Júma, 3 Aqpan 2023
46 - sóz 1261 3 pikir 2 Jeltoqsan, 2022 saghat 14:01

Qazaqtar Manjchuriyagha qalay tap boldy nemese ataqty Alla Ilichunning shyn aty kim?

1917-18 jj azamat soghysy kezinde reseylik músylmandardyng deni (dini, sayasy qayratkerlerdin) shetelge emigrasiyagha ketti. Shetel arhiyvinde olar "tatar" nemese "týrik-tatar" degen atpen kóbirek saqtalghan. Dәl osy esim 20 gh. basynda etnikalyq anyqtamadan kóri diny qauymdastyq ornyna qoldanyldy. Yaghny noghay, bashqúrt, qazaq, qúqyq t.b halyqtar resey jәne odan bólek shetjúrt aimaqtarda "týrik-tatar" dep hattaldy.

Tarihy suret. Orny: Manjchuriya, Harbiyn. Uaqyty: 1922.j

Týsinikteme: Suret qújattarda "týrik-tatar" degen atpen saqtalghan. Negizi qonys tepken orny Manjchuriyanyng Harbiyin qalasy. Sayasy jәne týrli jaghdaylargha baylanysty týrik-tatarlar Manjchuriyagha qonys audarghan. Sonda mektep, medrese ashyp jurnal shygharghan. Jurnaldyng aty- Iraq Sharq (Qiyr shyghys).

Manjchuriyagha qonys tepken "týrik-tatarlar" qúramynda qazaqtar da bar edi. 1917-18 jj azamat soghysy bastalghanda reseylik músylman oligarhtar jan-jaqqa jansaughalady. Tatar jәne noghay baylarymen tyghyz baylanysy bar keybir qazaqtar Manjchuriyagha at basyn tiregen. Aymaqqa jetken qazaqtar Harbin q-synda túrghan. Keybiri qytaydyng ishki aimaqtaryna qonys audaryp saudamen ainalysty. Qazaq emigranttarynyng Manjchuriyagha keluinde eki týrli tarihy sebep bar edi. Birinshi, Vladivostoktaghy Japoniyanyng konsulymen baylanys ornatuy; Ekinshisi, Reseyding sayasy jәne әskery oligarhtarynyng Manjchuriyada birshama shoghyrly qonystanuy; Soghan oray tatardyng keybir baylary Harbinge jinaldy. Tatarlarmen birge az sandy qazaqtar da keldi.

Harbinde qazaqtar Ekinshi Jahan soghysy bastalghangha deyin túrghan. Odan keyingi taghdyry belgisiz. Keybir derekter boyynsha soghys ayaqtaghan song birazy Amerika men Europagha (Fransiya) kóship ketken. Tipti keybiri ishki qytaydyng Shanhay, Hankou siyaqty shaharlaryna deyin qonys audarghan.

Manjchuriya qazaqtary men ShUAR qazaqtary arasynda baylanys bolghan ba?

Birinshi, Ekonomikalyq faktor. 1917 jylgha deyin reseydegi músylman oligarhtary (qazaqtar da bar) Shәueshek, Qúlja jәne Ýrimjiden bólek ishki qytaydyng Harbiyn, Hankou, Shanhay qalalarynda sauda bólimshelerin ashty. Azamat soghysynan keyin keybir músylman oligarhtary ishki qytaygha jәne Manjchuriyagha uaqytsha qonys audardy. 1920-22 jj. ShUAR men sovet odaghy eki el arasyndaghy halyqaralyq sauda kelsimin qalpyna keltirdi. Osy kezde shekara aimaq Shәueshek, Qúljanyng saudasy qayta jandana týsti, olar ishki qytaydyng tauaryn ShUAR men sovetke tasydy. Yaghny soghystan keyingi sovetke qytay tauary aghyldy. Saudanyng jandanuy ShUAR músylmandaryn ishki qytay bazaryna jaqyndata týsti. Manjchuriyagha qonys audarghan orys jәne músylman emigranttary da ishki qytay bazaryna oiysty.

Ekinshisi, Sayasy faktor. Japondar Manjchuriyagha qonys audarghan músylman emigrasiyasyn ashyq qoldaugha kóshti. Harbinge birshama kóp ornalasqan týrik-tatarlar bosqyndary keyin syrtqy kýshterding yqpalymen qoghamdyq hәm sayasy isterge aralasa bastady. Vladivostokta ornalasqan Japoniyanyng konsulyna hattama tapsyrghan R.Mәrsekov týrik-tatar músylmandary arasynda joghary bedelge ie túlgha edi. Mәrsekov syrtqy kýshting yqpalymen sayasy ýgit-nәsihattaryn әskery is-qimylgha ainaldyru maqsatynda Shәueshek pen Qúljada astyrtyn júmystar jasady. 1928 jyly Ýrimjide sayasy tónkeris boldy. 1933 jyly Ýrimjide taghy әskery tónkeris jasalyndy. Eki birdey sayasiy-әskery tónkeriske aqtardyng qatysy bar edi. Manjchuriyada ornalasqan aqtar armiyasyn keyin Japondar ashyq qoldady. On mynnan asatyn qaruly aqtar armiyasy Mongholiya arqyly ShUAR aimaghyn basyp aludy kózdedi. Biraq 1934 jyly sovet odaghynyng әue qorghanys kýshtik qúrlymy Qúmylgha keldi jәne baza qúrdy. Sol jyldyng kýzinde Almaty-Qúmyl әue reysi de iske qosyldy. 1935 jyldan song Manjchuriya men ShUAR arasyndaghy sayasi, ekonomikalyq baylanys kilt ýzildi. 1937 jyldan bastap Harbiyn, Hankou jәne Shanhayda sauda jasap biznes bólimderin ashqan shaghyn oligarhtar jappay repressiyagha úshyrady.

Manjchuriyada qonystanghan tatarlar men qazaqtar da osy jyldary jan-jaqqa jansaughalap qashty. Ekinshi Jahan soghysy kezinde Harbin sovet әskeri men qytay armiyasy qaramaghyna ótti. Bir bólim qazaqtar tatar oligarhtarymen birge Europagha ketti. Arasynda Alda Elshin (Alla Ilichun) de bar edi. Ákesi Elshin Harbinde (Manjchuriyada) qalghan, onyng odan keyingi taghdyry әli kýnge belgisiz. 1989 jyly qaytys bolghan Alda Elshin qytaydyng Harbin q-synda tughan.

 

Eldes Orda

Abai.kz

3 pikir