Dýisenbi, 5 Mausym 2023
Ádebiyet 1031 3 pikir 21 Aqpan, 2023 saghat 11:40

Kitap isining tarihy jәne últtyq til

Kitap tarihy – kitapqa qatysty barlyq mәselelerdi, sonyng ishinde halyq arasynda kitap taratu, kitap satu, kitaphana, t.b mәselelerdi qamtityn kýrdeli ghylym. Búl ghylymdy zertteuding ortalyghynda tórt mәsele túr: 1) kitap jasau, 2) ony taratu, 3) ýlken kitap qorlary men kitaphanalardy qalyptastyru, 4) kitaptardy paydalanu (sonyng ishinde kitap turaly mәlimetter). Kezinde IY.V.Novosadskiy: «Kitap – әdebiyet, til, din jәne t.b. siyaqty, iydeologiyanyng erekshe týri» dep aitqan bolatyn, múnday túrpayly kózqaras N.M.Somovqa «Baspahana, kitaphanalar, baspalar men sauda emes, tútastay alghanda kitaptyng ózi onyng tarihyng bayandaytyn zat» dep jariyalaugha mýmkindik berdi.

Alayda, búl oryndy iydeya qabyldanbady, óitkeni, E.L.Nemirovskiyding pikirinshe, kitaptyng tarihy ''Osylaysha, ol kitap tarihy isinen, kitaptyng jaratyluy men qoghamdyq bolmysyn shyndyqqa ainaldyratyn mәdeniyet pen halyq sharuashylyghynyng salalarynan tolyghymen bólinip shyqty. Sondyqtan Novosadskiyge de, Somovqa da qarsylyq bildire otyryp, ol kelesi formulany úsyndy: '' Kitap - tildik dengeydegi qoghamdyq sananyng bir týri''. Osyghan sýiene otyryp, ol ''kitaptyng tarihy ... eng aldymen әdebiyet shygharmalarynyng jazba týrlerining qalyptasuy men damuy, búl shygharmalardyng qoljazba jәne baspa basylymdary týrinde boluy qyzyqtyrady. Ádebiyet tarihy shygharmalardyng әleumettik róline, olardyng qoghamdyq sanagha tiygizetin әserine toqtalsa, kitap tarihyn eng aldymen osy shygharmalardyng materialdyq jaghynan beyneleui jәne onyng belgili bir qoghamdyq qajettilikterge sәikestigi qyzyqtyrady.

Súraq tuyndaydy: qalaysha kitap belgili bir óndiristik qyzmetting ónimi ghana emes, sonymen birge óz bolmysynyng bar boluy (yaghni, ''saqtau, sipattau jәne zertteu'') mýmkin? Óitkeni, kitap shygharu, tipografiya jәne kitap saudasynyng qyzmeti kitaphana isi men bibliografiyanyng qyzmetinen bólek. Songhylary bir ghana prosesspen – kitapty paydalanumen ghana baylanysty.

E.L.Nemirovskiyding ózi olardyng funksionaldyq baghdaryndaghy aiyrmashylyqtardy kóredi jәne osynyng negizinde tipti olardyng tolyq avtonomiyasy turaly qorytyndy jasaydy. ''Kitap ghylymy siklining jekelegen pәnderining qúramdas bólikteri bolyp tabylatyn kitap jәne kitap isi tarihynyng tolyghymen derbes bólikteri turaly aitugha bolady, atap aitqanda: kitap shygharu tarihy, baspa tarihy, kitap saudasy, kitaphana isi jәne bibliografiya tarihy''.

Ekinshi jaghynan, kitap jәne kitap isining tarihy – semantikalyq aqparatty taratu nysany sekildi, sonday-aq mәdeniyet pen halyq sharuashylyghy salalarynyng ózara baylanysty jәne ortaq mindetterin sheshu jýiesi retinde qarastyrylatyn kitap isi, kitap damuynyng eng jalpy zandylyqtaryn zertteytin kýrdeli ghylymy pәn.

Úsynylghan nysanda búl kýrdeli ghylymnyng mәni boyynsha onyng barlyq bólikteri ýshin birtútas zertteu obektisi de, zertteuding ortaq әdisteri de joq. Olardyng әrqaysysy ekeuinde de oqshaulanghan jәne naqty, tek ghylymdar tarihymen, әleumettanumen, pedagogikamen, psihologiyamen, sodan keyin poligrafiyalyq tehnologiya tarihymen jәne t.b. qarym-qatynasyna tәn. Osy pәnderding barlyghy jinaqtalghan kitaptyng ózinen de kýrdeli qúbylysty kórsetedi. Basqa sózben aitqanda, zertteushi shynymen de kitappen qanday da bir týrde baylanysty birqatar ghylymy pәndermen ainalysady, olardyng baylanystaryn tolyghyraq qarastyryp, baspa tarihy, poligrafiya tarihy jәne kitap saudasynyng tarihyn bir keshenge biriktiretin «kitap isining tarihy» termiynin basqasha týsindiruge tyrysu qajet. Kitaptyng shyghu tarihy, sonday-aq kitapty paydalanudyng әrtýrli nysandarynyng tarihy kitap isimen ainalysatyn, biraq artyq emes, derbes ghylymy pәnder retinde úsynylghan.

Búl jaghdayda kitaptyng tarihy dep kitapty mәdeniyetting erekshe qúbylysy retinde zertteytin jәne osyghan baylanysty onyng formasynyng evolusiyasyn jәne dizayn prinsipterin (tabighatyn) zertteytin, kitaptyng damu zandylyqtaryn jәne onyng qoghamdaghy qyzmet etu mәselelerin, sonday-aq qoghamdaghy últtyq repertuardyng qalyptasu prosesteri jәne onyng pәndik mәni boyynsha (mysaly, tehnikalyq kitaptyng tarihy, auyl sharuashylyghy, medisina jәne t.b.) nemese tipologiyalyq erekshelikteri (mysaly, ghylymy kitaptyng shyghu tarihy, búqaralyq-sayasi, balalar jәne t.b.), kitaptyng qoghamda boluy (mysaly, audarylghan kitaptardyng tarihy, Qazaqstandaghy arab kitabynyng tarihy jәne t.b. zertteytin ghylymy pәn retinde týsiniledi).

Baspa isi tarihynyng mәni – jeke baspalardyng da, tútastay alghanda býkil baspa jýiesining de qalyptasu jәne qyzmet etu prosesi. Onyng ýstine baspa isin últtyq mәdeniyetting manyzdy salasy, sonymen birge halyq sharuashylyghynyng bir salasy retinde qarastyru kerek.

Baspa isi tarihynyng mәni búl belgili bir aimaqtaghy kәsiporyndar, tipografiyalyq ónerding evolusiyasy, baspalar men baspahanalar arasyndaghy ekonomikalyq baylanystardyng payda bolu prosesi men poligrafiyalyq kәsiporyndardyng damuy.

Kitap saudasynyng tarihy assortiymentting qalyptasu prosesterin, kitap taratu jýiesinin, jeke kitap sauda kәsiporyndarynyng qalyptasuyn, sonymen qatar kitap taratudyng nysandary men әdisterining damuyn zertteydi. Búl jaghdayda kitap erekshe týrdegi tauar retinde, onyng materialdyq týrinde qarastyrylady.

Búl pәnder jalpy bibliologiyalyq pәndermen baylanysty, mysaly, oqyrman tarihy. Songhysynsyz kitaptyng qoghamdaghy qyzmet etu (ómir sýru) prosesining mәnin týsinu de mýmkin emes. Búl pәn kitap tarihymen de (oqu sosiologiyasy) da, bibliografiya jәne kitaphana isi tarihymen de (oqu psihologiyasy men pedagogikasy) tyghyz baylanysty. Barlyq osy pәnderding jeke aspektileri qanday da bir týrde kitappen jәne bir-birimen baylanysta bolghanymen, olardyng negizgi funksiyalary tolyghymen avtonomdy bolyp tabylady. Mәselen, kitap tarihy men kitap saudasynyng tarihy kitapty әr qyrynan zertteydi. Últtyq repertuardyng qalyptasu ýderisi zerttelse, kitap saudasynyng assortiymenti bir bólek. Kitaptyng búl qasiyetin sonau HH ghasyrdyng 80-jyldarynda ataqty orys ekonomiysi V.P.Bezobrazov «Bizde óndirushilerding týsinikteri men talghamdary, jalpy úsynys jaghdaylary tútynushylardyng týsinikteri men talghamdarynan jәne súranys sharttarynan sonshalyqty alshaqtaytyn basqa tauar joq»dep atap kórsetken bolatyn.

Jәne búl kezdeysoq emes.1917 jylghy Qazan tónkerisining alghashqy kýnderinen bastap Agitprop barlyghyn aiqyndap berdi. Onyng búiryghymen sheshimder qabyldandy. «Batyl, jýregi jas әr adamgha – qolgha kitap, oraq pen balgha» degen úran baspagerlerge eshbir núsqau bola almady.

Baspa isin iydeologiyalyq basqarudy jenildetu ýshin ony ortalyqtandyru

1919 jyly jýzege asyryldy. Ekonomikalyq negizine (memlekettik nemese jeke) qaramastan barlyq baspalargha óte naqty mindet qoyyldy: júmysshylar men sharualar ýshin ghana emes, býkil kenes qoghamy ýshin jana kitap jasau. Býkil qiyndyqtyng sebebi, kitaptyng shyghu sipatyn tútynushy emes, «diyrektorlyq organdar» anyqtaytyn. Tipti «oqu» úghymynyng kýndelikti ómirde oryn alghandyghy tanqalarlyq emes. Kitap oqu kerek boldy, bos uaqytty núrlandyrdy, biraq kenes adamynyng oi-órisin keneyte almady.

Barlyq shemalar men konstruksiyalar kitap siyaqty kýrdeli qúbylysty, onyng qogham damuyndaghy rólin, últtyq ghylymnyn, mәdeniyettin, halyq sharuashylyghynyng qalyptasu prosesterine yqpalyn,t.b. týsinu ýshin jasalady. Biraq kitaptyng qazirgi zamanghy tәjiriybemen baylanysy anyq jәne aiqyn bolsa, onda ótken turaly aitu manyzdy ma? Búl súraqtyng jauaby aiqyn: qazirgi ghylymy bilimning damuynyng eng sipatty belgilerining biri zertteletin qúbylysqa tarihy kózqaras, óitkeni eshbir qúbylys, eshbir prosesti dúrys týsinu mýmkin emes, osy prosester men qúbylystardyng tuu sebepteri men sharttaryn naqtylamay-aq, olardyng basqa qúbylystarmen jәne prosestermen genetikalyq, dәiekti baylanysynsyz týsinu jәne týsindiru. Kez kelgen mәselege dúrys, nyq jәne senimdilikpen qarau ýshin býkil damugha tarihy kózqaraspen qarau kerek.

Kez kelgen qúbylysty zertteu prosesindegi naqty tarihy kózqaras onyng qalay payda bolghanyn jәne onyng damuynda qanday negizgi kezenderden ótkenin týsinu ýshin ghana manyzdy emes. Ol sonday-aq boljamdy taldaudyng qajetti elementi retinde qyzmet etedi, onsyz maqsatty damu mýmkin emes.

Kitap isining tarihyn zerttey otyryp, biz onyng últtyq mәdeniyettin, ghylymnyn, tehnikanyn, t.b. barlyq salalarymen baylanysyn ornatamyz. «Barlyq ghalymdar, - dep jazdy akademik P.L.Kapisa, - býgingi kýnge deyin kitapsyz ghylymy tәjiriybe men ghylymy jetistikterdi taratu nemese saqtau mýmkin emes ekenin jәne onsyz ghylymnyng tolyq damy almaytynyn jaqsy biledi». Ádebiyet, óner, pedagogika, tehnologiya, medisina, t.b. turaly ne aita alamyz? Olardyng últtyq kitap shygharumen baylanysy búrynghydan da tyghyz. Óitkeni, kitap qoghamnyng ilgerileuine septigin tiygizetinderin tandap, olardyng jetistigin aiqyndaytyn auditoriyanyng talghamyn qalyptastyrady. Sondyqtan últtyq repertuar jasauda qoghamgha qúbylmalylyq qajet. Akademik P.L.Kapisa: «Elde ghylym men ónerdi oidaghyday damytu ýshin ghylymdy qozghaytyn jәne kórkem mәdeniyetti damytatyn shaghyn ghana bólikti tandap alatynday ghylymy enbekter men óner tuyndylarynyng ýlken jiyntyghy boluy kerek» dep jazdy.Búl taptyrmas jaghday tek baspa-kitap saudasynyng jýielik ainalymymen qamtamasyz etilui mýmkin edi.

Biraq eger solay bolsa, onda atalghan tәrtipterding barlyghynyng ózara baylanysyn naqtyraq anyqtap, olardyng qaysysy naqty jәne nege olardyng ózara әrekettesuinde «kitap isi» siyaqty kýrdeli úghymdy qúraytynyn anyqtau qajet. Sonymen, mysaly, baspa isi men tipografiya bir retti qúbylystar, dәl solay baspa isi men kitaphana isi turaly aitugha bolmaydy, olar әrtýrli zattar.

Demek, tek tyghyz funksionaldyq baylanystar men ortaq mindetter ghana osy pәnderding keybirin bir-birimen biriktirip, sәikesinshe bir-birinen ajyrata alady. Naqtyraq aitsaq, búl iydeyany shemalyq týrde beyneleuge bolady.

Shema 1:

Shema 2:

Jogharyda aitylghandardan kitap shygharu (baspa jәne poligrafiya) jәne taratu (kitap saudasy) qyzmetin ghana «kitap isi»(yaghni, kitap shygharu jәne ony jeke nemese újymdyq satyp alushygha jetkizu júmysy) retinde qabyldaugha bolady degen qorytyndy jasaugha bolady. Shemalarda kórsetilgen basqa әreketterding barlyghy qoghamda kitaptyng boluymen baylanysty prosester bolyp tabylady jәne endi satyp alushymen emes, oqyrmanmen tikeley baylanysty. Demek, olardy zertteytin pәnder (olardyng tarihyna keletin bolsaq) olarmen baylanysty kitaptyng tarihymen tikeley baylanysty, biraq ózining naqty mindetterin sheshedi (olar jogharyda talqylandy). Búl jaghdayda baylanystyrushy buyn jalpy teoriyalyq bibliologiyalyq pәnder bolyp tabylady, mysaly: oqyrman turaly ghylym, kitap tipologiyasy, kitap tarihy jәne t.b.

Sonymen birge, kitap isi tarihy dep sol nemese basqa elde funksionaldyq jaghynan birtútas jәne kitap ghylymynyng jýiesine kiretin, belgili bir saladaghy kitap óndirisi men kitap taratudyng damu formalary men prosesterining evolusiyasyn zertteytin tarihy pәnder kesheni týsiniledi. Búl turaly 1959 jyly pikirtalas kezinde E.IY.Shamurin aitqan. Onyng pikirinshe, ''kitaptanu'' úghymy eki jaqty. Bir jaghynan, búl kitapqa qatysty ''medisina'', ''jaratylystanu'', ''zantanu'' (olargha ''geografiya'' degendi qosugha bolady) keshenine úqsas ghylymdardyng tútas kesheni, ekinshi jaghynan, kitaptanu turaly tar maghynada kitaptyng jalpy teoriyasy men tarihy mәselelerin qamtityn ghylym retinde aitugha bolady.

Biraq teoriya súraqtarynan ómir tәjiriybesine jaqyndayyq.

''Bizding ata-babalarymyz qay zamanda da halyq birligin bәrinen de joghary ústaghan'' degen jana preziydentimiz Qasym Jomart Toqaevting sózindegi últ birligi siyaqty qúndylyqtar arbau sekildi estiledi. IYә, kóshpendi babalarymyz keng kenistikte kóshpendilerding auyzsha sózi arqyly birtútas aqparattyq kenistik qúra bildi bizge qaraghanda, biz bolsaq respublika boyynsha 1560 kitap dýkeni bar búrynghy «Qazaqkitaptyn» kitap taratu infraqúrylymy jaghdayynda birtútas kitap saudasy kenistigin saqtay almadyq. Ol Magadannan Brestke, Murmanskiden Kushkagha deyin KSRO boyynsha 22 500 kitap satushysy bar búrynghy «Soyzknigiydin» bir bóligi edi. ''Úly әdebiyet tek qana ýlken oqyrmanmen yntymaqtastyqta bolady'' dep B.Pasternak osy eki qúramdas bólikting ózara baylanysy men ózara tәueldiligin kórsetedi. Búl kombinasiyagha Baspasóz ministrligi de, Kommunistik partiyanyng Ortalyq Komiyteti de boljanbaghan bolatyn. Onyng aitqany dúrys boldy, óitkeni bizding jaghdayda shygharmanyng kórkemdik nemese ghylymy jaghynan emes, iydeyalyq jaghyna basymdyq berilgen. Resmy sózdik qordyng ózinde payda bolghan «súr әdebiyet» úghymy osydan shyqqan. Eng ókinishtisi, búl mәsele boyynsha tútynushynyng pikiri eshkimdi qyzyqtyrghan joq. Sayasatkerler qay kitapty basyp shygharu kerektigin, qaysysyn baspau kerektigin oqyrmannan jaqsy biletindikterine tereng sendi. Soghan qaramastan, kitap shygharudyng qyzghan jyldarynyng ózinde «Kitap satushysynyn» (Sonzknigi) tapsyrystaryn ortalyq baspalar jartysyn ghana oryndady.

Osyghan baylanysty ýnemi ósip kele jatqan toqyrau súranysy jәne sonymen birge satylmaghan әdebiyetting qaldyqtary ósude. Mysaly, 1984 j Bólshek sauda jelisinde 60,2 myng atalym kitap qaldy, jalpy taralymy 52,3 mln dana 1980-1982 jyldardaghy basylymdar satylmaghan. «Uaqytqa layyq» basylymdardy josparlau әreketteri sәtti bolmady, óitkeni josparlaushylar men tútynushylardyng talghamdary әr týrli boldy. Irikteu maqsatty týrde, eng aldymen iydeyalyq-estetikalyq sýzgileuden ótkizildi.Al uaqyt óte kele eskirgen basylymdar esepten shygharyldy. Keltirilgen shyghyngha eshkim qarjylyq jauapty bolmaghan. Barlyghyna memleket qazynasy men salyq tóleushiler jauapty boldy. Jalpy, eshkimge eshtene kerek emes, dәlirek aitsaq, búl mәseleni sheshuding jolyn eshkim kórmegen. KSRO-nyng ydyrauyna búl da әser etken shyghar.

Biraq onsyz da egemendik alghan Qazaqstannyng tәuelsizdik tany atqan shaghynda Qazaqstan Kompartiyasy Ortalyq Komiytetining senzura bóliminen shyqqan Súltan Quanyshev túnghysh aqparat ministri bolyp, jana ýlgidegi memlekettik sayasatty engizuge kiristi, jana ghana payda bolghan jeke BAQ-qa QQS dep atalatyn jana salyq týrin engizip, memlekettik BAQ-tan ony alyp tastady. Yaghni, naryqtyq dialogtyng sózine túsau salyp, tik monolog-agitropqa Aq Jol dep bata berdi.

Kelesi aqparat, mәdeniyet jәne qoghamdyq kelisim ministri Altynbek Sarsenbaev, Ábdildinning Jogharghy Kenesin taratu iydeology, mening sol kezdegi «Aziya: ekonomika jәne ómir» gazetinde «kitap naryghyn qalay qúrugha bolady» degen jalpy taqyrypta jetekshilik etken kezdegi maqalalarym men toptamalarymnyng әserinen, mening oiymdy týsinip, tuysy arqyly búrynghy Qazaqkitapty jekeshelendirip, «Kitap әlemi» jana belgimen 1997-1999 jyldar aralyghynda ómir sýrip joyylyp ketti. Barlyq oblys ortalyqtaryndaghy, monoqalalardaghy,audan ortalyqtarda,eng iri kóshelerdegi kitap dýkenderi qayda ketti, tarih әli ýnsiz. Jana Qazaqstanda әr kezendegi jekeshelendiru qújattaryn zerttep, odan zanbúzushylyq anyqtalsa, oghan qol qoyghan jauapty túlghalardy jauapqa tartudyng esh әbestigi bolmas edi.Sol kezdegi últtyq qauipsizdik mәselesining basshysy Tólegen Jýkeev qayda qaraghan? El óndirisining jalpy nәtiyjesi boyynsha asa manyzdy emes ainalymgha qaramastan, kitap saudasy qogham men ýkimet aldynda eng qúrmetti oryndardyng birin aluy kerek. Kitap dýkenderi men baspalar oilanyp, әreket etetinning bәri toptastyrylyp, óz tarapynan olargha aghartushylyq pen últtyq tildi damytugha paydaly qyzmet salasyn qamtamasyz etetin ortalyqty qúraydy. Mine, sizge mysal. Reseyde 5500 baspa firmasy bar, onyng 3000-y Mәskeu qalasynyng ózinde, 700-i Sankt-Peterburgte. Elding negizgi intellektualdyq kýshteri qay jerde shoghyrlanghanyn ózderiniz kórip otyrsyzdar. Nemese Fransiyany alayyq. 66 million adamgha eseptelgen 30 000 baspa firmasy bar, olar ondaghan myng avtorlyq, redaksiyalau jәne audarma mektepterin ústaydy jәne múnyng barlyghy memlekettik tapsyrystar men tenderler emes, kitap naryghynyng esebinen. Orta eseppen Europada 10-15 myng adamgha bir kitap dýkeni keledi. Osy jerden satyp alushylardan, baspa kompaniyalargha týsken milliondaghan mikroinvestisiyalardyng qortyndysyna ómir sýredi, avtorlar gonorar alady, әrtýrli salalardyng redaksiyalyq mektepteri jalaqy alady jәne t.b. Eng bastysy, Europa memleketterining últtyq tilderi últtyq kitap shygharu jәne kitap taratu negizinde ózin-ózi qamtamasyz etedi. Biz Qazaqstanda tәuelsizdik alghan 30 jyl ishinde dayyn kitap taratu infraqúrylymynan aiyrylyp, naryqty joghaltyp aldyq, biraq 3500 meshit, myndaghan Alkomarketter jәne Bukmerler saldyq. Memlekettik tilding ýsh qaraghaydyng arasynda qanghyp jýrui jәne salalyq jәne ghylymiy-kópshilik kitaptardyn, dýniyejýzilik audarylghan mәdeny mazmúnnyng tandauynyng joqtyghy túrghysynan onyng súranyssyzdyghy osydan. Últtyq baspa isin kim jәne qashan týzetedi?

Biraq biz otandyq ekonomikany innovasiyalyq negizge kóshirgimiz keledi, múnda mamandardyng eki sanaty manyzdy ról atqaruy kerek:  janalyqty jasaytyn injenerler jәne jana iydeyalar men ónertabystardy qyzmetterge, ónimderge, tehnologiyalyq prosesterge jәne t.b. ainaldyratyn kәsipkerler. Al búqaralyq aqparat qúraldarynda «ghylymiy-tehnikalyq» progress, «ghylymiy-tehnikalyq» janalyqtar, t.b., injenerlik jәne ghylymy júmysty biriktiretin terminder jii qoldanylady. Al, injenerding júmysy men ghalymnyng júmysy týbegeyli erekshelenedi:ghalym bolmystyng jalpy prinsipteri men zandylyqtaryn ashu ýshin tabighatty zertteydi, al injener qogham aldynda túrghan mәselelerdi sheshu ýshin búrynnan qalyptasqan zandar men prinsipterdi qoldanady. Injener janalyqty ashpaydy, ony jasaydy. Injener kәsipkermen birlese otyryp, jana ónimderdi jasaydy jәne jana ónimderdi jasau, kýtip ústau jәne baqylaytyn tehnologiyalyq prosesterdi damytady. Biologiya, fizika, himiya – barlyghy óz bilim salasyn bólek oqidy.Biraq tabighatta bәri bir. Olardy bólgen biz. Óitkeni, adam kóbeyip kele jatqan tabighat qúbylystary men prosesterin zerttey kele, onyng miy qiyn jaghdaygha tap boldy, ol búl bilimning bәrin tolyghymen syidyra almady. Al oghan tótep berudi jenildetu ýshin ghylym, bilim, óndiris dep bólindi. Al bilimdi aldymen qoljazba kitapqa, odan keyin últtyq baspasózge, kitap shygharugha kóshiru qajettilikke ainaldy. El azamattary súranysyna ie qazaqsha kitap shygharudy naryqtyq negizde qalyptastyra alamyz ba, búl – ashyq súraq.

Kalu Toktabulatov, búrynghy kitap kәsipkeri,

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