qaghanaty Daghystanda ornaghan, әuelgi astanasy – Samandar, sosyn Daghystandy músylman arabtar jaulap alghan VIII ghasyrda el astanasy Edil ózeni boyyna kóshirilgen» degen reseylik jalghan tariyhqa Ál Masudy jazbasyn kuә etkisi keledi. Anyghynda, Ál Masudy men Ibn әl Asir derekteri Hazar qaghanaty Zakavkaziede ornaghanyn, astanasy Tiflis qalasy ekenin, ol aimaq halifat iyeligine ainalghanda astana qazirgi Kubani ózeni boyyna kóshirilgenin aighaqtaydy. Osylay ekenine jaghasynda Amal qalasy bar ózenning Azov (Maytas) tenizine qosylatyny jayly deregi de kuә.

Ári qalay Ál Masudy bylay deydi: «Hazary iymeiyt chelny, na kotoryh ony plavayt iz svoego goroda vverh po reke, kotoraya techet v ih reku iz verhnih mest y kotoraya nazyvaetsya Burtas; vdoli nee jivut osedlye turkskie plemena, sostavlyaishie chasti Hazarskogo sarstva. Ih poseleniya tyanutsya nepreryvno mejdu Hazarskim sarstvom y burgarami. Eta reka techet so storony burgar, y suda nepreryvno hodyat po ney mejdu zemlyamy burgar y hazar... Burtas – turkskoe plemya, jiyvet, kak ranee upominalosi, na reke, nazvannoy po ego iymeni. Iz ih strany idut shkurky chernyh y ryjih lisiys, nazyvaemye burtasiy. Odna chernaya shkurka dostigaet seny v 100 dinarov ily daje bolishe; ryjie deshevle v sene. Arabskie y persidskie sary gordilisi chernymy mehami, kotorye ony senily doroje, chem meh soboley, fanak y drugih podobnyh zverey... V verhney chasty hazarskoy reky esti protok, vlivaishiysya v zaliv morya Maytas – more rusov, po kotoromu ne plavayt drugiye, y ony obosnovalisi na odnom iz ego beregov. Zdesi nahodyatsya horosho snaryajennye ludy hazarskogo sarya. [Ih zadacha] okazyvati soprotivlenie kajdomu, kto iydet s etogo morya ily s toy storony zemli, chasty kotoroy prostiraitsya ot Hazarskogo morya do Maytas. Eto potomu, chto turkskie kochevnikiy – guzy prihodily zimovati v etih mestah. Inogda rukav, kotoryy soedinyaet reku hazar s prolivom Maytas, zamerzaet, y guzy s ih konyamy perepravlyaytsya cherez nego».

Derekte Hazar (Kubani) ózenine jogharydan kelip qúyatyn Burtas ózeni Hazar men Búlghar memleketterining shekarasy ekeni, onyng boyynda Hazar qaghanaty qúramyna kiretin otyryqshy týrkiler mekenderi ornalasqany, eki memleket arasynda kemeler túraqty qatynaytyny jәne Burtas ózeni Hazar ózenine Amal qalasy manynda qosylatyny qamtylghan. Burtas ózeni dep Azov tenizinen (Maytas) shyghatyn qazirgi Eya ózenin aitqan jón. Óitkeni, ol ózen ertede qazirgi Rasshevetka men Kanyshevka ózenderi arnasymen kelip Nadzornoe selosy manynda Kuban (Hazar) ózenine qosylghany sputniktik kartadan anyq bayqalady. Al Nadzornoe selosy men Karamurzinskiy auyly (Amal qalasy bolghan jer) kórshi ornalasqan.

Burtas ózeni onyng boyynda otyrghan burtas degen týrki ruy atauymen atalady eken. Burtas degen ang terisi arab pen parsy biyleushilerinde óte qymbat baghalanatyn kórinedi. Demek, atalghan ózen boyyndaghy otyryqshy týrkiler mekenderi osy burtas taypasyna tiyesili bolghan, olar burtas dep atalatyn eltiri óndirumen ainalysqan. Kubani, Rostov jәne Stavropoli aimaqtarynyng óz halqy «kazak» dep atalady. Olar ózderin býginge deyin orys halqynan bólek etnos dep tanidy. Kazak elining pravoslavyalyq din qabyldaghan, sol arqyly slavyandalghan qazaqtar ekenin, yaghny shirkeu tiline kóshkendikten ana tilderinen airylghanyn aityp jýrmiz (solay ekenin ataqty tarihshy-akademik Bartolid ta anyq jazyp kórsetken, ony Ibn Batutanyng Altyn Orda halqy jayly derekteri de aighaqtaydy). Arabsha «qazak» pen «turk» sózderi úqsas jazylady (قزك – qazak, ترك – turk). Sondyqtan derektegi «osedlye turkiy» degendi «otyryqshy qazaqtar» dep týsinuge bolady. Don aimaghyn jәne Ukraina dalasyn mekendeytin suyrdy orystar baybak, al ukraindar babak dep ataydy (tilinde kóp qazaqy sózder saqtalghan ukraindar ózderin zaporojelik kazaktar dep tanidy).

Qazaqtyng Kishi jýz qúramynda Baybaqty ruy bar, qazirgi Resey qúramyndaghy alyp dala ertede Kishi jýz qazaqtarynyng ata qonysy bolghan (Altyn orda aimaghy). Baybaqty ruy Oral oblysynda otyr, key toptary әli de Resey aimaghynda. Al baybak – suyrdyng eng iri týri, ol Kavkaz jәne Qyrym aimaqtarynda kezdespeydi, negizinen Euraziya dalasyn mekendeydi. Onyng eltirisi erteden óte qúndy sanalady. Arabsha týpnúsqadaghy «baubak» atauyn audarmashy «burtas» dep orysshalaghan der edim.  Demek, qazirgi Eya ózeni X ghasyrda Baybaq dep atalghan, onyng aimaghyn qazaqtyng baybaq ruy mekendegen. Olardyng otyryqshy bóligi baybaq dep atalatyn suyr eltirisin óndirumen ainalysqan. Osy otyryqshy baybaqtar keyin pravoslavyagha ótip, shirkeu-orys tildi kazak bolghan qazaqtardyng biri. Baybaq ruynyng kóshpendi bóligi qazaqtyghyn saqtap qalghan, olar qazirgi Baybaqty ruy desek, qatelespeymiz. Arabsha jazyluyna nazar audarsaq: برتث – burtas, بوبك – baubak. Demek, qazaqtyng baybaq ruy mekendegen ózen jaghasy Baybaq dep atalghan jәne ol el baybaq degen ang eltirisin óndirip, satumen ainalysqan. Ol ru – qazaqtyng qazirgi Baybaqty taypasy.

Jogharydaghy qújat, sonymen qatar Hazar (Kubani) ózenining bir arnasy Maytas tenizine qúyatynyn, ol jerde Hazar әskeri otyrghanyn, olardyng mindeti Maytas tenizinen keletin qauipting aldyn alu jәne soltýstik daladaghy ghuziy (arabta «g» әrpi joq) kóshpendilerin Qyrym manyndaghy dalagha jibermeu ekenin bayandaydy. Arabsha jazbada «ghuziy» men «ghazaq» óte úqsas, arabsha týpnúsqadaghy «ghazaq kóshpendiler» sózin «kochevniky guziy» dep әdeyi orysshalaghan (qazaqtyng X ghasyrda sol aimaqta otyrghanyna drevne-russkie jylnamalarynda jazylghan «kóshpendi Kasogi» eli de kuә). Ál Masudy deregindegi otyryqshy qazaqtardy «osedlye turkiy» dep, al kóshpendilerin «kochevniky guziy» dep orysshalaghany ghoy.

Jogharydaghy derekte Maytas (Azov) tenizi negizinen Rus eline tiyesili ekeni, olar teniz jaghasyndaghy bir aimaqta otyrghany bayandalghan. Kemeli urus eli otyrghan jer Qyrym deu oryndy, óitkeni urustargha tiyesili Tamatarha knyazdigi (Tmutarakanie) qazirgi Tamansk búghazy manynda bolghany jәne sol aimaqta urus eli men kóshpendi kasog eli (ghuziy-ghazaq) arasynda XI ghasyrda shayqastar bolghany tarihshylargha mәlim.

Hazar (Kubani) ózenining Maytas (Azov) tenizine qúyar saghasy dep qazirgi Beysug ózenin aitqan jón. Atalghan ózen Azov tenizine Hanskoe kóli manynda jalghasqan. Al Kubani ózenine ol ertede qazirgi Kuropatkin selosy manynda qosylghany anyq. Odan әri Ál Masudy mynaday derekterdi bayandaydy: «Posle 300/912 goda okolo 500 sudov ih pribyly v proliv Maytasa, soediynennyy s Hazarskoy rekoy. Kogda suda rusov doplyly do hazarskih voysk, razmeshennyh u vhoda v proliyv, ony sneslisi s hazarskim sarem proyty cherez ego zemlu, spustitisya vniz po ego reke, voyty v reku y takim obrazom dostichi Hazarskogo morya. On razreshil im sovershiti, y ony voshly v proliyv, dostigly ustiya rekiy y staly podnimatisya po etomu rukavu, poka ne dobralisi do Hazarskoy rekiy, po kotoroy ony spustilisi do goroda Amal i, proydya mimo nego, dostigly ustiya, gde reka vpadaet v Hazarskoe more... My priyvely eto soobsheniye, chtoby oprovergnuti teh, kotorye utverjdaiyt, budto Hazarskoe more soedinyaetsya s Maytas y cherez Maytas – s Konstantinopoliskim prolivom. Esly by eto bylo tak, rusy nashly by vyhod, potomu chto Maytas – ih more, kak uje upominalosi. Vozmojno, chto te, kto govoriyt, chto Hazarskoe more soedinyaetsya s Konstantinopoliskim prolivom, polagait, chto Hazarskoe more – to je more, chto y Maytas, no poslednee yavlyaetsya morem burgar y rusov, no Bog luchshe znaet, kak obstoit eto delo».

Don ózeni arnasy jogharyda ekige bólinetini (Melihovskaya selosy manynda), onyng biri ertede Azov tenizine (Maytas) qúighany, al ekinshisi (Azov tenizine qúiyp jatqan qazirgi arnasy) Manych ózeni arnasyna qosylghany sputniktik kartadan jaqsy kórinedi. Osy Manych ózenine qúyatyn arna men Kubani (Hazar) ózeni ol zamanda Egorlyk ózeni arqyly qosylghanyn aittyq. Manych ózeni búryn Kuma ózeni arnasymen qosylyp aghyp, Kaspiy tenizine qúighany mәlim (N.Nazarbaevtyng Azov-Qara teniz basseyni men Kaspiy tenizin qosatyn kanal salu jayly Resey biyligine jasaghan úsynysy osy Manych-Kuma arnasyn iske qosumen baylanysty boluy mýmkin). Al Kubani ózenining negizgi arnasy qazir Azov tenizine qúyady. Alayda, ertede ol arna Qaratenizge qúighanyn orys ghalymdary moyyndaydy.

Demek, X ghasyrda Azov (Maytas) tenizine Don (Tanays) ózenining qazirgi susyz jatqan jogharghy arnasy qúighan. Donnnyng Azov tenizine qúyatyn qazirgi arnasy ol zamanda Manych jәne Egorlyk ózenderine qúighan (yaghni, ol arna Azov tenizimen baylanyspaghan). Sonda ejelgi Tanays (Don) ózenining jogharghy arnasy Maytas (Azov) tenizine, ekinshi arnasy Egorlyk-Kubani (Hazar) ózenderi arqyly Nitas (Qara) tenizine jәne Manych-Kuma ózenderi arqyly Hazar (Kaspiy) tenizine qúighan. Kemeli rus eli Qara (Nitas) teniz ben Azov (Maytas) tenizderinde erkin jýzgen. Biraq olardyng Kaspiy (Hazar) tenizine jýzip barar jolyna Búlghar handyghy men Hazar qaghanaty kedergi bolghan. Olar tonaudan týsken oljamen Hazar patshasyn qyzyqtyryp, onyng jerindegi ózen arqyly Kaspiy (Hazar) tenizine jetuge rúqsat alghany bayandalady. Rus kemeleri Maytas (Azov) tenizindegi búghaz arqyly Hazar (Kubani) ózenining jeke salasyna (qazirgi Beysuk ózeni) týskenin, odan keyin Hazar (Kubani) ózenining negizgi arnasy arqyly jýzip, Amal qalasy manynan basqa ózen arnasyna (Egorlyk ózeni) ótkenin, sol arqyly Manych-Kuma ózeni arnasyna jetip, odan әri Hazar (Kaspiy) tenizine barghanyn kóremiz. Ál Masudy Maytas (Azov) pen Hazar (Kaspiy) tenizderi tikeley baylanyspaytynyn, sony týsindiru ýshin rus kemeleri jýrip ótken ózen joldaryn bayandaghanyn aitady.

Sonymen, Hazar qaghanatynyng keyingi astanasy Amal qalasy kәzirgi Kubani aimaghynda bolghanyna, Azov tenizimen baylanysty Hazar ózeni kәzirgi Kubani ekenine, Kaspiy tenizi jaghasyndaghy qalalardy tonaghan kemeli Rus adamdary Qyrymnan barghanyna  kóz  jetkizdik.

Al Reseylik tújyrymdargha sensek: Amal qalasy Edil ózeni boyynda ornalasqan, Batys Qazaqstannyng kóp jeri Hazar qaghanatyna tiyesili bolghan, sol aimaqta kóshpendi oghyzdar ómir sýrgen (kochevniky guziy), al burtasy degender bashqyrlar, Kaspiy jaghalauyn tonaghan kemeli rus adamdary Oral tauy aumaghynan barghan bolyp shyghady. Osynday jalghan tújyrymdary arqyly kәzirgi Batys Qazaqstan, Astrahan, Volgograd aimaqtarynda X ghasyrda qazaq degen halyq atymen joq ekenin dәleldeuge tyrysqanyn kóremiz.

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